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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Disinfectant use by K-12 school staff to combat SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Timothy J. Hilbert; Candace Brancato; Kelsey Carter (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Infection Control
K-12 school staff from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio were asked about their use of disinfectants to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in schools. Survey participants (n=1,555) reported frequent use of disinfectants, often using unknown products, and were provided little to no training on safe and effective use. Participant concerns included student involvement in disinfection, inadequate ventilation, surface contact time, and potential health effects.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from remote learning during COVID19

The COVID-19 pandemic led to school closures around the world, affecting almost 1.6 billion students. The effects of even short disruptions in a child’s schooling on their learning and well-being have been shown to be acute and long lasting. The capacities of education systems to respond to the crisis by delivering remote learning and support to children and families have been diverse yet uneven.

This report reviews the emerging evidence on remote learning throughout the global school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic to help guide decision-makers to build more effective, sustainable, and resilient education systems for current and future crises.

Caregiver’s reports of their children’s psychological symptoms after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and caregiver’s perceived stress in Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Ahmet Büber; Merve Aktaş Terzioğlu

Published: July 2021   Journal: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

There is limited information about Turkish children’s mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak. Here, in a Turkish community sample, we investigate the psychological symptoms in primary school children after the start of the COVID-19 outbreak according to caregivers and the caregivers’ perceived stress levels. The sample was randomly selected from the primary schools in Denizli, Turkey. Denizli is a large city and the total population is around one-million. The study was conducted online. The caregivers responded to a sociodemographic and daily life during pandemic questionnaire and psychological symptoms screening form (which evaluated whether the children had any newly developed symptoms after the start of the COVID-19 outbreak) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). One-thousand-seven-hundred-ninety-seven people were included in the study. Data was collected between 3 July and 31 August 2020.

Effect of temporary school closure due to COVID-19 on musculoskeletal function in elementary school children

AUTHOR(S)
Ryoichi Nakajima; Hiroshi Kamada; Taishu Kasai (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Rural Medicine
In 2020, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) became the cause of a pandemic. In response, the Japan Sports Agency issued warnings about secondary damage to health, such as the threat to physical and mental well-being due to the lack of exercise in this situation. This study reports on cross-sectional and longitudinal examinations of standing trunk flexion to evaluate how temporary long-term school closures affected musculoskeletal function in elementary school students.
I didn't know I have the capacity to be creative: children's experiences of how creativity promoted their sense of well-being: a pilot randomised controlled study in school arts therapies

AUTHOR(S)
Z. Moula

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health

Creativity has been found to be one of the key therapeutic elements in arts therapies. Arts therapies are psychotherapeutic approaches that aim to facilitate psychological change and personal growth through arts media, such as music, drama, dance, movement and virtual arts. This article presents the findings from children's experiences of participating in arts therapies, particularly those related to creativity. This study followed a pilot randomised controlled design with embedded qualitative and arts-based methods. Sixty-two children with mild emotional and behavioural difficulties were recruited across four primary schools in North West England.

It’s Not Too Late to Act on Early Learning: Understanding and recovering from the impact of pre-primary education closures during COVID-19

This paper presents a new estimate that pre-primary school closures in 2020 may cost today’s young children US$1.6 trillion in lost earnings over their lifetimes. Children in middle-income countries will be most greatly affected. However, most low- and middle- income countries are leaving pre-primary education out of their responses to COVID-19. This paper also draws lessons from evaluations of accelerated, bridging and remedial programmes on how introducing or expanding these transition programmes in the early years can mitigate the long-term impact on learning from pre-primary school closures.

Adherence to masking requirement during the COVID-19 pandemic by early elementary school children

AUTHOR(S)
Geoffrey E. Mickells; Janet Figueroa; Kelly Withers West (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of School Health

Top public health experts and organizations strongly recommend universal masking for children older than 2 years old during the COVID-19 pandemic, but speculate it may be difficult for young children. This study sought to assess the usage of cloth face masks in grades pre-K-2 and identify associated characteristics and adverse events. It is the first data to assess mask wearing by young children in school. This online, prospective, observational, survey in multiple schools within a single school district in a major metropolitan area measured adherence to face covering mandates by students in grades pre-K-2 as measured by percentage of day with appropriate face mask wearing per report via daily teacher surveys for the first 4 weeks of school.

‘Schooling at home’ in Ireland during COVID-19’: parents’ and students’ perspectives on overall impact, continuity of interest, and impact on learning

AUTHOR(S)
N. Flynn; E. Keane; E. Davitt (et al.)

Published: May 2021
Educational disruption due to COVID-19 ushered in dramatically different learning realities in Ireland. This research explored the experiences of children, young people and parents during the first period of ‘schooling at home’ (SAH) at the end of that academic year. An anonymous online survey, guided by social constructivist emphases, yielded responses from 2733 parents and 1189 students from primary and second-level schools. Substantial evidence emerged of parent-perceived and student-perceived negative psychosocial impacts of SAH on students.
Internet-related behaviors and psychological distress among schoolchildren during the COVID-19 school hiatus

AUTHOR(S)
Chao-Ying Chen; I-Hua Chen; Amir H. Pakpour (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
This study assessed the mediating roles of problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic smartphone use in the associations between psychological distress and screen time use among primary school children during the school hiatus due to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Students (n = 2,026; mean [standard deviation] age = 10.71 years [1.07]; 1,011 [49.9 percent] girls) in Sichuan, China completed a cross-sectional online survey, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (IRB ref: HSEARS20190718001). The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, and Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale were used to assess problematic gaming, social media use, and smartphone use.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in primary schools in England in June–December, 2020 (sKIDs): an active, prospective surveillance study

AUTHOR(S)
Shamez N. Ladhani; Frances Baawuah; Joanne Beckmann (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Little is known about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings. Public Health England initiated a study, COVID-19 Surveillance in School KIDs (sKIDs), in primary schools when they partially reopened from June 1, 2020, after the first national lockdown in England to estimate the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroprevalence, and seroconversion in staff and students.
The influence of classroom seating arrangement on children's cognitive processes in primary school: The role of individual variables

AUTHOR(S)
Valentina Tobia; Simona Sacchi; Veronica Cerina

Published: September 2020
To date, despite the great debate regarding the best seating arrangement for learning in classrooms, no empirical studies have examined the direct effects of different seating arrangements on children’s cognitive processes. This is particularly important nowadays that the COVID-19 measures include maintaining distance in the classroom. Aim of this study was experimentally investigating the effect of changing the seating arrangement (clusters vs. rows and columns), on logical reasoning, creativity and theory of mind, in children attending primary school. Furthermore, some individual characteristics (e.g., gender, loneliness, popularity) were analysed as potential moderators.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.