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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 47
Keeping essential reproductive, maternal and child health services available during COVID-19 in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and Zimbabwe: analysis of early-pandemic policy guidelines

Marya K. Plotkin; Katie M. Williams; Absolom Mbinda (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the provision of essential reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) services in sub-Saharan Africa to varying degrees. Original models estimated as many as 1,157,000 additional child and 56,700 maternal deaths globally due to health service interruptions. To reduce potential impacts to populations related to RMNCH service delivery, national governments in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zimbabwe swiftly issued policy guidelines related to essential RMNCH services during COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued recommendations to guide countries in preserving essential health services by June of 2020.
18 months lost and found: reflections from a transnational participatory action research project exploring young people's lived experiences of the COVID-19 crisis

Laurie Day; Barry Percy-Smith; Sara Rizzo (et al.)

Published: March 2022

Funded by the Nuffield Foundation, Growing-up Under COVID-19 was a transnational action research project, which aimed to provide insights to the impact of the public health crisis on young people’s lives, and to inform the development of appropriate tools and measures to safeguard children’s wellbeing and rights during and beyond the pandemic.

Assessment of maternal and child health care services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: evidence from routine service data

Senedu Bekele Gebreegziabher; Solomon Sisay Marrye; Tsegaye Hailu Kumssa (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Reproductive Health volume

In many settings, health care service provision has been modified to managing COVID-19 cases, and this has been affecting the provision of maternal and child health services. The aim of this study was to assess trends in selected maternal and child health services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional data review was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from April to May 2021. Routine health management information system database was reviewed from Addis Ababa Health Bureau for the period from July 2019 to March 2021 across all quarters. Proportion and mean with standard deviation were computed. T-test was used to assess statistically significant differences in services mean performance.

Increased gaming during COVID-19 predicts physical inactivity among youth in Norway: a two-wave longitudinal cohort study

Ellen Haug; Silje Mæland; Stine Lehmann (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This paper aimed to examine the stability and change in internet and offline gaming and the association with physical inactivity among adolescents in Norway during the pandemic. A total of 2940 youth (58% girls) aged 12–19 years participated in an online longitudinal two-wave survey during the first Norwegian national lockdown in April 2020 (t1) and in December 2020 (t2). Gaming behavior and physical activity status were assessed at both time points. Age, gender, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates.

A successful collaboration between an urban school district, a health system, and a Public health department to address COVID-19 while returning children to the classroom

Katherine A. Auger; Margaret Hall; Susan Bunte (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Community Health
This research sought to create and implement a set of COVID-19 mitigation processes including reliable testing to minimize in-school transmission of SARS-CoV-2. A large urban school district (> 33,000 students), a city health department, and a free-standing children’s hospital partnered to implement multi-layered mitigation procedures which included access to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing with same day or next morning results. They tracked COVID-19 cases as well as probable/confirmed transmissions and identified needed mitigations through frequent huddles. During the 2020–2021 school year, there were 13 weeks of hybrid in person learning and 9 weeks of 5 day a week learning.
SARS-CoV-2 infections and public health responses in schools and early childhood education and care centres in Victoria, Australia: an observational study

Kathleen Ryan; Kathryn Snow; Margie Danchin (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in children is an important consideration for control measures. To inform the safe re-opening of Victorian schools and early childhood education and care (ECEC) in late 2020, a detailed analysis of local data was undertaken. Data on all Victorian SARS-CoV-2 confirmed cases, their close contacts, and ECEC/school events from the first case in Victoria to the end of the third school term (25/01/2020 – 18/09/2020) were analysed. This study compared temporal and geographic trends in cases linked to ECEC/school events and community cases; and describe events with onward transmission by age of first case, and public health actions.
Large gaps in the quality of healthcare experienced by Swedish mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study based on WHO standards

Mehreen Zaigham; Karolina Linden; Verena Sengpie (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Women and Birth

To describe the quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth, as reported by the women themselves, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, using the WHO ‘Standards for improving quality of maternal and newborn care in health facilities’. Using an anonymous, online questionnaire, women ≥18 years were invited to participate if they had given birth in Sweden from March 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021. The quality of maternal and newborn care was measured using 40 questions across four domains: provision of care, experience of care, availability of human/physical resources, and organisational changes due to COVID-19.

Exploring the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the children and families cared for by pediatric-focused advanced practice registered nurses

Daniel Crawford; Susan Van Cleve; Ann Marie McCarthy (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected children and families. The purpose of this study is to better understand the perceptions of pediatric-focused Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (P-APRNs) on the impact of COVID-19 on patients and practice. A 25-item electronic survey including a mixture of Likert scales, multiple choice and open-ended questions was sent via email to NAPNAP listserv.

A peer-based educational intervention effects on SARS-CoV-2 knowledge and attitudes among Polish high-school students

Maria Ganczak; Oskar Pasek; Łukasz Duda-Duma (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
To support high school students to develop knowledge they need to adhere to control measures during the pandemic, a peer-based educational intervention on SARS-CoV-2 was developed and its impact was evaluated. Multistage random sampling was used. The 50 min peer-based intervention was conducted by final year medical students. Baseline and post-intervention knowledge and attitudes were assessed. Significance was tested by McNemar’s/Wilcoxon rank tests. Of 518 participants (mean age 17.8 years ± 0.43), 81.0% did not receive any school-based education on SARS-CoV-2. After intervention, the knowledge score improved from 65.2% to 81.6%, attitudes from 63.2% to 70.8% (both p < 0.0001). The effect size after the intervention compared to pre-intervention showed moderate improvement of knowledge, but not attitudes (d = 0.46 and d = 0.18, respectively). Pre- and post-intervention, females, students in non-science programs, living in cities < 250,000 inhabitants had lower knowledge, while fewer males, non-science program students, living in smaller cities presented positive attitudes. Before intervention, 67.0% students correctly named SARS-CoV-2 preventive methods and 73.6% were concerned COVID-19 is a serious disease; these improved after intervention (to 80.1% and 86.3%; p < 0.0001). The intervention was not very successful in increasing the intent to vaccinate for COVID-19 (pre-intervention 52.9%, post-intervention 56.4%; p < 0.007). Peer-based teaching for high school students can be effective in increasing SARS-CoV-2 knowledge and awareness.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric health service use within one year after the first pandemic outbreak in New South Wales Australia – a time series analysis

Nan Hu; Natasha Nassar; Jane Shrapnel (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic hit New South Wales (NSW) Australia in early 2020, followed by a sharp state-wide lockdown from mid-March to mid-May. After the lockdown, there had been a low level of community transmission of COVID-19 over a year. Such pandemic experiences provide unique opportunity to understand the impact of the pandemic on paediatric health service use as countries emerge from the pandemic. This study examined the difference between the observed and the predicted numbers of inpatient admissions and emergency department (ED) attendances, respectively, related to chronic, acute infectious and injury conditions, for each month during the COVID-19 period (January 2020-February 2021), based on the numbers from 2016 to 2019, using records from two major paediatric hospitals in NSW. All analyses were conducted using autoregressive error models and were stratified by patient age, sex and socioeconomic status.
Prenatal mental and physical health, behaviours, and maternity care experiences during the COVID-19

K. Matvienko-Sikar; J. Pope; E. Olander (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Public Health

During pregnancy, women's mental and physical health, health behaviours, and experiences of maternity care can have significant implications for obstetric, maternal and child outcomes. These factors can be impacted by adverse life-events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined pregnant women's mental and physical health, health behaviours, and experiences of maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic. An international online survey was conducted in June and July 2020. Pregnant women self-reported levels of general stress, pregnancy-specific stress and COVID-19 related stress. Women also self-reported their mental and physical health, general health behaviours and COVID-19 related health behaviours. Maternity care experiences were reported using closed and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and thematic analyses were used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively.

Coping strategies and health-related quality of life in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Madalina Timircan; Felix Bratosin; Iulia Vidican (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Medicina
As maternal deaths associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection remain at several times greater than the general population, significant factors that might contribute to the higher mortality and morbidity rate are the psychological impact of the disease and pregnancy itself. Therefore, the current study’s main objective was to assess how pregnant women react and cope with the stress of COVID-19 disease and how it influences their overall health and quality of life in healthcare facilities.
HIV/AIDS among children in Ratodero, Pakistan amidst the COVID-19 pandemic: challenges, efforts, and recommendations

Anmol Mohan; Muhammad Taha Arshad Shaikh; Um-Ul Wara (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health
In Pakistan, HIV has increased at an alarming rate in recent decades, and the death toll has risen. It is a public health challenge amidst the COVID-19 pandemic that is not being given due importance. The present article looks at the challenges and efforts being made to deal with HIV among children in Ratodero, Pakistan, and addresses measures that can be taken to control the disease in the child population epidemiologically.
Physical activity of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic—a scoping review

Lea Rossi; Nick Behme; Christoph Breuer

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
To counteract the COVIC-19 pandemic, many governments have introduced social distancing measures. While these restrictions helped contain the virus, it had adverse effects on individuals’ mental and physical health—especially children. The aim of the present study is to review the evidence on the effects of COVID-19 restrictions on children’s physical activity and their determinants. A scoping review was conducted in the databases PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, and BISp-Surf. Inclusion criteria were empirical and peer-reviewed studies, youth samples, investigation of COVID-19 restrictions, and investigating changes and/or determinants of physical activity before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Risk of bias was assessed using the checklist by Downs and Black. The search resulted in 1672 studies, of which 84 studies were included in the analysis. The results highlighted a decrease in physical activity during the pandemic, ranging between −10.8 min/day and −91 min/day. If an increase was detected, it related to unstructured and outdoor activities. The main determinants of children’s physical activity during the pandemic were age, gender, socioeconomic background, and the outdoor environment.
To evaluate the effects of parental sleep and work arrangements on children’s sleep duration during the national lockdown period, referred to as ‘Circuit Breaker’ (CB), due to COVID-19. Methods Cross-sectional, anonymous, online questionnaire to par

Lauren Arundell; Jo Salmon; Anna Timperio (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

This study aims to examine the effects of COVID-19 related ‘lockdown restrictions’ on Australian's (5–75 years) physical activity recommendation achievement and active recreation participation. Cross-sectional online survey with self and proxy-report items (where the participant was a parent). Adults (n = 1360) and adolescents (n = 1292) reported the frequency they performed 30- or 60-min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), muscle-strengthening exercises, and participation in 11 active recreation behaviours in February 2020 (pre-COVID-19) and in April/May (during lockdown restrictions). Parents also proxy-reported activity for their child (n = 147, 5–12 years). Mixed effects logistic regressions or a logistic regression (with robust sandwich estimation for variance) assessed recall differences pre- and during lockdown, and interaction by sex.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.