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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Physical distancing messages targeting youth on the social media accounts of Canadian public health entities and the use of behavioral change techniques

AUTHOR(S)
Sheryll Dimanlig-Cruz; Arum Han; Samantha Lancione (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
Physical distancing (PD) is an important public health strategy to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 and has been promoted by public health authorities through social media. Although youth have a tendency to engage in high-risk behaviors that could facilitate COVID-19 transmission, there is limited research on the characteristics of PD messaging targeting this population on social media platforms with which youth frequently engage. This study examined social media posts created by Canadian public health entities (PHEs) with PD messaging aimed at youth and young adults aged 16–29 years and reported behavioral change techniques (BCTs) used in these posts.
COVID-19-associated school closures and related efforts to sustain education and subsidized meal programs, United States, February 18–June 30, 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Nicole Zviedrite; Jeffrey D. Hodis; Ferdous Jahan (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Plos One
Pre-emptive school closures are frontline community mitigation measures recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for implementation during severe pandemics. This study describes the spatiotemporal patterns of publicly announced school closures implemented in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and assesses how public K-12 districts adjusted their methods of education delivery and provision of subsidized meals. During February 18–June 30, 2020, it used daily systematic media searches to identify publicly announced COVID-19–related school closures lasting ≥1 day in the United States (US).
Challenges in maternal and child health services delivery and access during pandemics or public health disasters in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Krushna Chandra Sahoo; Sapna Negi; Kripalini Patel (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Healthcare
Maternal and child health (MCH) has been a global priority for many decades and is an essential public health service. Ensuring seamless delivery is vital for desirable MCH outcomes. This systematic review outlined the challenges in accessing and continuing MCH services during public health emergencies—pandemics and disasters. A comprehensive search approach was built based on keywords and MeSH terms relevant to ‘MCH services’ and ‘pandemics/disasters’. The online repositories Medline, CINAHL, Psyc INFO, and Epistemonikos were searched for studies. We included twenty studies—seven were on the Ebola outbreak, two on the Zika virus, five related to COVID-19, five on disasters, and one related to conflict situations. The findings indicate the potential impact of emergencies on MCH services. Low utilization and access to services have been described as common challenges. The unavailability of personal safety equipment and fear of infection were primary factors that affected service delivery. The available evidence, though limited, indicates the significant effect of disasters and pandemics on MCH. However, more primary in-depth studies are needed to understand better the overall impact of emergencies, especially the COVID-19 pandemic, on MCH.
Reflections from the forgotten frontline: ‘the reality for children and staff in residential care’ during COVID‐19

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Parry DClinPsy; Tracey Williams; Jeremy Oldfield

Published: May 2021   Journal: Health and Social Care in the Community
Currently, 78,150 children are in care in England, with 11% of the most vulnerable living in 2,460 residential homes due to multitype traumas. These children require safe and secure trauma-informed therapeutic care. However, the children's residential care workforce delivering this vital care is an unrepresented, under-researched and largely unsupported professional group. The workforce undertakes physically and emotionally challenging work in difficult conditions, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Practitioner wellbeing is directly associated with outcomes for children. Therefore, we sought to understand how experiences within the workforce could improve overall working conditions, and thus outcomes for staff and children.
Exploring the local policy context for reducing health inequalities in children and young people: an in depth qualitative case study of one local authority in the North of England, UK

AUTHOR(S)
Eleanor Holding; Hannah Fairbrother; Naomi Griffin (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health volume
: Improving children and young people’s (CYP) health and addressing health inequalities are international priorities. Reducing inequalities is particularly pertinent in light of the Covid-19 outbreak which has exacerbated already widening inequalities in health. This study aimed to explore understandings of inequality, the anticipated pathways for reducing inequalities among CYP and key factors affecting the development and implementation of policy to reduce inequalities among CYP at a local level
Evaluation of nutritional status in pediatric patients diagnosed with Covid-19 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Gülhan Karakaya Molla; Özlem Ünal Uzun; Nevra Koç (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status, the nutritional effect on the risk of infection and the severity of the disease, and the contribution of nutrition to the course of the infection in pediatric patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease who required additional nutritional support after hospitalization. The body weight, height, body mass index, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness of 49 patients aged 1 month to 18 years and diagnosed with Covid-19 and then hospitalized at the Ankara City Hospital, Pediatric Health and Diseases Hospital, Pediatric Infection ward between 15 May and 15 June 2020 were measured. Total protein, albuminprealbumin, selenium, zinc, ferritinfolate, and selenium, C, D, E, and B12 levels were studied from blood drawn simultaneously from the patients.

Covid-19 pandemic and public spaces: improving quality and flexibility for healthier places

AUTHOR(S)
Marichela Sepe

Published: February 2021   Journal: Urban Design International
The current Covid-19 pandemic has interested the whole word, changing habits and use of places and cities. In the lockdown period, cities and public spaces became completely empty and new urban landscapes substituted the previous ones, transforming the private in public. Children, young and elder people were those who mainly had problems: to them, real life was negated at the time of their life in which this is more important. In Italy, the second country after China which was interested by the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown, the reopening of all the public spaces happened after 2 months of closure. This allowed again “in presence” social interactions, although in respect of the physical distance, confirming the importance of these places for all people. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to present the results of a study carried in the framework of the Horizon 2020 research project Urban Maestro, New Governance Strategies for Urban Design, of the ISMed-National Research Council post Covid research, and of the INU Community Public Space,the last two initiatives coordinated by the author. The objective is to identify the relationships between theory and practice of the Charter of Public Space after 10 years of its creation, and verify its validity, in particular, in this Covid-19 emergency period.
Health at a glance: Latin America and the Caribbean 2020
This report presents key indicators on health and health systems in 33 Latin America and the Caribbean countries. This first Health at a Glance publication to cover the Latin America and the Caribbean region was prepared jointly by OECD and the World Bank. Analysis is based on the latest comparable data across almost 100 indicators including equity, health status, determinants of health, health care resources and utilisation, health expenditure and financing, and quality of care. The editorial discusses the main challenges for the region brought by the COVID‑19 pandemic, such as managing the outbreak as well as mobilising adequate resources and using them efficiently to ensure an effective response to the epidemic. An initial chapter summarises the comparative performance of countries before the crisis, followed by a special chapter about addressing wasteful health spending that is either ineffective or does not lead to improvement in health outcomes so that to direct saved resources where they are urgently needed.
Protecting essential health services in low-income and middle-income countries and humanitarian settings while responding to the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Karl Blanchet; Ala Alwan; Caroline Antoine (et al.)

Published: October 2020

In health outcomes terms, the poorest countries stand to lose the most from these disruptions. In this paper, we make the case for a rational approach to public sector health spending and decision making during and in the early recovery phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on ethics and equity principles, it is crucial to ensure that patients not infected by COVID-19 continue to get access to healthcare and that the services they need continue to be resourced. We present a list of 120 essential non-COVID-19 health interventions that were adapted from the model health benefit packages developed by the Disease Control Priorities project.

Leveraging implementation science in the public health response to COVID-19: child food insecurity and federal nutrition assistance programs
Published: October 2020   Journal: Public Health Reports

This commentary aims to examine the crucial role of dissemination and implementation (D&I) science—the study of methods to promote adoption and integration of evidence-based research in real-world policy or practice—to improve public health post–COVID-19. D&I science was created for this very situation, in which scientific knowledge is greatly needed but only if it holds practical relevance for the policy, environmental, and organizational systems that advance health. The paper discusses the application of D&I science to rapid evaluations of federal child nutrition assistance programs deployed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Child abuse and neglect prevention by public health nurses during the COVID‐19 pandemic in Japan

AUTHOR(S)
Chikako Honda; Kyoko Yoshioka‐Maeda; Riho Iwasaki‐Motegi (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Child abuse and neglect are high‐priority public health issues around the world, but it is known that early care for families with parenting anxiety and stress is essential for preventing abuse (World Health Organization, 2006). In Japan, the country has created a national campaign plan called The Second Term of Healthy Parents and Children 21 (2015‐2024) to address two prioritized agenda: (1) supporting parents with difficulties raising their children; and (2) preventing child abuse from pregnancy. Public health nurses (PHNs) play a crucial role in preventing child abuse and neglect by providing family healthcare in each municipality. In Japan, more than 70% of PHNs work for municipalities or prefectures covering people at various health stages from birth to old age, identifying health issues for infants and their parents before preschool through a variety of health checkups and home visits.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.