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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric health service use within one year after the first pandemic outbreak in New South Wales Australia – a time series analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Nan Hu; Natasha Nassar; Jane Shrapnel (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic hit New South Wales (NSW) Australia in early 2020, followed by a sharp state-wide lockdown from mid-March to mid-May. After the lockdown, there had been a low level of community transmission of COVID-19 over a year. Such pandemic experiences provide unique opportunity to understand the impact of the pandemic on paediatric health service use as countries emerge from the pandemic. This study examined the difference between the observed and the predicted numbers of inpatient admissions and emergency department (ED) attendances, respectively, related to chronic, acute infectious and injury conditions, for each month during the COVID-19 period (January 2020-February 2021), based on the numbers from 2016 to 2019, using records from two major paediatric hospitals in NSW. All analyses were conducted using autoregressive error models and were stratified by patient age, sex and socioeconomic status.
Prenatal mental and physical health, behaviours, and maternity care experiences during the COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
K. Matvienko-Sikar; J. Pope; E. Olander (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Public Health

During pregnancy, women's mental and physical health, health behaviours, and experiences of maternity care can have significant implications for obstetric, maternal and child outcomes. These factors can be impacted by adverse life-events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined pregnant women's mental and physical health, health behaviours, and experiences of maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic. An international online survey was conducted in June and July 2020. Pregnant women self-reported levels of general stress, pregnancy-specific stress and COVID-19 related stress. Women also self-reported their mental and physical health, general health behaviours and COVID-19 related health behaviours. Maternity care experiences were reported using closed and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and thematic analyses were used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively.

Coping strategies and health-related quality of life in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Madalina Timircan; Felix Bratosin; Iulia Vidican (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Medicina
As maternal deaths associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection remain at several times greater than the general population, significant factors that might contribute to the higher mortality and morbidity rate are the psychological impact of the disease and pregnancy itself. Therefore, the current study’s main objective was to assess how pregnant women react and cope with the stress of COVID-19 disease and how it influences their overall health and quality of life in healthcare facilities.
HIV/AIDS among children in Ratodero, Pakistan amidst the COVID-19 pandemic: challenges, efforts, and recommendations

AUTHOR(S)
Anmol Mohan; Muhammad Taha Arshad Shaikh; Um-Ul Wara (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health
In Pakistan, HIV has increased at an alarming rate in recent decades, and the death toll has risen. It is a public health challenge amidst the COVID-19 pandemic that is not being given due importance. The present article looks at the challenges and efforts being made to deal with HIV among children in Ratodero, Pakistan, and addresses measures that can be taken to control the disease in the child population epidemiologically.
Physical activity of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic—a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Lea Rossi; Nick Behme; Christoph Breuer

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
To counteract the COVIC-19 pandemic, many governments have introduced social distancing measures. While these restrictions helped contain the virus, it had adverse effects on individuals’ mental and physical health—especially children. The aim of the present study is to review the evidence on the effects of COVID-19 restrictions on children’s physical activity and their determinants. A scoping review was conducted in the databases PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, and BISp-Surf. Inclusion criteria were empirical and peer-reviewed studies, youth samples, investigation of COVID-19 restrictions, and investigating changes and/or determinants of physical activity before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Risk of bias was assessed using the checklist by Downs and Black. The search resulted in 1672 studies, of which 84 studies were included in the analysis. The results highlighted a decrease in physical activity during the pandemic, ranging between −10.8 min/day and −91 min/day. If an increase was detected, it related to unstructured and outdoor activities. The main determinants of children’s physical activity during the pandemic were age, gender, socioeconomic background, and the outdoor environment.
To evaluate the effects of parental sleep and work arrangements on children’s sleep duration during the national lockdown period, referred to as ‘Circuit Breaker’ (CB), due to COVID-19. Methods Cross-sectional, anonymous, online questionnaire to par

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren Arundell; Jo Salmon; Anna Timperio (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

This study aims to examine the effects of COVID-19 related ‘lockdown restrictions’ on Australian's (5–75 years) physical activity recommendation achievement and active recreation participation. Cross-sectional online survey with self and proxy-report items (where the participant was a parent). Adults (n = 1360) and adolescents (n = 1292) reported the frequency they performed 30- or 60-min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), muscle-strengthening exercises, and participation in 11 active recreation behaviours in February 2020 (pre-COVID-19) and in April/May (during lockdown restrictions). Parents also proxy-reported activity for their child (n = 147, 5–12 years). Mixed effects logistic regressions or a logistic regression (with robust sandwich estimation for variance) assessed recall differences pre- and during lockdown, and interaction by sex.

What is the best-available evidence about the effects of public-health measures in schools (K-12), as well as about supporting adherence to these measures?

This study searched the COVID-END global and domestic inventories of best evidence syntheses to identify evidence documents that focused on the effects of and supporting adherence to public health measures in schools (K-12). The search terms used were: “school” AND (“effectiveness” OR “adherence” OR “public health measure” OR “public health” OR “measure”). It also contacted 40+ Canadian evidence-synthesis teams by email.

Shifting research priorities in maternal and child health in the COVID-19 pandemic era in India: a renewed focus on systems strengthening

AUTHOR(S)
Kayur Mehta; Sanjay Zodpey; Preetika Banerjee (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One

The remarkable progress seen in maternal and child health (MCH) in India over the past two decades has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to undertake a rapid assessment to identify key priorities for public health research in MCH in India within the context and aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. A web-based survey was developed to identify top research priorities in MCH. It consisted of 26 questions on six broad domains: vaccine preventable diseases, outbreak preparedness, primary healthcare integration, maternal health, neonatal health, and infectious diseases. Key stakeholders were invited to participate between September and November 2020. Participants assigned importance on a 5-point Likert scale, and assigned overall ranks to each sub-domain research priority. Descriptive statistics were used to examine Likert scale responses, and a ranking analysis was done to obtain an “average ranking score” and identify the top research priority under each domain.

The ACA, COVID-19 and health care insurance for children

AUTHOR(S)
Eileen K. Fry-Bowers

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Despite numerous legal and political challenges over the past decade, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) (2010) has been integrated into the health system of the United States (U.S.) and has played an important role in improving child health in this country by increasing access to health care for millions of children. The ACA has also provided a “healthcare lifeline” to children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. This policy brief reviews the legal status of the ACA, explores the impact of COVID-19 on children's access to health insurance, discusses recent legislation supporting child health, and considers the future status of child health insurance coverage and access to care.
Public health preventive measures and child health behaviours during COVID-19: a cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Xuedi Li; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Jonathon L. Maguire (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Canadian Journal of Public Health

The primary objective was to determine the association between public health preventive measures and children’s outdoor time, sleep duration, and screen time during COVID-19. A cohort study using repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in healthy children (0 to 10 years) through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) COVID-19 Study of Children and Families in Toronto, Canada, between April 14 and July 15, 2020. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires about adherence to public health measures and children’s health behaviours.

Passive and active immunity in infants born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy: prospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Dongli Song; Mary Prahl; Stephanie L. Gaw (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This is a prospective observational study aiming toinvestigate maternal immunoglobulins’ (IgM, IgG) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and IgG transplacental transfer, to characterise neonatal antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to longitudinally follow actively and passively acquired antibodies in infants. It was performed in the public healthcare system in Santa Clara County (California, USA).

SARS-CoV-2 infection, antibody positivity and seroconversion rates in staff and students following full reopening of secondary schools in England: a prospective cohort study, September–December 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Shamez N. Ladhani; Georgina Ireland; Frances Baawuah (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Older children have higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rates than younger children. This study investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroprevalence and seroconversion rates in staff and students following the full reopening of all secondary schools in England. Public Health England (PHE) invited secondary schools in six regions (East and West London, Hertfordshire, Derbyshire, Manchester and Birmingham) to participate in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance during the 2020/21 academic year. Participants had nasal swabs for RT-PCR and blood samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the beginning (September 2020) and end (December 2020) of the autumn term. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent risk factors for seropositivity and seroconversion.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric emergency service

AUTHOR(S)
İlknur Fidancı; Medine Ayşin Taşar; Bahar Akıntuğ (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: The International Journal of Clinical Practice

The aims of this research were to review patients visiting the paediatric emergency department over a 6-month period 1 year before and during the pandemic, to review paediatric emergency department referral ratios and to determine whether there were any significant decreases in mortality and morbidity. All patients from the ages of 0 to 18 years visiting the University of Health Sciences, Ankara Research and Training Hospital, paediatric emergency service from April-October 2019 to April-October 2020 with no missing information in their records were involved in this retrospective cross-sectional study.

Impact that the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood vaccinations and challenges ahead: a narrative review
Published: May 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

This study aim to document the decline in vaccination coverage in the first months of 2020 as an indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. A literature review in medical databases was performed. Overall, 143 articles were initially retrieved, out of which 48 were selected and included in the review.

Impact of COVID-19 home confinement in children’s refractive errors

AUTHOR(S)
Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina; Clara Martinez-Perez; Cesar Villa-Collar (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Myopia is a public health problem, with estimations that 50% of the world population will be myopic by 2050. Some environmental factors, such as time spent outdoors, doing near work, and using digital devices, influence the development of myopia in children. Home confinement in Spain has increased these risk factors, so this study aims to investigate the impact of home confinement during the COVID-19 outbreak in the vision of school-aged children;
Cite this research | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, physical activity, public health | Countries: Spain
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.