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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Racial healing during the COVID-19 and anti-Asian pandemics through critical consciousness informed antiracist parenting practices (CCIARP)

Yuying Tsong; Sapna B. Chopra; Hsiu-Lan Cheng

Published: January 2023   Journal: Asian American Journal of Psychology
Pervasive anti-Asian racism and xenophobia during the COVID-19 pandemic pose risks to Asian Americans’ mental health and wellness. Parents and caregivers play a vital role in children’s identity development and beliefs about race and racism. This article offers an analysis of anti-Asian racism during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on Asian American (AA) adults’ and children’s wellness. In addition, based on reviews and analyses of the literature, it proposes a framework of critical consciousness informed antiracist parenting (CCIARP) for AA parents, practitioners, and educators who work with them to understand and heal from existing and continuing racial trauma as well as strategies and tools to enact social change toward a more just future. CCIARP recommendations include (a) cultivating antiracist awareness, (b) building skills and engaging in activism, and (c) fostering an antiracist parent–child relationship. Limitations and future research needed to apply this framework are included in the discussions.
Examining civic engagement in ethnic minority youth populations: a literature review and concept analysis

Van Phan; Bret Kloos

Published: January 2023   Journal: American Journal of Community Psychology
Racial reckoning is defined as the subjugation of Black, Indigenous, and people of Color (BIPOC) to racial hierarchies and subordinate groups that influence multiple well-being outcomes throughout the developmental lifespan and across generations. With the two pandemics of racial reckoning and COVID-19 amidst a growing controversial political landscape, topics around civic engagement have been brought to the forefront of community conversation. Discussions surrounding civic engagement must go beyond addressing issues of public concern and examine the vehicle in which civic engagement may be delivered. This is becoming increasingly important as civic engagement is one of the main avenues of social change through individual and collective action, particularly regarding racial reckoning and healthcare disparities highlighted by COVID-19. The paper focuses on civic engagement among ethnic minority youth and young adults. An integrated model of civic engagement was created based off what was learned through this review. This proposed model of civic engagement is meant to be the first step to addressing the gap in civic engagement literature for ethnic minority youth. Weaknesses and future considerations regarding the model will also be discussed, as well as any implications for ethnic minority youth and young adults.
The mental health of Asian American adolescents and young adults amid the rise of anti-Asian racism

James Huynh; Jessie Chien; Amy T. Nguyen (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This study describes the perceptions and experiences of anti-Asian racism and violence and depression severity prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of Asian American (AA) adolescents and young adults. It used data from the Young Asian American Health Survey (YAAHS), an online-recruited sample of AA adolescents (ages 13–17) and young adults (ages 18–29 years) conducted during May 2021 to March 2022. It presented descriptive statistics examining the univariate distribution and bivariate relationships of depression severity, sociodemographic characteristics, and experiences and perceptions of anti-Asian violence.

Civic engagement and Latina immigrant mothers' remote learning involvement during COVID-19

Vanessa Delgado

Published: December 2022   Journal: Sociological Forum
Immigrant incorporation scholars have established that racialized immigrant parents encounter several barriers in their children's schooling: namely, language and cultural differences, discrimination, unfamiliarity with the U.S. schooling system, and unhelpful school agents. However, less is known about the mechanisms that lessen these challenges. Drawing on insights from immigrant incorporation and civic engagement literature, this study examines how advocacy organizations can mediate the barriers racialized immigrant parents face in their children's schooling. A case study of 20 Latina immigrant mothers is used to demonstrate how civically engaged parents drew on their participation with a local advocacy organization—Parent's Choice—to overcome the barriers that emerged during the transition to remote learning due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Parental and other caregiver loss due to COVID-19 in the United States: prevalence by race, state, relationship, and child age

Dan Treglia; J. J. Cutuli; Kamyar Arasteh (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Community Health
The more than one million COVID-19 deaths in the United States include parents, grandparents, and other caregivers for children. These losses can disrupt the social, emotional, and economic well-being of children, their families, and their communities, and understanding the number and characteristics of affected children is a critical step in responding. We estimate the number of children who lost a parent or other co-residing caregiver to COVID-19 in the U.S. and identify racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities by aligning COVID-19 death counts through mid-May 2022 with household information from a representative sample of individuals. We estimate that 216,617 children lost a co-residing caregiver to COVID-19; 77,283 lost a parent and more than 17,000 children lost the only caregiver with whom they lived. Non-White children were more than twice as likely as White children to experience caregiver loss, and children under 14 years old experienced 70% of caregiver loss.
Marked disparities in COVID-19 vaccination among US children and adolescents by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, geographic, and health characteristics, United States, December 2021 – April 2022

Gopal K. Singh; Hyunjung Lee; Romuladus E. Azuine

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial adverse impact on the health and well-being of populations in the United States (US) and globally. Although COVID-19 vaccine disparities among US adults aged ≥18 years are well documented, COVID-19 vaccination inequalities among US children are not well studied. Using the recent nationally representative data, this study examines disparities in COVID-19 vaccination among US children aged 5-17 years by a wide range of social determinants and parental characteristics. Using the US Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey from December 1, 2021 to April 11, 2022 (N=86,335), disparities in child vaccination rates by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health insurance, parental vaccination status, parental COVID-19 diagnosis, and metropolitan area were modeled by multivariate logistic regression.

Monthly trends in drug overdose mortality among youth aged 15-34 years in the United States, 2018-2021: measuring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic

Hyunjung Lee; Gopal K. Singh

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS

Adolescents and young adults in the United States (US) have experienced a significant increase in drug overdose mortality rates in the last two decades. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, they experienced a lack of access to substance use disorder treatment, stay-home orders, school closure, social isolation, increased psychological distress, and financial strain. Few studies have examined the impact of the pandemic on monthly trends in drug-overdose mortality among youth by race/ethnicity. This study estimates differential changes in monthly drug overdose mortality among youth in the US by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Monthly deaths from the final 2018-2020 national mortality data and the 2021 provisional mortality data were used, and monthly population estimates were obtained from the Census Bureau.

Finding voice in a year of collective trauma: case study of an online photovoice project with youth

R. Lillianne Macias; Nancy Nava; Desiree Delgadillo (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: American Journal of Community Psychology
This article shares findings from a qualitative case study of a virtual youth photovoice program implemented across three regions of the United States. The purpose of the program was to engage youth in research on a social issue relevant to them during an unprecedented year marked by two public health crises, COVID-19 and anti-Black racial violence. Results of an analysis of curriculum and archival program materials lend support for online strategies for youth engagement including individualized support and online audiovisual presentations with avatars. Racial justice and trauma-informed adaptations were designed to be responsive to youth needs for flexible programming and safe spaces.
Parental assistance with emotion regulation moderates link between COVID-19 stress and child mental health.

Emily M. Cohodes; Sarah McCauley; David A. Preece (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted children’s mental health. All children have not been affected equally, however, and whether parental emotion socialization might buffer or exacerbate the impact of COVID-19 on children’s mental health remains an important question. During the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. N = 200 parents of children ages 0–17 (52.5% female) completed questionnaires related to parental assistance with children’s emotion regulation, symptomatology, and exposure to COVID-19-related stress. Parents were 74% Non-Hispanic/Latino/a White, 13% Asian, 4.5% Hispanic/Latino/a, 4% Black/African American, 2.5% Native American, and 1.5% bi/multiracial; 0.5% of participants preferred not to state their race/ethnicity. In a series of linear regression analyses, we examined whether parental assistance with children’s execution of emotion regulation strategies – across a variety of prototypically-adaptive and -maladaptive strategies – moderates the association between children’s exposure to COVID-19-related stress and symptomatology.

Social and economic factors related to healthcare delay among low-income families during COVID-19: results from the ACCESS observational study

Mekhala Hoskote; Rita Hamad; Wendi Gosliner (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved

Delayed medical care is a negative consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic for families with young children. This study used data from the Accessing California Communities' Experiences with Safety net Supports (ACCESS) survey, a cross-sectional study that assessed experiences with safety-net programs among working families with low incomes (n=491). From August 2020 to May 2021, it conducted interviewer-administered surveys of low-income families with young children (ages zero to eight) in California and asked questions about whether participants had delayed medical care for their children or themselves.

Addressing social determinants of mental health in pediatrics during the COVID-19 pandemic

Andrea E. Spencer; Jennifer Sikov; William G. Adams (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Progress Report
In this report, our study's findings in context of new events and research since June 2019 are discussed, with particular attention to the impacts of both the pandemic and racism on SDOH, child mental health, and primary care-based screening efforts.
Widening racial disparities during COVID-19 telemedicine transition: a study of child mental health services at two large children's hospitals

J. Corey Williams; Molly Ball; Nora Roscoe (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Home
To examine whether racial disparities in access to pediatric mental health care were affected during the COVID-19 telemedicine transition at both The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and Boston Children’s Hospital (BCH). Electronic health records were queried for all unique outpatient visits from a pre-pandemic period in 2019 and a within-pandemic period in 2020. Changes in the proportion of patients were compared based on insurance status, clinic location, and racial identification. Hypotheses were tested via logistic regression analyses.
Impact of COVID social distancing measures on eating and exercise behaviors among a sample of Hispanic parents of young children in the United States

Christian E. Vazquez; Katherine E. Hess; Esther J. Calzada

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Health Research
In the United States, healthy behaviors, such as eating fruits/vegetables and exercise, are well below recommended levels, particularly for Hispanics. The COVID pandemic may have exacerbated existing health behavior disparities. The current study examines the impact of COVID social distancing measures on Hispanic parents’ eating and exercise behaviors, and how the impact may differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and distress levels. This cross-sectional logistic regression study utilized data from a sample of Hispanic parents in Texas (n = 237). COVID-related questions were collected in Summer 2020. Dependent variables included self-reported changes in exercise and eating behaviors due to the pandemic (i.e. got better or got worse). Primary independent variables included family-SES, neighborhood-SES, and distress due to COVID.
Ethnic differences and inequities in paediatric healthcare utilisation in the UK: a scoping review

Claire X. Zhang; Maria A. Quigley; Clare Bankhead (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

Despite the increased policy attention on ethnic health inequities since the COVID-19 pandemic, research on ethnicity and healthcare utilisation in children has largely been overlooked. This scoping review aimed to describe and appraise the quantitative evidence on ethnic differences (unequal) and inequities (unequal, unfair and disproportionate to healthcare needs) in paediatric healthcare utilisation in the UK 2001–2021.

Racial and ethnic differences in maternal and child COVID-19 vaccination intent among pregnant and postpartum women in the USA (April–June 2020): an application of health belief model

Mercy Obasanya; Oluwatosin Igenoza; Shuchika Gupta (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
This study investigated racial/ethnic differences in pregnant and postpartum women’s intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccination (maternal COVID-19 vaccination intent) and intentions to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 (child COVID-19 vaccination intent) during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic (April–June 2020). This study also assessed Health Belief Model constructs to examine their influence on maternal and child COVID-19 vaccination intent by race/ethnicity. This study includes 489 US pregnant and postpartum women (18–49 years) recruited via Prolific Academic to complete a 55-item cross-sectional online survey.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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