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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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226 - 240 of 744
Looking back on Nigeria’s COVID-19 school closures: effects of parental investments on learning outcomes and avoidance of hysteresis in education

AUTHOR(S)
Moses Ogenyi

Institution: Research on Improving Systems of Education
Published: March 2022

This insight note explores how COVID-19 and related school closures impacted Nigerian schools, parents, and students. National data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2020 through a monthly phone survey show that children had extremely limited contact with the education system during this time, and that families preferred low-cost alternatives such as in-home tutoring and increased parental involvement in education to e-learning tools. Additional data collected by the RISE Nigeria Team in a survey of 73 low-cost private schools in Abuja suggest that some schools did maintain contact with students during mandated school closures, that students experienced absolute learning losses equivalent to about 5-6 months of school missed in other contexts (Cooper et al, 1996), despite participation in alternative learning activities, and that the pandemic led to severe financial hardships for schools and teachers.

Evidence on the gendered impacts of extended school closures: a systematic review
Institution: UNESCO
Published: March 2022

This publication investigates the evidence on the gendered impacts of extended school closures and periods out of school. The aim is to ensure that responses to the current and future crises are informed by an understanding of how they affect education access, participation and outcomes, as well as children’s nutrition, health, well-being and protection. Building on the findings of 154 studies from every region of the world, it highlights how extended school closures and periods out of school deepen gendered exclusions and vulnerabilities – with the poorest children being the most affected. Seven different forms of gendered impact on education processes are delineated, linked to failures to address the needs, rights and capabilities of girls, boys, women and men, and to build institutional structures to sustain equality and protect from violence.

The Kenya Ministry of education’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic: case study

AUTHOR(S)
Loise Gichuhi; Jane Kalista

Institution: UNESCO
Published: March 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprec-edented    disruption    to    social,    economic,    and cultural life worldwide. In Kenya, when schools  and  universities  closed  in  March 2020,  nearly  18  million  Kenyan  learners were  affected,  putting  at  stake  not  only  the  considerable  economic,  social,  and  political  gains  experienced  by  the  country  over  the  past decade, but also the significant commit-ment the Government has made to providing inclusive, quality education. This  analysis  aims  to  provide  policy  recom-mendations  to  strengthen  the  leadership  of  ministries of education (MoEs) and collabo-ration  with  partners  to  continue  to  provide  quality education in crisis situations. It seeks to shed light on this central question: What facilitates  government  leadership  in  crisis  and  risk  management  in  education  and  how  can  humanitarian  and  development  actors  more  effectively  support  the  Ministry  of Education in Kenya to lead effective educa-tion service delivery during crises?

Remote learning during the global school lockdown: multi-country lessons

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Barron Rodriguez; Cristobal Cobo; Alberto Munoz-Najar

Published: March 2022
This study includes three main sections that have been organized in a chronological order within this report: the first one, “What can we learn from education emergency responses in low- and middle-income countries?” analyzes the emergency education responses to the COVID-19 pandemic of over 120 governments from April until May, 2020. The second section, “Is remote learning perceived as effective? An in-depth analysis across five countries” discusses the main national education responses deployed by Brazil, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Peru, as well as the perceived effectiveness of these strategies conducted from May until August, 2020. The third section, “What works with remote and remedial strategies? an analysis across 13 countries” builds on key lessons learned during the analysis of the five multi-country experiences and presents global trends of remote learning implemented during school closures and the actions governments adopted to get ready for remedial learning, conducted from August until December 2020. The countries prioritized for the third section are IDA borrowing countries of which six are low-income countries.
Remote learning during COVID-19: lessons from today, principles for tomorrow

AUTHOR(S)
Alberto Munoz-Najar; Alison Grace Gilberto Sanzana; Amer Hasan (et al.)

Published: March 2022
School closures during COVID-19 (coronavirus) led to an unprecedented global experiment in the delivery of remote learning. This report seeks to assess what lessons can be drawn from experiences of remote learning during COVID-19 in K-12 education, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries. It focuses on the period from March 2020 to October 2021 and addresses the following key questions: 1. Was remote learning during COVID-19 taken up and if so, was it effective? That is, did children learn as much as they did during pre-pandemic, in-person learning? 2. What lessons can governments derive from this wide-spread experience? 3. How might policymakers use these lessons to reimagine learning as schools begin to reopen? This report is part of a larger effort led by the World Bank to provide guidance and technical assistance to optimize country effectiveness in the design and execution of remote learning strategies. It has been developed in conjunction with Remote Learning During the Global School Lockdown: Multi-Country Lessons, a qualitative study conducted between May and November 2020 to understand the perceived effectiveness of remote and remedial learning solutions implemented across 17 countries.
Are children really learning? Exploring foundational skills in the midst of a learning crisis
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: March 2022

Even before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were serious questions about whether children were actually learning. With widespread school closures and other disruptions to the education system brought about by the pandemic, the learning crisis has escalated to new heights. As the pandemic enters its third year, 23 countries – home to around 405 million schoolchildren – are yet to fully open schools, with many schoolchildren at risk of dropping out. Over the past two years nearly 147 million children missed more than half of their in-person schooling, amounting to 2 trillion hours of lost learning. Children have to get back to the classroom, but changes are needed to ensure that they really learn, starting with the foundational basics of reading and numeracy.  This report offers unique insight into the extent of the learning crisis by providing an in-depth picture of which children are most at risk of not acquiring foundational learning skills. The analysis of 32 low- and middle-income countries and territories uses newly released data to examine the equity perspectives of the crisis, exploring learning outcomes among different subgroups of children, with a focus on the most vulnerable. 

Using social media to promote school nutrition programs during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Anne Whitesell; Hunter Fitch

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

Millions of school-aged children receive free or reduced-price lunches through the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National School Lunch Program; that service was disrupted when public schools closed at the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, this program received little attention on school districts' social media accounts. This research collected Twitter data from 70 Ohio public school districts to construct a measure of attention paid toward school nutrition programs from 2008 to 2021. It also collected district-level data to analyze the relationship between district characteristics and mentions of school nutrition programs.

Classroom discussion practices in online remote secondary school settings during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Tony Gutentag; Aviv Orner; Christa S. C. Asterhan (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Academically productive talk (APT) in classrooms has long been associated with significant gains in student learning and development. Yet, due to COVID-19 related restrictions, teachers around the world were forced to adapt their teaching to online, remote settings during the pandemic. This investigation studied APT in junior high school during extended online, remote teaching spells. Specifically, it focused on the extent APT was a part of online teaching practices, what characterized teachers who tended to promote APT more in online, remote teaching, and associations between APT and teacher well-being, as well as student motivation and engagement.
Development of speed and strength abilities of children aged 12-13 years in physical education classes in the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Olena Nesen

Published: February 2022   Journal: Pedagogy of Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has created unusual conditions for physical education teachers to work with schoolchildren. Children are forced to spend some time at home, which reduces the time for physical activity. The aim of the work is to track changes in the indicators of speed and strength abilities  of  children  aged  12-13  years  during  the  year  in  the  conditions  of  mixed  and  distance  learning.

Learning in a pandemic: primary school children’s emotional engagement with remote schooling during the spring 2020 Covid-19 lockdown in Ireland

AUTHOR(S)
Yekaterina Chzhen; Jennifer Symonds; Dympna Devine (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Child Indicators Research
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the greatest disruption to children’s schooling in generations. This study analyses primary school children’s emotional engagement with remote schooling during the Spring 2020 lockdown in the Republic of Ireland, which involved one of the longest school closures among rich countries at the time. It investigates whether children’s engagement with their remote schooling varied by personal and family characteristics, using data from the Children’s School Lives (CSL) surveys. CSL is a nationally representative study of primary schools in Ireland, which collected information from children aged 8–9 years in May – August 2019 and in May – July 2020. Linear regression estimates with school fixed effects are based on the analytic sample of nearly 400 children (from across 71 schools) who took part in both waves and have complete data on all the key variables.
Online pair-programming: elementary school children learning scratch together online

AUTHOR(S)
Liat Bodaker; Rinat B. Rosenberg-Kima

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Research on Technology in Education
The COVID-19 pandemic raised the need to examine online learning methods also in young children. This study examined elementary school children’s performance and attitudes during and toward an online programming learning activity utilizing the pair-programming Agile method that may foster 21st-century skills, including collaboration and computational thinking. Forty 4th–6th grade children with basic programming knowledge of Scratch were randomly assigned to either a pair-programming or solo-programming condition. Overall, children in both conditions enjoyed the online learning activity and completed it successfully. In particular, pair-programming seemed to entail an extra benefit to girls who generally preferred working in pairs. Nevertheless, children in the pair condition took longer to complete all tasks, perceived the third task, which was completed individually, as more difficult, and were less active when their partner was more competent. Implications for post-COVID-19 learning are discussed.
Playful learning during the reopening of Danish schools after Covid 19 closures

AUTHOR(S)
A. Qvortrup; R. Lomholt; V. Christensen (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research
This article is based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from teachers and pupils in Danish schools in June 2020, as schools reopened following closures in the spring due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It investigates the transformations in school life that took place in this period in response to strict official guidelines to prevent the spread of infection, transformations both in school learning environments and in teaching activities. Using factor and cluster analyses and logistic regression, it explores the relation between teaching environment and pupils’ emotional, social, and academic wellbeing, identifying correlations between key factors in the environment and the three dimensions of wellbeing. The study contributes both to understanding and dealing with the crisis in which education systems in the Nordic countries have found themselves in and adds relevant knowledge on themes of importance for education in the future.
Providing inclusive education through virtual classrooms: a study of the experiences of secondary science teachers in Malaysia during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Kah Heng Chua; Way Kiat Bong (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Journal of Inclusive Education
During the COVID-19 pandemic, remote teaching was required to ensure that educators could continue teaching and that students could still attend classes. However, since the necessity for remote teaching occured, many teachers were not used to teaching virtually while ensuring that their students were given equal opportunities and environments to obtain a quality education. The aim of this study is therefore to explore the experiences of secondary school teachers in Malaysia in providing a more inclusive education during the pandemic specifically in science-related subjects via virtual classrooms. An online survey was conducted among 126 science teachers. The findings indicate that the readiness of science teachers in providing inclusive education is not high. Their scores in terms of affective attitude, behaviour, cognition, competence and awareness were barely sufficient. Issues such as lack of experience teaching virtually, insufficient training and support from schools and educational authorities, and parents lacking technological competence and skills to facilitate their children’s virtual classrooms at home were identified.
Parents’ psychological stress and their views of school success for deaf or hard-of-hearing children during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sanyin Cheng; Shengli Cheng (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Communication Disorders Quarterly
This study mainly explored psychological stress due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and how it related to parents’ views of school success in mainland China. The Psychological Stress Questionnaire and Views of Social and Academic Success were administered to 213 parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Results showed that parents’ and children’s characteristics were related to psychological stress due to COVID-19, which significantly negatively predicted parents’ views of school success. The contributions, limitations, and implications of the present research are discussed.
Physical education in a post-COVID world: a blended-gamified approach

AUTHOR(S)
Dylan Owen Blain; Martyn Standage; Thomas Curran

Published: February 2022   Journal: European Physical Education Review
How does the education sector recover following the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic? Much enthusiasm exists to imagine how teaching practices can be enriched within the so-called ‘new normal.’ The physical and mental health benefits associated with school physical education have attracted considerable attention during the pandemic. Capitalizing on the raised awareness of the many positive contributions of school physical education, a pressing priority is to now reengage children with physical activity in a manner that promotes enjoyable experiences and adaptive engagement with movement. This paper draws from self-determination theory, physical literacy theory and socioecological perspectives to present the case for blended-gamified approaches as a means of reimagining physical education in a post-pandemic world. To support all young people to lead healthy and active lifestyles, it proposes the use of a systematic and evidence-based approach to programme development, evaluation and implementation. Such an approach will aid in establishing what works, when, for whom and in which context.
226 - 240 of 744

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.