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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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241 - 255 of 792
Child development and distance learning in the age of COVID-19

Hugues Champeaux; Lucia Mangiavacchi; Francesca Marchetta (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
School closures, forcibly brought about by the COVID-19 crisis in many countries, have impacted children’s lives and their learning processes. The heterogeneous implementation of distance learning solutions is likely to bring a substantial increase in education inequality, with long term consequences. The present study uses data from a survey collected during Spring 2020 lockdown in France and Italy to analyze parents’ evaluations of their children’s home schooling process and emotional well-being at time of school closure, and the role played by different distance learning methods in shaping these perceptions.
Early childhood education during the COVID-19 outbreak: the perceived changing roles of preschool administrators, teachers, and parents

Süleyman Yildiz; Gulenay Nagihan Kilic; Ibrahim H. Acar (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
Stakeholders (teachers, preschool administrators, and parents) in early childhood education have struggled due to the COVID-19 outbreak. The present study explores the experiences and perceptions reflecting the perceived changes in the roles of stakeholders in early childhood education as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. A criterion sample of two administrators, nine teachers, and seven parents in early childhood education institutions was interviewed.
Successful school interventions for students with disability during Covid-19: empirical evidence from Australia

Catherine Smith; Massimiliano Tani; Sophie Yates (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
Children and young people with disability are a “vulnerable” population within a pandemic context as they face structural inequities and discrimination as a result of their impairments. This paper reported research that sought to examine the learning experiences of children and young people with disability during the COVID-19 pandemic. It wanted to understand how this group fared and whether different interventions impacted on these experiences. Data were collected from an online survey organized by Children and Young People with Disability Australia (CYDA) that garnered responses from more than 700 families. The study contributes empirical evidence to the growing literature about COVID-19-related impacts on learners already recognized as experiencing multiple disadvantages in schooling.
Problematic Internet use and academic engagement during the COVID-19 lockdown: The indirect effects of depression, anxiety, and insomnia in early, middle, and late adolescence

Sihan Liu; Shengqi Zou; Di Zhang (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of affective disorders

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the transition of online learning introduces challenges for adolescents to engage in learning. The increased access and persistent Internet use could heighten the risk of problematic Internet use (PIU) that has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for academic engagement. This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect relationships between PIU and academic engagement through psychopathological symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, insomnia) in early, middle, and late adolescence. In all, 4852 adolescents (51.5% females; Mage = 13.80 ± 2.38) from different regions of Chinese mainland participated in the study and completed questionnaires.

Learning loss or learning gain? A potential silver lining to school closures in Indonesia

Delbert Lim; Niken Rarasati; Florischa Tresnatri (et al.)

Institution: Research on Improving Systems of Education
Published: April 2022
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected learning practices in Indonesia, decreasing the role of teachers as instructors and instead driving parents to replicate the classroom environment at home. Given a supportive home environment, some students, particularly those with low initial achievement, enjoyed learning gains during school closures, as parents were able to directly teach to their level. As schools reopen, students will benefit from continued additional support in their education from their household. It is also important to reintroduce a challenging curriculum to recover potential learning losses at the upper tail of the distribution
The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for children in Kenya

Emma Cameron; Antonia Delius; Amanda Devercelli (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2022
Based on survey data for more than 5,000 Kenyan households, this study shows that, despite government efforts to introduce remote learning options, access to education declined markedly during a nine-month-long period of school closures. Remote learning was adopted by only a small minority of students, and disadvantaged children fell further behind. During the first semester of 2021, reports of alterations in children’s externalizing and internalizing behavior more than tripled, with one in five children being affected by June 2021. After schools reopened, children learning remotely or through alternative means were more likely to suffer from these disruptions in emotional well-being than those who returned to school. While the medium- and long-term effects on learning outcomes and human capital remain unknown, the findings suggest that girls and children from poorer and less educated households have been disproportionately affected.
Reopening with resilience: lessons from remote learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: April 2022

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

Tailoring remote special education for children with down syndrome during COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines

Michael B. Cahapay

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
Down syndrome is the most common form of intellectual disability. However, there is a paucity of educational research focused on this vulnerable segment of learners especially in the present novel situation. This paper aimed to explore how teachers tailor remote special education for children with down syndrome amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. It draws from a phenomenological qualitative study that collected information from online interviews with nine special education teachers handling children with down syndrome.
Reviewing the impact of COVID-19 on children’s rights to, in and through education

Laura Colucci-Gray

Published: April 2022   Journal: The International Journal of Human Rights
Emergency legislation introduced internationally since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic saw the closure of all levels of educational settings and a shift to remote teaching. Drawing lessons from an independent child rights impact assessment (CRIA) in Scotland, United Kingdom, this paper reviews the impact of COVID-19 measures on children and young people’s rights to, and experiences of, education during the current crisis. Findings highlight that while measures sought to preserve the best interests of children and their basic rights to safety, a distinct lack of consultation on the impacts of the measures undermined the interdependency and indivisibility of children’s human rights. Three human rights principles – participation and inclusion, non-discrimination, and mutual accountability of family and the State – were identified as being particularly significant in this assessment. Looking forward, findings point to the need for extending the range of perspectives involved in child rights impact assessments in times of crisis – where human rights are at even greater risk of being breached – and the significance of a children's rights-based perspective for re-imagining education altogether.
The developmental appropriateness of digital games and its impact on young children’s enjoyment and playtime

Lucrezia Crescenzi-Lanna

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the provision and downloading of educational apps for children have both increased. This paper reports the results of an extensive literature review of the age-rating systems of digital content (audiovisual and games) used around the world and demonstrates the weakness of those instruments that prove ineffective in choosing digital content for children. Age-rating systems are arbitrary and only focus on explicit content that is considered harmful to preschool children. The paper proposes an alternative model of app analysis based on child development. The main objective of the research is to determine the developmental appropriateness of apps for young children and its effects on children’s responses through a content analysis of 318 apps and a test of a subset of them (N=25) with a sample of 53 children aged 3–5. To this end, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis is used to extract a composite index of the apps’ developmental appropriateness, which was used to specify a path analysis. The results show that developmental appropriateness is associated with the highest positive ratings by children and, indirectly, with play time.
Remote learning experiences of girls, boys and non-binary students

Sanna Oinas; Risto Hotulainen; Satu Koivuhovi (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Computers & Education
Self-regulated learning (SRL) may determine adapting to online environments. This study is an evaluation of students' (N = 33 912) SRL and integration in remote learning in Finnish lower secondary schools when educational institutions all over the world were urgently closed and teaching was arranged in remote settings due to COVID-19. Neither the teachers nor the students had time to prepare themselves for the transition, resulting in variations in coping. To learn from experiences during the pandemic, we evaluated students' remote learning experiences by using a nationally representative survey.
Parent time investments in their children's learning during a policy-mandated shutdown: parent, child, and household influences

Britt Singletary; Laura Justice; Sugene C. Baker (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
State-level policies in Ohio during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States involved physical school closures and work-from-home requirements when possible. Presumably, these policies and resulting impacts on homes with children would alter parent time investments in their children with respect to home-learning activities. This study assessed parent time investments specific to home-learning activities with their children, and key predictors of these investments. Using data from a comprehensive survey completed by 559 caregivers of children (aged birth to 9 years) during a state-mandated stay-at-home order and widespread school closure, it assessed whether parent time investments in children's learning were associated with: (1) parents’ mental health and social connectedness, (2) children's level of emotional distress, and (3) household characteristics including chaos, social needs, and structure.
Developmental losses in young children from pre-primary program closures during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alejandra Abufhele; David Bravo; Florencia López Bóo (et al.)

Published: March 2022
The learning and developmental losses from pre-primary program closures due to COVID-19 may be unprecedented. These disruptions early in life can be long-lasting. Although there is evidence about the effects of school closures on older children, there is currently no evidence on such losses for children in their early years. This paper is among the first to quantify the actual impact of pandemic-related closures on child development, in this case for a sample of young children in Chile, where school and childcare closures lasted for about a year. It uses a unique dataset collected face-to-face in December 2020, which includes child development indicators for general development, language development, social-emotional development, and executive function.
Lessons from online learning during Covid-19 pandemic for building education resilience in secondary schools in Kenya: a case study

Florence Kisirkoi; Angela Kamanga

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review

Online learning was the preferred avenue to sustain learning during the COVID - 19 pandemic when all learning institutions closed globally. Lessons learnt could be used to build education resilience in times of education disruptions in Kenya. A case study of two public secondary schools was conducted anchored on connectivism theory and Technological Pedagogic Content Knowledge. The participants were 15 teachers and 154 form four candidates from two secondary schools, purposively selected as the candidate classes. The objectives were to find out: the technology devices used by teachers and students to learn; whether the teachers and the students had knowledge, skills and attitudes to engage in online learning; how teachers and students acquired knowledge and skills to use the technology devices and whether there were any interventions provided to support them. A questionnaire for teachers and another for students collected quantitative and qualitative data which was analysed and established that few students managed to engage in online learning without adequate support and other technology devices were used for learning.

Reopening with Resilience: lessons from remote learning during COVID-19 – Eastern and Southern Africa

Rafael Pontuschka; Sophia Kan; Thomas Dreesen

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: March 2022
The widespread school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated the learning crisis for children living in Eastern and Southern Africa. The crisis has also shown the great need to develop resilient education systems that can provide learning when schools are forced to close. Understanding how to provide remote learning equitably utilizing multiple modalities and emphasizing low-tech solutions in Eastern and Southern Africa is critical given the great challenges facing the region in terms of electricity and connectivity access. This report provides a summary of lessons learned in the East and Southern Africa region from remote learning during COVID-19 and provides concrete recommendations on how to increase the resilience of education systems
241 - 255 of 792

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.