Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   875     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
16 - 30 of 875
ICT literacy, resilience and online learning self-efficacy between Chinese rural and urban primary school students

Jiaxin Li; Xinyi Huang; Xinyu Lei (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
In the process of large-scale online education during the COVID-19 pandemic, students’ online learning has caused widespread public concerns. This study investigated the relationships between Chinese rural and urban primary school students’ information communications technology (ICT) literacy, student resilience, and online learning self-efficacy in a large-scale online education environment during the pandemic in China. We compared 5,037 primary school students in rural areas to 5,045 primary school students in urban areas with matching gender and grade in nine regions in China’s Guangdong province, using a survey comprising an ICT literacy scale, a student resilience scale, an online learning self-efficacy scale, and an ICT devices scale. The ICT literacy, resilience and online learning self-efficacy of primary school students in rural areas were significantly lower than those in urban areas (p < 0.01).
Experiences of teachers in implementing the "Education in emergency" During COVID-19 pandemic, 2020: a case study in lower secondary school in Eastern Bhutan

Tashi Phuntsho

Published: December 2022   Journal: Bhutan Journal of Research and Development
This  paper  reports  a  case  study  carried  out  in  a  lower  secondary  school  in  the eastern district of Bhutan on implementing the “Education in Emergency” programduring  the  closure  of  schools  in  2020  due  to  the  novel  COVID-19  pandemic.  It investigated  teachers’  experiences  of  how  effectively  they  implemented  the “Education in Emergency” (EiE) Programme initiated by the Ministry of Education, Bhutan  through  various  online  tools.  This  study  employed  a  sequential  multi-method paradigm starting with the survey of all teachers (n=35), preceded by in-depth semi-structured interviews, observations,and detailed field notes of teachers (n=6)  who  were  purposefully  selected  based  on  the  survey findings. The  study focused on understanding the teachers’ awareness of the change  of  curriculum, students’  level  of  preparedness  for  online  learning,  support  from  various stakeholders; school, parents,and Dzongkhag Education Sector, and perceptions of  teachers  on  the  special program“Reaching the Unreached” initiatedby  the school solely aimed at benefiting the students who were unable to access from thee-learning platforms.
Civic engagement and Latina immigrant mothers' remote learning involvement during COVID-19

Vanessa Delgado

Published: December 2022   Journal: Sociological Forum
Immigrant incorporation scholars have established that racialized immigrant parents encounter several barriers in their children's schooling: namely, language and cultural differences, discrimination, unfamiliarity with the U.S. schooling system, and unhelpful school agents. However, less is known about the mechanisms that lessen these challenges. Drawing on insights from immigrant incorporation and civic engagement literature, this study examines how advocacy organizations can mediate the barriers racialized immigrant parents face in their children's schooling. A case study of 20 Latina immigrant mothers is used to demonstrate how civically engaged parents drew on their participation with a local advocacy organization—Parent's Choice—to overcome the barriers that emerged during the transition to remote learning due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic for children with ADHD and/or ASD: a European multi-center study examining the role of executive function deficits and age

Lisa B. Thorell; Anselm B. M. Fuermaier; Hanna Christiansen (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

One of the COVID-19 pandemic consequences that has affected families the most is school lockdowns. Some studies have shown that distance learning has been especially challenging for families with a child with neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD or ASD. However, previous studies have not taken the heterogeneity of these disorders into account. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate differences between families with a child with ADHD, ASD, or both conditions, and to examine the role of underlying deficits in executive functioning (EF) in both children and parents in relation to negative and positive effects of distance learning. Survey data assessing both negative and positive experiences of distance learning were collected from parents with a child aged 5–19 years in seven Western European countries: the UK, Germany, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands, Italy, and Belgium. Altogether, the study included 1010 families with a child with ADHD and/or ASD and an equally large comparison group of families with a child without mental health problems. We included measures of three different types of negative effects (i.e., effects on the child, effects on the parent, and lack of support from school) and positive effects on the family.

Understanding protective and risk factors affecting adolescents' well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic

Min Lan; Qianqian Pan; Cheng Yong Tan (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41539-022-00149-4
This study investigated the factors affecting adolescents’ well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspectives of their participation in digital activities, emotional regulation, self-regulated learning, and parental involvement. Using self-reported data from 932 pairs of adolescents and their parents, we performed multiple-group structural equation modeling, which revealed that self-efficacy in online learning during school suspension was a key factor influencing adolescents’ perceived worries after schools resumed. During school suspension, boys’ cognitive-emotional regulation played a protective role in their well-being, helping them to avoid cyberbullying incidents, while girls’ participation in leisure-oriented digital activities compromised their self-efficacy in online learning and led to cyberbullying incidents. Furthermore, improvement in parent–child relationships during school suspension encouraged adolescents to use more positive emotional regulation strategies, enhanced their self-efficacy in online learning, and reduced their leisure-time digital activities.
COVID-19 learning losses, parental investments, and recovery: evidence from low-cost private schools in Nigeria

Adedeji Adeniran; Dozie Okoye; Mahounan P. Yedomiffi (et al.)

Institution: Research on Improving Systems of Education
Published: December 2022

About 2 billion children were affected by school closures globally at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has led to documented learning losses while children were out of school, and an especially precarious future academic path for pupils in developing countries where learning and continued enrolment remain important issues. There is an urgent need to understand the extent of these learning and enrolment losses, and possible policy options to get children back on track. This paper studies the extent of learning losses and recovery in Africa's most populous country, Nigeria, and provides some evidence that a full recovery is possible. Using data from a random sample of schools, we find significant learning losses of about .6 standard deviations in English and Math. However, a program designed to slow down the curriculum and cover what was missed during school closures led to a rebound within 2 months, and a recovery of all learning losses. Students who were a part of the program do not lag behind one year later and remain in school.

Inequalities in the challenges affecting children and their families during COVID-19 with school closures and reopenings: a qualitative study

Ilaria Galasso; Gemma Watts

Published: December 2022   Journal: Public Health Ethics
School closure is one of the most debated measures undertaken to contain the spread of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The pandemic has devastating health and socio-economic effects and must be contained, but schools play a vital role in present and future well-being, capabilities and health of children. This study examines the detrimental consequences of both the closure and reopening of schools, by focusing on inequalities in the challenges affecting children and their families. This paper is grounded on Irish and Italian data from a multi-national longitudinal qualitative interview study. Research participants articulated a variety of issues and challenges that highlight inequalities in access to education during school closures, in the supportiveness of home setting, and in school preparedness to reopen, often mirroring or exacerbating pre-existing inequalities.
Adolescents' academic self-efficacy and emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic: a latent profile analysis of family and school risk factors

K. Strasser; P. Arias; F. Alessandri (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: School Psychology
The study sought to identify family conditions and school actions associated with academic self-efficacy and emotional well-being of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. School closures are likely to have affected students’ sense of academic efficacy and emotional well-being by removing support factors such as teacher and peer support for both academic and social tasks. At the same time, family stressors caused by the pandemic are also likely to have affected children. Data were collected by a Chilean school district about the family conditions and well-being of 5th–12th-grade students (N = 1,941) during lockdown. Exploratory factor analysis and latent profile analysis were applied to parents’ and students’ reports about family processes and material conditions. Family profiles and school responses to lockdown were used to predict students’ academic self-efficacy and emotions. Family profiles were mainly differentiated by parenting processes, material conditions, and parenting stress. Regression analyses showed that the family profile predicted students’ negative emotions and low self-efficacy. Specifically, children of families with higher scores in all dimensions were less at risk of reporting low academic self-efficacy and negative emotions, but the two average profiles—with high and low stress—were not different in this regard. Student gender and age were predictors of negative emotions but not self-efficacy. In contrast to family factors, school actions during the pandemic did not predict academic self-efficacy and well-being.
The effectiveness of online education during Covid-19 pandemic: a comparative analysis between the perceptions of high school students and primary school students from Bangladesh & the United Arab Emirates

Sohana Intasa Siddiqua

Published: December 2022   Journal: American Journal of Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation

The students in primary and high schools were the most at risk of being impacted by the Covid-19 outbreak in terms of their educational status. The whole education system slowly transited from in-class to online as per the time’s demand. By examining students’ online learning experiences during the COVID-19 epidemic in various situations, this study aims to present student voices of online education and explain why the implications are significant for student learning. Two nations are studied on a comparative window-Bangladesh and the United Arab Emirates-having different levels of socioeconomic development, the severity of the COVID-19 outbreak, pandemic preparedness measures, and the growth of online learning. A total of 125 students from Bangladesh and the UAE were surveyed quantitatively on the efficiency of online learning. To determine the efficacy of online education, constructs were created, and a questionnaire based on the structures was established. This study is cross-sectional and uses an inferred deductive methodology. Although many studies assert that online learning is just as successful as traditional learning, relatively few studies have examined the effectiveness of online instruction, particularly when switching from traditional learning methods to online learning. Additionally, no paper has investigated how elementary school pupils perceive the system, despite the fact that they were the most susceptible during the changeover. This essay seeks to close that gap.

Children's spaces in pages: examining spatiality in COVID-19-themed children's books

Aireen Grace Andal

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Literacy
This article examines spatiality in selected children’s books about COVID-19. Spatiality is an important lens because the coronavirus pandemic is a crisis related to distancing and mobility restrictions—spatial matters. Benedict Anderson’s notion of imagined communities was adopted as a framework to how children’s books present community belongingness within the spatial restrictions imposed during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. In a content analysis of pandemic-related children’s books published in early 2020 (n = 51), this paper explores the sense of community in three everyday spaces: ‘inside’ (home), ‘outside’ (outdoors), and ‘in-betweens’ (windows and digital space).
The couch as a classroom: exploring the school environment of low-income Latine adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jennifer Renick; Stephanie M. Reich

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal for Multicultural Education

The purpose of this paper is to uncover what the at-home educational environments of low-income Latine adolescents looked like during the COVID-19 pandemic and how these environments influenced students’ participation in their online classes. Additionally, the findings highlight students’ perspectives on their varied engagement in virtual instruction. Data for this study were collected via an online survey that included both open and close-ended questions. Students were able to share about their behaviors and comfort in their online classes, as well as provide photos of the areas from which they joined their online classes. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods were used.

Securing the cybersafety of South African online high school learners beyond COVID-19

Baldreck Chipangura; Gustave Dtendjo-Ndjindja

Published: December 2022   Journal: The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa
The unprecedented online learning that took place at several schools during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is predicted to continue on the same trajectory when learners return to classroom learning. Continuing with online learning implies that learners will spend most of their time learning and socialising online, which exposes them to cybersecurity risks. Hence, this study investigated strategies for securing the cybersafety of online learners at South African high schools. The study adopted an interpretivist approach, and qualitative data were collected from school teachers. Fifteen school teachers from five private high schools in Centurion, Pretoria, were interviewed, and the data were thematically analysed. All the schools were multiracial and English-medium schools. The teachers from the schools were selected to participate in the study because they had experienced online learning during the times of COVID-19. The study proposed cybersafety strategies that are centred around providing cybersafety policies, conscientising learners about cybersecurity risks (awareness), preventing cyberbullying, discouraging the consumption or production of inappropriate content and protecting learners from Internet addiction.
Evaluation of high school students' perceptions and views on distance education during COVID-19 pandemic

Öykü Çelik

Published: December 2022   Journal: Open Schools Journal for Open Science
The COVID-19 disease, which spread all over the world and caused a pandemic, disrupted education the most. Countries had to quickly switch to the distance education model in schools and universities in order to prevent the spread of the epidemic. In this study, in which the perceptions and views of high school students about distance education was evaluated, almost two-thirds of the students stated that distance education is not an adequate and effective learning model. Despite the fact that today is the age of technology, students' reporting that a more effective learning will be achieved with face-to-face education shows that the distance education model should be developed and improved.
An assessment of the impact of distance learning on pupils' performance

Vaidas Gaidelys; Ruta Ciutien; Gintautas Cibulskas

Published: December 2022   Journal: Education Sciences
Distance education has influenced the organization of education at the level of systems and schools, the change in the specificity of teachers’ activities, the change in pupils’ learning, and, undoubtedly, the attainment of learning outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine what factors have affected pupils’ learning outcomes in the course of distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, from the perspective of pupils, pupils’ parents, and teachers. A quantitative study was conducted in order to reveal the impact of distance learning. The positive and negative aspects of distance education became clear. As regards the negative consequences of distance teaching/learning, the results of the study showed that in the teachers’ opinion, the pupils’ learning outcomes generally deteriorated. The positive factors of distance learning influencing the learning process and thus learning outcomes were a comfortable environment, the possibility to use a variety of learning aids available at home, and the possibility to view the lesson records at a time convenient for pupils.
Pandemic, a catalyst for change: Strategic planning for digital education in English secondary schools, before during and post Covid

Jacqueline Baxter; Alan Floyd; Katharine Jewitt

Published: December 2022   Journal: British Educational Research Journal
Following lockdowns in 2020 owing to Covid-19, schools needed to find a way to ensure the education of their pupils. In order to do this, they engaged in digital learning, to varying extents. Innovations emanated from all school staff including, for example, teachers, leaders and teaching assistants. Some were already innovating in this area and brought forward and implemented digital strategies, while others engaged with digital learning for the first time. While research is emerging about the effects of the pandemic restrictions on pupils and staff in relation to key issues such as mental health and educational attainment, very little is known about the impact on school leaders' strategic planning processes. To address this gap, this paper draws on a UK Research and Innovation funded study adopting a strategy as learning approach to report on 50 qualitative interviews with school leaders to examine digital strategy in English secondary schools, before, during and after July 2021, when restrictions were lifted in England. It draws on strategy as learning literature to evaluate if schools have changed their strategic planning for digital learning, as a direct response to having learned and innovated during the pandemic.
16 - 30 of 875

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.