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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 279
Enabling readiness of a school to reopen during a pandemic : a field experience

TB Pritish Baskaran; Pankaja Raghav; Naveen K. H. (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Modelling studies indicate that closure of schools during the COVID-19 pandemic may not be well grounded for the SARS-CoV-2 infection, as evidences indicate that children are less affected by this virus and the clinical attack rates in the 0-19 age group are low. Experts also opine that school closure might have negative effects on the scholastic abilities of a child and also an adverse impact on the economy and healthcare system, considering the responsibilities conferred upon the parents. Also, in a developing country like India, it is difficult for the rural population to afford distance online learning, which brings into importance the reopening of schools in a safe environment to avoid adversities such as increased drop-outs in the upcoming academic year, loss of in-person benefits such as mid-day meal scheme. This study highlights a field experience in relation to readiness assessment of a rural school in the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, India, for a safe reopening to accept students in a safe and conducive atmosphere, which shall help prevent transmission of the virus in the schools among the children. In this regard, an indigenous readiness checklist has been developed to achieve the purpose, which assesses the readiness in three domains, viz, (i) Procedural readiness, (ii) Supplies, sanitation and infrastructure-related, (iii) Education and Training.
Caminito de la escuela: consulta a niñas, niños y adolescentes
Institution: Comisión de Derechos Humanos de la Ciudad de México
Published: August 2021

Consultation #CaminitodelaEscuela of the Mexico City Human Rights Commission is a second exercise of participation aimed at knowing the opinion of children and adolescents in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic. Specifically, this consultation is aimed at knowing your opinion on the return to school in person. #CaminitodelaEscuela consisted, on the one hand, of a brief questionnaire to know if the girls, boys and adolescents want to return to face-to-face classes, as well as which
they consider it to be the main fear related to it. The questionnaire was disseminated online

We just have to sail this sea all together until we find a shore: parents’ accounts of home-educating primary-school children in England during COVID-19

Claire Lee; Lucy Wenham

Published: August 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
Parents’ everyday realities of enforced home-schooling during COVID-19 may offer important insights into strengths and weakness of education systems. This article presents findings from a qualitative study involving parents of primary-school-age children in England during the first ‘lockdown’. Parents shared common concerns with routine, motivation, resources, support, and children’s wellbeing, and responded creatively to the challenges they faced. This reseqarch argues that focusing narrowly on ‘learning loss’ and getting ‘back on track’ may lead to impoverished educational experiences post-COVID-19, and that a broad, engaging curriculum with social and emotional wellbeing at its core will support children’s thriving in an uncertain future.
Remote delivery of services for young children with disabilities during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States

Elizabeth A. Steed; Ngoc Phan; Nancy Leech (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Early Intervention
This study used a nationally distributed survey to explore how classroom-based early childhood personnel delivered remote services to young children with disabilities and their families during the early months of the U.S. response to the COVID-19 pandemic. A concurrent equal status fully mixed-method approach was used to analyze 221 participants’ responses to closed- and open-ended survey questions. Findings indicated that children with disabilities received modified special education services during school closures; most comments noted that early childhood personnel shifted to provide remote coaching to families. Other comments mentioned one-on-one services and accommodations for remote learning. Personnel described some benefits of remote services such as improved partnerships with families. Top reported challenges included children not receiving the same quality of services and high levels of educator stress. These and other study findings are discussed regarding the implications of COVID-19 for providing services to young children with disabilities and their families.
Examining the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on online education: reviewing the Indian schooling system based on the perspective of major Indian e-tutoring platforms

Vivek Suneja; Shabani Bagai

Published: August 2021   Journal: Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective
The COVID-19 pandemic has halted the typical schooling methodology and forcibly shifted the mode of learning online. This article investigates into the inherent concerns faced by the Indian education system and strategizes ways in which online methods could plug the gaps in India. The spiralling growth witnessed by the major supplemental educational providers testifies the acceptability of a blended approach in India. The literature review highlights how the education process could be more effective based on their strategies, perspectives and benefits.
Distance learning in children with and without ADHD: a case-control study during the COVID-19 pandemic

Valeria Tessarollo; Francesca Scarpellini; Ilaria Costantino (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Attention Disorders

This research involved the parents of ADHD students to explore how their children coped with online distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic and what implications this schooling method had on their emotional and behavioral well-being. Data were collected during lockdown using an online questionnaire addressed to 100 mothers and were compared with 184 matched controls from a national survey launched in the same period.

Chinese adolescents’ rebellion during the COVID-19 pandemic: discipline and resistance in online compulsory education

Jindong Liu; Biying Wu; Jiayu Qu

Published: August 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
To tackle the debate surrounding the tension between knowledge and power in online education for adolescents and between freedom and control at large, this study examines how disciplinary power was exercised and resisted in a Chinese setting of online compulsory education during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. Overall, 60 participants, including students (from Grade 7 to 12), their parents, and teachers joined in our focus groups or individual interviews in a secondary school in Xi’an, China. By following Foucault’s concepts of three techniques of disciplinary power: hierarchical observation, normalizing judgement and examination, this study identified four themes based on the data: (1) diminished discipline with the dissolving boundary, (2) reconfigured disciplinary power by teachers, (3) self-discipline as a vital skill, and (4) online compulsory education as a future trend. Interpretations from the Foucauldian perspective were presented, suggesting that most adolescents depend upon more external disciplines from schools and teachers, while only a few may achieve autonomy through self-discipline.
TobBe or not to be: parents’ willingness to send their children back to school after the COVID-19 outbreak

Zehui Zhan; Yuanmin Li; Xinyue Yuan (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
This study investigated the factors that parents considered when sending their children back to school after the COVID-19 outbreak and analyzed the dilemma that parents were facing. A total of 1067 questionnaires were collected through snowball sampling. After three levels of coding based on Grounded Theory and Field Theory, parents’ key concerns were categorized as four personal factors (i.e., intuitive expectation, health issue, learning effectiveness, perceived epidemic safety) and three environmental factors (i.e., school environment, family environment, social environment). By factor weight analysis using the Kruskal–Wallis H test, a field model of factors that affect parents’ willingness was set up. Results indicated that learning effectiveness is the most critical factor affecting parents’ willingness.
Distance education for d/deaf and hard of hearing students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: challenges and support

Faisl M. Alqraini; Khalid N. Alasim

Published: August 2021   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a global pandemic. This prompted many countries, including Saudi Arabia, to suspend students’ attendance at schools and to start distance education. This sudden shift in the educational system has affected students’ learning, particularly for d/Deaf and hard-of-hearing (d/Dhh) students, who have unique language and communication needs. This study explores the challenges and support methods for d/Dhh students during their distance education in Saudi Arabia.

The digital divide between high school students in Colombia

Frederick Andrés Mendoza-Lozano; Jose Wilmar Quintero-Peña; Jose Felix García-Rodríguez

Published: August 2021   Journal: Telecommunications Policy
By extracting information from Saber 11 Tests taken by high school students close to finishing that educational period in Colombia, the digital divide evolution over time and its determinants are analyzed using a probabilistic model and the calculation of georeferenced concentration indexes. The topic is relevant as previous studies have shown a positive relationship between access to ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies), educational achievement, and economic growth.
U.S. and Finnish high school science engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Maestrales; Rachel Marias Dezendorf; Xin Tang (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: The International Journal of Psychology
When the COVID-19 pandemic struck, research teams in the United States and Finland were collaborating on a study to improve adolescent academic engagement in chemistry and physics and the impact remote teaching on academic, social, and emotional learning. The ongoing “Crafting Engaging Science Environments” (CESE) intervention afforded a rare data collection opportunity. In the United States, students were surveyed at the beginning of the school year and again in May, providing information for the same 751 students from before and during the pandemic. In Finland, 203 students were surveyed during remote learning. Findings from both countries during this period of remote learning revealed that students' academic engagement was positively correlated with participation in hands-on, project-based lessons.
Covidian education: an enquiry into Arab culture

Abdulrahman Essa Al Lily; Ahmed Ali Alhazmi; Fathi Mohammed Abunasser (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Technology in Society
This article constructs a cultural framework for Arab education amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Such education occurs inside private homes, raising privacy-related methodological challenges to research. To bypass these, numerous researchers were recruited to collect qualitative data from within the homes of friends and relatives. They collected large-scale data (2304 observations and 1292 interviews) and examined 1422 initiatives taken to facilitate education during the pandemic. In addition, they scrutinised 1390 relevant witticisms, on the basis that the humour of a culture is an indicator of public feeling.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from remote learning during COVID19

The COVID-19 pandemic led to school closures around the world, affecting almost 1.6 billion students. The effects of even short disruptions in a child’s schooling on their learning and well-being have been shown to be acute and long lasting. The capacities of education systems to respond to the crisis by delivering remote learning and support to children and families have been diverse yet uneven.

This report reviews the emerging evidence on remote learning throughout the global school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic to help guide decision-makers to build more effective, sustainable, and resilient education systems for current and future crises.

Parental mental health and hostility are associated with longitudinal increases in child internalizing and externalizing problems during COVID-19

Jennifer E. Khoury; Hargun Kaur; Andrea Gonzalez

Published: July 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Children are at high risk for negative COVID-19 related outcomes. The present longitudinal study assessed (1) changes in child internalizing and externalizing problems from before to during the pandemic and (2) whether parent mental health (depression, anxiety, stress) or parenting behavior during COVID-19 were associated with changes in child mental health problems. Sixty eight mother-child dyads participated in this study. Children were approximately five years-old at the time of enrollment and were between the ages of 7–9 years old at the time of the follow-up survey. Parenting behavior, parental depression, anxiety, perceived stress and child internalizing and externalizing problems were measured using validated questionnaires. Children experienced greater internalizing (t = 6.46, p < 0.001) and externalizing (t = 6.13, p < 0.001) problems during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. After taking into account child gender and COVID-related stressors, parental hostility was uniquely associated with greater changes in externalizing problems (β = 0.355, SE = 0.178, p < 0.05), while maternal anxiety was associated with greater increases in internalizing problems (β = 0.513, SE = 0.208, p < 0.05).
Changes in parents’ home learning activities with their children during the COVID-19 lockdown – The role of parental stress, parents’ self-efficacy and social support

Elisa Oppermann; Franziska Cohen; Katrin Wolf (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
As a result of the abrupt closures of daycare centers in Germany due to the COVID-19 pandemic, parents’ ability to provide learning opportunities at home became all the more important. Building on the family stress model, the study investigates how parental stress affected changes in parents’ provision of home learning activities (HLA) during the lockdown, compared to before the lockdown. In addition, the study considers parental self-efficacy and perceived social support as protective factors that may play important roles in disrupting the negative effects of stress. Data stems from a nation-wide survey of 7,837 German parents of children ages 1–6 years, which was conducted in Spring 2020 during the first wave of COVID-19 infections and at a time of strict restrictions in Germany.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.