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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Physical activity and anxiety with complaints of PMS in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ni Ketut Alit Armini; Arinda Naimatuz Zahriya; Laily Hidayati (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Public Health Science
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a menstrual cycle disorder that frequently appears in women. As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus pandemic, the school from home program was implemented, which could affect physical activity and anxiety and therefore increase the incidence of PMS. This cross-sectional research analyzed the relationship between physical activity and anxiety with PMS in adolescents. The population was 221 adolescent girls in Surabaya, Indonesia. A consecutive sampling technique was used to select the 143 respondents. The independent variables were physical activity and anxiety while the dependent variable was PMS. The data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed by the Spearman Rho test with a level of significance α<0.05. The results showed no significant correlation between physical activity and PMS among adolescents, however there was a significant correlation between anxiety and PMS in adolescents (p=0.000; r=0.463). Adolescents with anxiety have higher risk of PMS. The higher level of anxiety will be the more severe the symptoms of PMS.

Adaptation and resilience: lessons learned from implementing a combination health and education intervention for adolescent girls and young women in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Zoe Duby; Brittany Bunce; Chantal Fowler (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Health Services
The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with reduced access to health services and worsening health outcomes for HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Through the analysis of data from an evaluation study of a combination intervention for adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in South Africa, this study sought to examine the way in which implementation and service provision were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions, describing the adaptation implementers made to respond to this context. The intervention was implemented from 2019 in South African districts identified as high priority, given the high rates of HIV and teenage pregnancy amongst AGYW.
Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) in Bangladesh: impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Tabitha Hrynick; Violet Barasa; Syed Abbas

Institution: Institute of Development Studies
Published: May 2022
The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated and drawn fresh attention to long-standing systemic weaknesses in health and economic systems. The virus – and the public health response – has wrought significant disruption on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) in Bangladesh. Known negative health outcomes include increased domestic and gender-based violence, child marriage, negative mental health, and adverse child health outcomes. This scoping paper for the Covid-19 Learning, Evidence and Research Programme for Bangladesh (CLEAR) aims to inform future research and policy engagement to support response, recovery, progress, and future health system resilience for SRHR and MNCH in Bangladesh, following the Covid-19 crisis. We present what is known on disruptions and impacts, as well as evidence gaps and priority areas for future research and engagement.
Women at the last mile: how investments in gender equality have kept health systems running during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Anushka Kalyanpur; Ihlas Altinci; Emmanuel Ojwang (et al.)

Institution: CARE
Published: May 2022
Even before COVID-19, investments in health systems—and especially female health workers—were too low. In 2019 the world had a gap of 18 million health workers. Two years and fifteen million deaths later, we have at least 26 million fewer health workers than we need. , This leaves us severely underprepared for future pandemics and other major shocks to the health system, including conflict and climate change. We must invest in health systems that don’t just meet the needs of today, but that are also resilient in the face of future shocks. Pandemic preparedness requires gender equality: equal recognition, support, and fair pay for ALL health workers. Globally, 70% of health workers are women, but half of their work is unpaid. We must do more to support these health workers. The glimmers of success in COVID-19 built on previous investments in women health workers, their skills, and equality in health systems. Pre-existing investments in equality helped systems respond to COVID-19. Increased investments will build better resilience for the crises that come next. This report highlights case studies and lessons learned from 20 countries during COVID-19.
Regulations and behavior of Dayak community teenage pregnancy care in the new normal era

AUTHOR(S)
Legawati ; Y. Warella; Z. Shaluhiyah (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The International Journal of Health Sciences
Regulations regarding prenatal care are also believed to have a positive impact on the behavior of care that needs to be carried out by adolescents. Targeted or focused regulation is believed to be able to make prenatal care a priority, with positive expected outcomes from the implementation or regulation. This study aims to explore the regulation and behavior of adolescent pregnancy care in the Dayak community in the Covid-19 Pandemic Era. This study uses a qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interview techniques.
Adapting community-based sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents and young people aged 15-24 years in response to COVID-19 in Lusaka, Zambia: the implications on the uptake of HIV testing services

AUTHOR(S)
Mwelwa Muleba Phiri; Bernadette Hensen; Ab Schaap (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Health Services Research
Across Sub-Saharan Africa, adolescents and young people (AYP) aged 15-24 have limited access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, including HIV testing services (HTS). In response, the Yathu Yathu study was implemented in two high-density communities in Lusaka, Zambia. Yathu Yathu provides comprehensive, community-based, peer-led SRH services, including differentiated HTS (finger-prick and HIV self-testing) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). It describes adaptations to the Yathu Yathu intervention in response to the COVID-19 epidemic, and implications on uptake of HTS among AYP.
Understanding the sexual and reproductive health experiences of refugee and host community adolescents and youth in Rwanda during COVID-19: needs, barriers, and opportunities

AUTHOR(S)
Katherine Meyer; Monique Abimpaye; Jean de Dieu Harerimana (et al.)

Institution: Save the Children
Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Reproductive Health,
COVID-19 has exacerbated the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of those affected by humanitarian emergencies, particularly affecting adolescents and youth, whose needs are often neglected during crises. In Rwanda, the situation for refugees in Mahama Refugee Camp has worsened, as COVID-19 lockdown measures have increased needs while restricting access to basic services. Few assessments have been conducted on the SRH needs of refugees in Mahama camp, including adolescents and youth, since COVID-19. To address this gap, Save the Children (SC) undertook research utilizing SenseMaker to collect data on the SRH needs of adolescents and youth in Mahama camp, as well as in the surrounding host community.
Reusable sanitary napkins in rural India: a remote quality improvement project for adolescent girls promoting menstrual hygiene health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Samantha Ciardi Sassone; Susan Silva; Jed Metzger (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Global Health Promotion
Medical and public health research supports an ongoing need for health promotion in meeting menstrual hygiene needs, including menstrual hygiene management (MHM) education and the adoption of reusable sanitary napkins. This quality improvement project focuses on menstruation education for adolescent girls in rural Tamil Nadu, India and the promotion of reusable sanitary napkins. Results indicate a significant improvement in MHM knowledge, confidence in managing menstruation, adoption of reusable sanitary napkins, and a decrease in missed school days. These findings support global recommendations for health promotion in India.
Keeping essential reproductive, maternal and child health services available during COVID-19 in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and Zimbabwe: analysis of early-pandemic policy guidelines

AUTHOR(S)
Marya K. Plotkin; Katie M. Williams; Absolom Mbinda (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the provision of essential reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) services in sub-Saharan Africa to varying degrees. Original models estimated as many as 1,157,000 additional child and 56,700 maternal deaths globally due to health service interruptions. To reduce potential impacts to populations related to RMNCH service delivery, national governments in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, and Zimbabwe swiftly issued policy guidelines related to essential RMNCH services during COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued recommendations to guide countries in preserving essential health services by June of 2020.
“Other risks don't stop”: adapting a youth sexual and reproductive health intervention in Zimbabwe during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Constance R. S. Mackworth-Young; Constancia Mavodza; Rangarirayi Nyamwanza (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters
COVID-19 threatens hard-won gains in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) through compromising the ability of services to meet needs. Youth are particularly threatened due to existing barriers to their access to services. CHIEDZA is a community-based integrated SRH intervention for youth being trialled in Zimbabwe. CHIEDZA closed in March 2020, in response to national lockdown, and reopened in May 2020, categorised as an essential service. This study aimed to understand the impact of CHIEDZA’s closure and its reopening, with adaptations to reduce COVID-19 transmission, on provider and youth experiences. Qualitative methods included interviews with service providers (n = 22) and youth (n = 26), and observations of CHIEDZA sites (n = 10) and intervention team meetings (n = 7). Analysis was iterative and inductive. The sudden closure of CHIEDZA impeded youth access to SRH services. The reopening of CHIEDZA was welcomed, but the necessary adaptations impacted the intervention and engagement with it. Adaptations restricted time with healthcare providers, heightening the tension between numbers of youths accessing the service and quality of service provision.
How will the COVID-19 pandemic affect births?
Institution: United Nations Population Fund
Published: December 2021
Based on available reported data from UNFPA and the Short Term Fertility Fluctuation (STFF) study to date, there are no signs of dramatic increases or decreases in fertility due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Short term effects were observed in a range of highly developed countries but these reverted to pre-pandemic levels and trends shortly after. Data from low and middle income countries suggest similarities to those of many developed countries, with short term declines in births and subsequent recoveries. In this report, data from 15 countries sheds light on how the Covid-19 pandemic may affect births.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Salima Meherali; Bisi Adewale; Sonam Ali (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Adolescents living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are struggling with accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, and COVID-19 has escalated the problem. The purpose of this review was to identify and assess the existing literature on the impact of the pandemic on SRH needs and access to services by adolescents in LMICs. A scoping review was conducted to collate findings on the topic. Searches were performed on eight databases. Data were extracted and categorized into various themes.
Young people’s romantic relationships and sexual activity before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer Yarger; Abigail Gutmann-Gonzalez; Sarah Han (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

Social distancing measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 may profoundly impact young people’s relationships. This study compared adolescent and young adults’ romantic relationships and sexual activity before and after social distancing policies were enacted. In June 2020, 351 youth participating in an ongoing intervention study in Fresno County, California completed an online survey about their experiences related to COVID-19. The survey included open and closed-ended questions about their romantic relationships, sexual activity, and online romantic or sexual interactions before and during social distancing restrictions. The chi-square test of independence was used to compare adolescent (ages 13–17) and young adults’ (ages 18–21) responses. Results were also compared to responses in the intervention study’s baseline survey.

Impact of COVID 19 on food security, gender equality, and sexual and reproductive health in Yemen
Institution: CARE
Published: September 2021

As of 26 August 2021, the number of reported confirmed COVID-19 cases in Yemen had reached 7,625 with 1,438 associated deaths (WHO) reaching a 19% case fatality rate, which is around five times global average. However, in general, the overall number of cases in Yemen is largely under-reported. The main objective of this assessment was to determine the impact of COVID-19 on food security & livelihoods, gender equality/inequality, and sexual and reproductive health access in the assessment area, with a gender and protection lens. The assessment also aimed to understand the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic in terms of gender roles and relations as well as on access to basic services. The assessment also examined the current coping mechanisms utilized by community members to mitigate the impacts of COVID 19. The assessment was conducted in Salh and Al-Waziyah districts, Taiz Governorate. The two districts were selected to compare the impact of COVID-19 across rural (Al-Waziyah) and urban (Salh) populations. The thematic scope of the assessment covered three main domains related to COVID 19: a) Food Security and Livelihoods; b) Gender Equality/Inequality; and c) Sexual and Reproductive Health. Methodology: Given the scope of the assessment, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed for the study. These included: Literature review; 22 Key informant interviews with community leaders, health professionals, government offices and humanitarian actors; 410 household survey (50% men; 50% women); 12 Focus group discussions (50% men; 50% women); and 10 case studies.

Unforeseen effects of COVID-19 on adolescent health

AUTHOR(S)
Mishu Mangla

Published: September 2021   Journal: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India
India is presently in the midst of a major health crisis with the second wave of corona virus spreading at an alarming rate and claiming more lives than ever before. Although the pandemic is affecting the lives of all sections of society, adolescent girls being a vulnerable group are affected in dual manner, not just by the direct effects of the virus but also by many still underrated indirect effects. The present article aims to highlight the indirect yet sinister effects of COVID-19 on physical, mental, social, sexual and reproductive and psychological health and well-being of adolescent girls and other issues like their personal safety, peer support and long-term health issues.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.