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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Family still matters: human social motivation across 42 countries during a global pandemic

Cari M. Pick; Ahra Ko; Alexandra S. Wormley (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Evolution and Human Behavior
The COVID-19 pandemic caused drastic social changes for many people, including separation from friends and coworkers, enforced close contact with family, and reductions in mobility. This study assesses the extent to which people's evolutionarily-relevant basic motivations and goals—fundamental social motives such as Affiliation and Kin Care—might have been affected. To address this question, it gathered data on fundamental social motives in 42 countries (N = 15,915) across two waves, including 19 countries (N = 10,907) for which data were gathered both before and during the pandemic (pre-pandemic wave: 32 countries, N = 8998; 3302 male, 5585 female; Mage = 24.43, SD = 7.91; mid-pandemic wave: 29 countries, N = 6917; 2249 male, 4218 female; Mage = 28.59, SD = 11.31). Samples include data collected online (e.g., Prolific, MTurk), at universities, and via community sampling.
Emerging ideas. families together: supporting family resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic

Kristine Marceau; Carlyn Kimiecik; Yumary Ruiz (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Family Relations

This study evaluated a rapidly developed program designed to support family resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Grounded in Walsh's family resilience framework, Families Tackling Tough Times Together (FT) disseminated weekly evidence-informed content through a public Facebook group, partner organizations, and on a dedicated website. Facebook and website analytics and weekly brief usage surveys (n with at least one = 74) documented program use, and pre- and post-FT surveys (n with at least one = 49) assessed family connectedness, positive outlook, purpose in life, and stress.

Social support, self-efficacy, and spirituality of adolescents: a structural equation model of their personal resilience during a pandemic

E. Amarillo Girlie; Cris John Bryan Dela Cruz

Published: October 2022   Journal: American Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Innovation
The research identified the best fit model of personal resilience among 400 adolescents during a pandemic in Region XII, Philippines. A quantitative non-experimental method employing descriptive-correlation approach was utilized. The study applied mean, multiple regression, Pearson-product moment correlation, and structural equation modeling in analyzing the data.
Protective factors for the mental health of adolescents and young adults in coping with pandemic-related worries: a mediation study

Jesús Castro-Calvo; Konstanze Schoeps; Inmaculada Montoya-Castilla (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología

La preocupación por la COVID-19 y sus consecuencias económicas, sociales y psicológicas, junto con las estrictas medidas aplicadas para combatir esta crisis sanitaria, han supuesto una amenaza para la salud mental de los jóvenes. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar el papel mediador de la resiliencia y la satisfacción con la vida en la asociación entre las preocupaciones relacionadas con la COVID-19 y la salud mental de los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Un total de 3485 participantes con edades comprendidas entre los 14 a 29 años (Medad = 19.68, DT = 3.36) completaron una encuesta online sobre las preocupaciones relacionadas con la pandemia, la resiliencia, la satisfacción vital y los síntomas emocionales (depresión, ansiedad y estrés). Se realizó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) para examinar la invarianza multigrupo. 

Supporting adolescents' mental health during COVID-19 by utilising lessons from the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake

Junko Okuyama; Shin-Ichi Izumi; Shunichi Funakoshi (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Communications
Historical data can determine how adolescents recover from difficult situations such as the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study analysed 3 years of data obtained from high-school students who had been affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and consequently evidenced the importance of increasing resilience among affected adolescents. This involved identifying factors contributing to resilience through a model that assessed for each tsunami disaster. This model was determined by assessing the correlation between survivors’ resilience scores and their measured psychological and lifestyle scores. This approach showed that, in all tsunami damage models, resilience was most affected by the depressed emotions. Thus, our approach suggests that interventions for improving the depressed mood may improve resilience in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Social insecurity and varieties of family resilience strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Tauchid Komara Yuda; Misbahul Munir

Published: September 2022   Journal: International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy

This study is aimed at developing an understanding of the consequences of the pandemic on families' socioeconomic resilience, and the strategies adopted by the families in overcoming social vulnerabilities amid uncertainty. The materials for this study consist of semi-structured interviews with 21 families spread across the South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Families in the study represent four different income levels, namely very high, high, middle and low, and who also work in the informal sector. Each family has at least 1 or more members who fall into the vulnerable category (children, the elderly, people with disabilities unemployed or having potential economic vulnerability).

Families in quarantine for COVID-19 in Italy. Resilience as a buffer of parental distress and problematic children's emotions and behaviors

E. Pugliese; O. Mosca; D. Paolini (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
The pandemic of Covid-19 has had a high impact on people’s lives and especially on families. In Italy, in 2020, the several forced closures led families to live indoors to manage anxiety and distress. It was considered appropriate to investigate which protective factors, like parental resilience, can mitigate the negative impact of pandemic-related distress on family life. This study have conducted two online surveys during different national lockdowns for Covid-19. The first survey was conducted immediately after the disruption of the virus and the second one after nine months. It measured parental resilience and distress, anxiety, problematic behaviors, and somatization of their children (as assessed by the parents). The aim was to investigate the protective role of parental resilience in mitigating parental distress and in turn problematic emotional states and behavior of their children.
Enduring COVID-19 lockdowns: Risk versus resilience in parents’ health and family functioning across the pandemic

Nickola C. Overall; Rachel S. T. Low; Valerie T. Chang (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
Have the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic risked declines in parents’ health and family functioning, or have most parents been resilient and shown no changes in health and family functioning? Assessing average risk versus resilience requires examining how families have fared across the pandemic, beyond the initial months examined in prior investigations. The current research examines changes in parents’ health and functioning over the first 1.5 years of the pandemic. Parents (N = 272) who had completed general pre-pandemic assessments completed reassessments of psychological/physical health, couple/family functioning, and parenting within two mandatory lockdowns in New Zealand: at the beginning of the pandemic (26 March–28 April 2020) and 17 months later (18 August–21 September 2021).
Family resilience during COVID-19 pandemic: a literature review

Maria Gayatri; Dian Kristiani Irawaty

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Family Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly in many countries. This pandemic has led to short-term as well as long-term psychosocial and mental health implications for all family members. The magnitude of family resilience is determined by many vulnerability factors like developmental age, educational status, preexisting mental health condition, being economically underprivileged or being quarantined due to infection or fear of infection. PubMed, SCOPUS, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and ProQuest were searched from the inception of the pandemic to December 31, 2020. Articles were screened for inclusion by Authors.
Disruptions, adjustments and hopes: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child well-being in five Majority World Countries

Sadiyya Haffejee; Panos Vostanis; Michelle O'Reilly (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Children & Society

Drawing on integrated data from focus groups and diary entries, we explored the impact of the COVID- 19 pandemic on child well- being for children from five Majority World Countries. We focus on the disruptions the pandemic caused, the adjustments made in response to these, and children's vision of a post- pandemic world. Underlying children's experiences of loss, boredom and concerns about educational progress, was an awareness of systemic inequalities that disadvantaged them or oth-ers in their community.

Adolescents and resilience: factors contributing to health-related quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic

Miri Tal-Saban; Shahar Zaguri-Vittenberg

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study aimed to examine health-related quality of life of adolescents before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, and its relationship to resilience embodied in hope and a sense of coherence. Typically developed adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18 participated in the study; 84 were recruited before the pandemic outbreak and 64 in March to April 2020 during the worldwide outbreak. The participants completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, and Children’s Hope Scale. During the outbreak, adolescents reported higher physical health-related quality of life scores (F(1146) = 3.710, p < 0.05, η² = 0.027) and lower school health-related quality of life scores (F(1146) = 5.748, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.028), compared to adolescents during the pre-outbreak period. Furthermore, adolescents during the outbreak reported a significantly (p < 0.05) higher sense of coherence but no difference in levels of hope. Finally, the results of multiple linear regression indicated that resilience factors (hope and sense of coherence) contributed to the prediction of health-related quality of life, independent of socio-demographic variables.
Do COVID-19 worries, resilience and emotional distress influence life satisfaction? Outcomes in adolescents in Ecuador during the pandemic: SEM vs. QCA

Juan Sebastián Herrera; Laura Lacomba-Trejo; Selene Valero-Moreno (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Children
COVID-19 and the measures adopted have been a problem for society at all levels. The aim of the study was to analyze the main predictors of life satisfaction among adolescents in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 902 adolescents from Ecuador aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 15.30; SD = 1.28). Variables such as life satisfaction, resilience, emotional symptomatology, and worries about COVID-19 were assessed. Two statistical methodologies were compared (structural equation models (SEM) and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA)) to analyze the possible influence of worries about COVID-19, resilience and emotional symptomatology towards life satisfaction.
Profiles of positive changes in life outcomes over the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese adolescents: the role of resilience and mental health consequence

Jian-Bin Li; Kai Dou; Zi-Hao Liu (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused enormous negative impacts on adolescents’ routines, social interaction, interpersonal relationships, psychosocial well-being, and physical health. Nevertheless, theories suggest that individuals also often seek out solutions that may facilitate positive changes when they are faced with uncertainty and crisis. However, the existing literature has disproportionately focused on the negative effect of COVID-19 on adolescents, and scant research has examined to what extent and in what aspects adolescents would experience positive changes in times of the pandemic. This pre-registered research aims to bridge said gaps by: (1) exploring different profiles of positive changes in various life outcomes in Chinese adolescents over the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) examining the role of resilience in differentiating different profiles; (3) comparing adolescents’ mental health across profiles. Participants were 2,567 adolescents aged 12 to 24 recruited from 32 provinces in mainland China (66.89% females; Mage = 19.87 years, SD = 2.02). Through an online survey, participants rated how much their lives of different domains had experienced positive changes since the outbreak of the pandemic. They also answered standardized questionnaires that measured their resilience and mental health.

Resilience of adolescents and teenagers with self-limited and genetic-generalized epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Stephanie Kwok; Jennifer Engle; Anita N. Datta

Published: January 2022   Journal: Epilepsy & Behavior Reports

The study-objective was to determine the emotional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with self-limited and genetic-generalized epilepsy. Patients completed the Children’s Depression Inventory-2 (CDI-2) and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children 2nd Edition (MASC-2) questionnaires before and during the pandemic. Via tele-visits, a pandemic-lifestyle survey and Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS) was administered. Fifty subjects with a mean (SD) age of 14.44 (2.97) years and 4.85 (2.97) years of epilepsy were included. Overall, mood (62%), anxiety (61%), sleep (68%) and seizure frequency (88%) were unchanged/improved during the pandemic. There was no significant difference in pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19 CDI-2 and MASC-2 total T-scores. In 24% with a worsening CDI-2 total T-score, associations included higher total OCS score (p = 0.001), poor sleep (p = 0.013) and pre-existing psychiatric history (p = 0.0450). In 28% with a worsening MASC-2 total T-score, associations included less exercise during the pandemic (p = 0.028) and lower maternal education history (p = 0.022). On OCS, 6% were in the dysfunctional range.

Effectiveness of resilience training on social self-efficacy of the elementary school girls during COVID-19

Shima Gadari; Jamileh Farokhzadian; Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki

Published: December 2021   Journal: Clinical child psychology and psychiatry
Children, especially girls, are more vulnerable during crises, who need to acquire skills such as social self-efficacy to meet the challenges of the environment. Given that, much progress has been made in e-learning; its capabilities can be used to promote children's health. This study aimed to determine the effect of virtual resilience training on the social self-efficacy of elementary school girls. This experimental study was performed on primary school girls aged 9-10 years in southeastern Iran.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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