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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Distinct antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in children and adults across the COVID-19 clinical spectrum

AUTHOR(S)
Stuart P. Weisberg; Thomas J. Connors; Yun Zhu (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Nature Immunology
Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are associated with age. Adults develop respiratory symptoms, which can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the most severe form, while children are largely spared from respiratory illness but can develop a life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). Here, we show distinct antibody responses in children and adults after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Characteristics and considerations in the medical treatment of COVID‐19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Kazunori Imai; Asako Matsushima; Shinji Saitoh

Published: November 2020   Journal: Acute Medicine & Surgery
It is rare for children to be in serious condition or die from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS‐CoV‐2]) except for those with underlying diseases such as chronic lung disease (including asthma), cardiovascular disease, and immunosuppressive disease. Recently, patients with hyperinflammatory shock have been identified among children who are confirmed to have or are suspected of having SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. The presenting signs and symptoms are characterized by prolonged fever, abdominal pain, and cardiac involvement without any signs of pneumonia on chest computed tomography. However, it is uncertain at this time whether SARS‐CoV‐2 infection affects this syndrome. 
Baseline characteristics, management, and outcomes of 55,270 children and adolescents diagnosed with COVID-19 and 1,952,693 with influenza in France, Germany, Spain, South Korea and the United States: an international network cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Talita Duarte-Salles; David Vizcaya; Andrea Pistillo (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Physical Therapy
This study comprehensively characterizes a large international cohort of pediatric COVID-19 patients, and almost 2 million with previous seasonal influenza across 5 countries. Although uncommon, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) were more frequent in children and adolescents diagnosed with COVID-19 than in those with seasonal influenza. Dyspnea, bronchiolitis, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms were more frequent in COVID-19, and could help to differentiate pediatric COVID-19 from influenza. A plethora of medications were used during the management of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, with great heterogeneity in the use of antiviral therapies as well as of adjunctive therapies.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 100 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 35 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, respiratory diseases, infectious disease, COVID-19
Impact of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with pediatric disorders: rehabilitation perspectives from a developing country

AUTHOR(S)
André Luís Ferreira Meireles; Louisiana Carolina Ferreira de Meireles

Published: November 2020   Journal: Physical Therapy
COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, and other important complications, including death, especially in high risk groups.Among pediatric patients, according to the literature, COVID-19 appears to be less severe than in adults and the elderly, and approximately 90% of pediatric patients are diagnosed with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate disease.Even so, 6.7% of cases may be severe in children with serious underlying conditions such as neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders.4 Respiratory complications are a major cause of death in the chronic neuropediatric population.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 100 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 1910–1912 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, health services, respiratory diseases, COVID-19 | Countries: Brazil
COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Li Jiang; Kun Tang; Mike Levin (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus continues to spread worldwide, there have been increasing reports from Europe, North America, Asia, and Latin America describing children and adolescents with COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory conditions. However, the association between multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and COVID-19 is still unknown. This article reviews the epidemiology, causes, clinical features, and current treatment protocols for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents associated with COVID-19. It also discusses the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for COVID-19-induced inflammatory processes, which can lead to organ damage in paediatric patients who are severely ill. These insights provide evidence for the need to develop a clear case definition and treatment protocol for this new condition and also shed light on future therapeutic interventions and the potential for vaccine development.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 20 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 276-288 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, respiratory diseases, COVID-19
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in children in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Masood Sadiq; Omeir Ali Aziz; Uzma Kazmi (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The knowledge of COVID-19 is evolving with new aspects of the disease continuing to emerge. Children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age constitute 10·6% of the total reported confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Pakistan as of July 8, 2020, with a mortality of 0·3% for those aged 10 years or younger and 0·5% for those aged 11–20 years. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS) is being reported primarily from Europe and the USA. Many of these children meet the criteria for complete or incomplete Kawasaki disease, but different clinical presentations of this inflammatory disorder are being reported. The ethnic origin of reported cases show that Black, Hispanic, and Asian children might be disproportionally affected. Similarly, unlike Kawasaki disease, these cases have occurred in older children and adolescents.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Webb; Deepthi Raju Abraham; Ayodele Faleye (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
There are reports of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 known as MIS-C or paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS).  The definition of MIS-C issued by WHO includes clinical and laboratory features, with evidence of COVID-19, or likely contact with a person who has or has had COVID-19. South Africa has the most reported COVID-19 cases in Africa, with the Western Cape Province acting as the initial epicentre with a total of 93.414 people with confirmed COVID-19 by July 31, 2020, of whom 2910 were younger than 15 years old.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, respiratory diseases, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: South Africa
General health status of asthmatic children during COVID‐19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Evrim Hepkaya; Ayse Ayzit Kilinc; Memnune Nur Cebi (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Pediatrics International
Since COVID‐19 pandemic became a serious health concern globally, patients with chronic diseases require close attention with regard to general risks and current individual treatments. This study aimed to reveal the general health status of the pediatric asthmatic patients during the pandemic, considering the role of household factors in parental attitudes.
Coronavirus disease (COVID) 2019 in children: a short review

AUTHOR(S)
Sham Balkisanji Lohiya; Sachin Damke; Richa Chaudhary

Published: September 2020   Journal: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a series of Cases of severe pneumonia worldwide. It originated in Wuhan in Hubei province, China. SARS-CoV-2 causes infection by ACE receptors, similar to SARS. It causes potential damage to vital organs, mainly the lungs. COVID- 19 mainly affects respiratory tract with symptoms ranging from upper respiratory tract infection like symptoms to full-blown ARDS. Although the pediatric age group is shown to be less susceptible to severe infection, they can very well act as an intermediate in the transmitter of the virus. Treatment is symp-tomatic for mild diseases, but severe disease and ARDS require ICU management and specific treatment.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 17 | No. of pages: 172-177 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, medical care, respiratory diseases
Decrease of respiratory diseases in one social children welfare institute in Shanxi Province during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
B. Liu; Q. F. Han; W. P. Liang

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Public Health
This study surveyed and analyzed common diseases among children under the age of 14 in one social children welfare institute in Shanxi Province from January to May in 2018–2020 by the year-on-year method. In view of the above anti-epidemic measures, it indicates that the children gathering institutions should strengthen effective personal protection and public health management to reduce infectious disease among children.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child diseases, institutionalized children, respiratory diseases | Countries: China
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with COVID-19 in Mumbai, India

AUTHOR(S)
Shreepal Jain; Supratim Sen; Srinivas Lakshmivenkateshiah (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Indian pediatrics

This is an observational study about the presentation, treatment and outcome of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome with COVID-19 (MIS-C) in Mumbai metropolitan area in India, and it is conducted at four tertiary hospitals in Mumbai. Parameters including demographics, symptomatology, laboratory markers, medications and outcome were obtained from patient hospital records and analyzed in patients treated for MIS-C (as per WHO criteria) from 1 May, 2020 to 15 July, 2020.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 57 | No. of pages: 1015-1019 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, respiratory diseases, COVID-19, hospitalization | Countries: India
Physiological advantages of children against COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sinan Yavuz; Selman Kesici; Benan Bayrakci

Published: August 2020   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
This short article discusses the potential theories that could explain why children have a lower incidence and milder clinical manifestations than adults.
The
author discussed the potential theories that could explain why chil-
dren have a lower incidence and milder clinical manifestations than
adults.
The
author discussed the potential theories that could explain why chil-
dren have a lower incidence and milder clinical manifestations than
adults.
Sars-cov-2 infection in children in Southern Italy: a descriptive case series

AUTHOR(S)
Daniela Loconsole; Desirèe Caselli; Francesca Centrone (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study analyzed the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection among all children aged <18 years in the Apulia region of Southern Italy and the characteristics of the infected children. Clinical and demographic data were collected through the national platform for COVID-19 surveillance.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 17 | Issue: 17 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, respiratory diseases, COVID-19 | Countries: Italy
COVID-19 in children: should we be worried?

AUTHOR(S)
Candice Laverne Hendricks

Published: August 2020   Journal: South African Medical Journal
Reports indicate that children infected with SARS-CoV-2 have thus far presented with less severe disease than adults. Anxiety regarding a greater ability to transmit the virus is largely unfounded and has played a significant role in the decision to allow children to return to school. In some patients, however, especially in infants and in those with underlying comorbidities, severe disease must be anticipated and planned for accordingly. The most relevant severe clinical presentation in addition to the established respiratory complications, is that of a multisystem inflammatory disorder, with features resembling Kawasaki disease.
Radiological findings of COVID-19 in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Jogender Kumar; Jitendra Meena; Arushi Yadav (et al.)

Published: July 2020   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

The majority of the children with SARS-CoV-2 infection present with respiratory symptoms, hence various chest imaging modalities have been used in the management. Knowledge about the radiological findings of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children is limited. Hence, this article aims to systematically synthesize the available data that will help in better management of COVID-19 in children. Four different electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and CENTRAL) were searched for articles reporting radiological findings in children with COVID-19. Studies reporting thoracic radiological findings of COVID-19 in patients aged <19 years were included. A random-effect meta-analysis (wherever feasible) was performed to provide pooled estimates of various findings.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.