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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 84
Severe COVID-19 and MIS-C in children & adolescents

Allison M. Blatz; Adrienne G. Randolph

Published: January 2022   Journal: Critical Care Clinics
Severe complications related to COVID-19 occur infrequently in children and adolescents. The two major types of life-threatening complications are acute respiratory failure from acute COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). MIS-C is a post-infectious complication occurring approximately 3-6 weeks after an asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. For both types of complications, supportive ICU care is provided. For MIS-C critical illness, immunomodulation is prescribed to reverse hyperinflammation and its cardiac and other sequelae
Comparison of the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in children and adolescents in a middle-income country: Clinical impact associated with SARS-CoV-2 gamma lineage

Eduardo A. Oliveira; Ana Cristina Simões e Silva; Maria Christina L. Oliveira (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

To evaluate the severity and clinical outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant in children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. In this observational retrospective cohort study, we performed an analysis of all 21,591 hospitalized patients aged < 20 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection registered in a national database in Brazil. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the predominance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages (WAVE1, n = 11,574 and WAVE2, n = 10,017). The characteristics of interest were age, sex, geographic region, ethnicity, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by competing-risks analysis, using cumulative incidence function. A predictive Fine-Gray competitive risks model was developed based on WAVE1 cohort with temporal validation in WAVE2 cohort.

Neonatal outcome among pregnant women with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Azam Amirian; Reza Pakzad; Vajiheh Hasanpour (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine

COVID-19 has raised many concerns about the possible side effects of pregnancy. There is currently no conclusive evidence of the vertical transmission of COVID-19. Accordingly, this paper is a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis investigated neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with COVID-19. PubMed, Web of Science (WoS), EMBASE, ProQuest, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched up to November 2020. The Cochran's Q-test and I2 statistic were applied to assess heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled estimate of the mean, and a meta-regression method was utilized to investigate the factors affecting heterogeneity between studies.

Masking for school-age children with epilepsy: we do have consensus!: masking for children with epilepsy

Anthony I. Fine; Lily C. Wong-Kisiel; Katherine C. Nickels (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of child neurology

This study was designed to assess current recommendations from child neurologists and epileptologists on masking for school-age children with epilepsy. A 7-item survey was created and sent out to members of the Child Neurology Society and Pediatric Epilepsy Research Consortium in August of 2021 to assess current practice and provider recommendations on masking.

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children in Moscow in 2020: clinical features and impact on circulation of other respiratory viruses

Alexander S. Yakovlev; Ilmira K. Belyaletdinova; Lyudmila N. Mazankova (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases

The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the circulation of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in hospitalized children. 226 and 864 children admitted to Children's City Clinical Hospital with acute respiratory infection in September-November of 2018 and 2020 in Moscow were tested for respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR and Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Chlamydia pneumoniae using ELISA.

Stress, dependence, and COVID-19–related changes in past 30-day marijuana, electronic cigarette, and cigarette use among youth and young adults

Stephanie L. Clendennen; Kathleen R. Case; Aslesha Sumbe (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Tobacco Use Insights

Studies show smoking and vaping behaviors increase risk of contracting and worse symptoms of COVID-19. This study examines whether past 30-day youth and young adult users of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and cigarettes self-reported changes in their use of these substances due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and cross-sectional associations between perceived stress, nicotine or marijuana dependence, and COVID-19–related changes in use. Participants were 709 past 30-day self-reported substance users from the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance study (TATAMS; mean age = 19; 58% female; 38% Hispanic, 35% white). Multiple logistic regression models assessed cross-sectional associations between perceived stress and dependence and increased, decreased, or sustained past 30-day use of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and cigarettes due to COVID-19 (e.g., “Has your marijuana use changed due to the COVID-19 outbreak?”). Covariates included age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES), dependence (exposure: stress), and stress (exposure: dependence).

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children and young people in households and schools: a meta-analysis of population-based and contact-tracing studies

Russell Viner; Claire Waddington; Oliver Mytton (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection
The role of children and young people (CYP) in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in household and educational settings remains unclear. This study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of contact-tracing and population-based studies at low risk of bias. It searched 4 electronic databases on 28 July 2021 for contact-tracing studies and population-based studies informative about transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from 0-19 year olds in household or educational settings. It excluded studies at high risk of bias, including from under-ascertainment of asymptomatic infections. It undertook multilevel random effects meta-analyses of secondary attack rates (SAR: contact-tracing studies) and school infection prevalence, and used meta-regression to examine the impact of community SARS-CoV-2 incidence on school infection prevalence.
Decreased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in children and adolescents during the Delta variant emergence

Efrén Murillo-Zamora; Xóchitl Trujillo; Miguel Huerta (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Public Health

This study aims to evaluate factors associated with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in children (<10 years old) and adolescents (10 - 19 years old) before (March 2020 - April 2021) and during (May - July 2021) the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant emergence. A retrospective and nationwide cohort study was conducted in Mexico. Data from 26,961 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (IC) were used to evaluate the association of the evaluated exposures with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Characteristics, contacts, and relative risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children during school closures

Jun Yi Sim; Ping-Sheng Wu; Ching-Feng Cheng (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection

Characteristics of children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Taiwanese households is nascent. This study sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 infection, and estimate the relative risk of infection among children within households during school closures in Taipei and New Taipei City. It reviewed consecutive children below 18 years presenting to our emergency department from May 18, 2021 to July 12, 2021 who underwent real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory swabs. Demographics, symptoms, and contacts were captured from medical records. Household contact was defined as an individual with confirmed COVID-19 living in the same residence as the child.

Levels of uncertainty, fear and satisfaction with health professionals: experiences of parents whose children are hospitalized for COVID-19

Meryem Türkan Isik; Rana Can Özdemır; Elif Karadeniz (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
This study tried to determine the fear and tolerance of uncertainty levels of the parents of children hospitalized with COVID-19, and their satisfaction with the health care received during this time. Data were collected from 130 literate parents. A significant difference was found between the mean scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12) and the age of the parents and the presence of COVID-19 in other family members and the IUS-12. Also, a significant correlation was found between parents’ fear of COVID-19 and IUS-12 scores. Parents had good levels of satisfaction with health care received and moderate fear of COVID-19 and intolerance of uncertainty levels. As parents’ fear of COVID-19 increased, intolerance of uncertainty increased. The demographic characteristics, levels of fear of COVID-19, and intolerance of uncertainty did not affect the satisfaction levels.
Children and parents' preferences about the appearance of dentists with respect to personal protective equipment in pediatric dentistry

Ipek Arslan; Sema Aydinoğlu

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

Personal protective equipment (PPE) gained importance during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is a global hot topic for all healthcare staff. This study aims to assess children and parents preferences about dentists’ appearance concerning their PPE and to determine the relationship between the preferences of the children and their parents. A total of 250 children aged 6-12 years and their parents were enrolled in the study. Standardised pictures with different sexes, attires, eye protectors, hair protectors, masks and gloves were shown to children and their parents separately and they were asked to chose their preferences. The dental anxiety of the children and their parents were determined using the MCDASf and MDAS, respectively. Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) indices were employed for the children.

The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on influenza-related hospitalization, intensive care admission and mortality in children in Canada: a population-based study

Helen E. Groves; Jesse Papenburg; Kayur Mehta (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented implementation of wide-ranging public health measures globally. During the pandemic, dramatic decreases in seasonal influenza virus detection have been reported worldwide. Information on the impact on paediatric influenza-related hospitalisations is limited. This study describes influenza-related hospitalisation in children in Canada following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on influenza-related hospitalisations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and in-hospital deaths in children across Canada were obtained from the Canadian Immunisation Monitoring Program, ACTive (IMPACT). This national active surveillance initiative comprises 90% of all tertiary care paediatric beds in Canada. The study period included eleven influenza seasons, from the 2010/2011 season until the 2020/2021 season inclusive. Time series modelling was used to compare the observed to predicted influenza-related hospitalisations following the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cite this research | Vol.: 7 | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease, respiratory diseases | Countries: Canada
Activity during the COVID-19 pandemic in children with cardiac rhythm management devices

Robert Przybylski; Molly Craig; Matthew Lippmann (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Pediatric Cardiology
Decreased physical activity is associated with cardiovascular, metabolic and mental health disease. While decreases in physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic have been described in the general population, there is a paucity of data regarding children with underlying cardiovascular disease. This study hypothesized there would be a decrease in physical activity at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of children aged < 19 years with cardiac rhythm management devices. Patients were included if they had device-measured physical activity data from > 80% of dates from February 3, 2020 through June 30, 2020. Patients with significant neurologic/neuromuscular disease were excluded.
Assessment of respiratory function in children wearing a N95 mask with or without an exhalation valve: data compared

Riccardo Lubrano; Silvia Bloise; Alessia Marcellino (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Data in Brief

In response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, universal face masking represents one of the most important strategies to limit the spread of infection. However, their use in children is still highly debated (Esposito and Principi, 2020; Esposito et al., 2020) and there are few data (Lubrano et al., 2021a, 2021b) describing their possible effects on respiratory function in children. A dataset in this paper presents a comparison of the data related to the effects on respiratory function of children wearing a filtering facepiece 2 (N95 mask) with or without exhalation valve. 22 healthy children were randomly assigned to two groups, both groups wearing an N95 mask: one without an exhalation valve (group A), another with an exhalation valve (group B).

SARS-CoV-2 testing, infections, and hospital admissions with COVID-19 in children and young people in Scotland: a birth cohort study

Graziella Favarato; Linda Wijlaars; Tom Clemens (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Lancet Journal
A strong association between deprivation and severe COVID-19 outcomes has been reported among adults. This study estimated population-based rates of SARS-CoV-2 testing, laboratory-confirmed infections, and hospital admissions with COVID-19 in children and young people (aged 0–23 years) in Scotland according to sociodemographic risk factors. It used a birth cohort of all children and young people born in Scotland in 1997–2020, consisting of linked vital registration, maternity, hospital admissions, and SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing data. Participants were followed from birth or Jan 1, 2020 (whichever occurred last) until Dec 31, 2020, death, or emigration. Admissions with COVID-19 were defined as participants with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test during or up to 28 days before admission to hospital, or a relevant International Classification of Diseases version 10 code recorded (U07.1/U07.2).
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 398 | Issue: Special issue S45 | No. of pages: 1 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, health services, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic, respiratory diseases | Countries: United Kingdom
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.