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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The impact of asthma on COVID-19 disease severity in children and adolescents

Emily Robbins; Steven Daoud; Seleshi Demissie (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Asthma

Atopy and allergic asthma have been found to be protective against coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in adults but have not been studied in children. This study aimed to identify whether children and adolescents with asthma had less severe disease and lower morbidity from COVID-19 than their counterparts without asthma. This was a retrospective chart review from March 1, 2020, through January 31, 2021. Charts were eligible for inclusion if patients were over 6 years of age and below 20 years of age and tested positive for COVID-19 by PCR or antigen testing or were COVID-19 antibody positive when they presented to the emergency department (ED). Patients were grouped according to disease severity and divided into two groups, those with asthma and those without. A total of 1,585 patients were included—1,492 without asthma and 93 with asthma.

Impact of COVID‐19 pandemic on influenza virus prevalence in children in Sichuan, China

Pinjia Wang; Yidan Xu; Zhe Su (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
This study performed a retrospective analysis of influenza A and B virus antigen detection data in children in Sichuan Province from January 2019 to December 2021, with the goal of studying the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on influenza circulation in children in Sichuan, China. During the pandemic, both the number of specimens and the positive rates of the influenza virus fell dramatically. The positivity for influenza A virus decreased from 22.5% in 2019 to 9.9% in 2020 to 0.2% in 2021 (p < 0.001). The lowest and highest positive rates for the influenza B virus occurred in 2020 and 2021, respectively, with a statistically significant 3-year comparison (p < 0.001).
Foreign body aspiration in Israeli children during the COVID‐19 pandemic

Inbal Golan-Tripto; Reuven Tsabari; Elie Picard (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been a decline in pediatric emergency department visits. This study aimed to assess the pattern of pediatric foreign body aspiration (FBA) during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, in comparison to the prior years. This retrospective multicenter study compared the number of children who presented with FBA during the COVID-19 year (March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021) to the annual average of the years 2016–2019. It also compared the lockdown periods to the postlockdown periods, and the percentage of missed FBA, proven FBA, and flexible bronchoscopy as the removal procedure.

Intrinsic kidney pathology in children and adolescents following COVID-19 vaccination: a systematic review

Henry H. L. Wu; Mohan Shenoy; Philip A. Kalra (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Children
Global COVID-19 vaccination programs for children and adolescents have been developed with international clinical trial data confirming COVID-19 mRNA vaccine safety and efficacy for the pediatric population. The impact of COVID-19 vaccination in the kidneys is thought to be explained by a complex immune-mediated relationship between the two, although the pathophysiological mechanisms of how COVID-19 vaccination potentially induces kidney pathology are not presently well known. Whilst intrinsic kidney pathologies following COVID-19 vaccination have been reported in adults, such cases are only being recently reported with greater frequency in children and adolescents. Conforming to the PRISMA checklist, this study conducted a systematic review of the current literature to provide an overview on the range of intrinsic kidney pathologies that have been reported following COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents. All English language research articles published on or before 30 June 2022 reporting new-onset or relapsed intrinsic kidney pathology in children or adolescents (≤18 years) following COVID-19 vaccination were selected for qualitative analysis.
COVID-19 in hospitalized children: a single-center retrospective study of 604 patients

Konstantine Chakhunasvhili; Davit G. Chakhunashvili; Eka Kvirkvelia (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Case Reports and Case Series

In 2019, a new strain of Coronavirus - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) emerged first in China, and then it spread worldwide wreaking havoc on numerous countries and numerous lives. In the pediatric population, disease progression is relatively milder, however, it is of vital importance to gather and analyze the existing data. This study reviewed and gathered data from all the hospitalized patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnoses during the period between November 2020 and March 2021. Medical records of 604 children aged between 0-18 years were collected at Children's New Clinic after Irakli Tsitsishvili, which is the biggest pediatric COVID center in Georgia.

Parental decision and intent towards COVID-19 vaccination in children with asthma: an econometric analysis

Olivier Drouin; Pierre Fontaine; Yann Arnaud (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Vaccination will be instrumental in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, and vaccination of children will be necessary to achieve herd immunity. Given that children with chronic health conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19, it is crucial to understand factors influencing parental decisions about whether to have their child vaccinated. The study objectives were to measure parental intent to have their child with asthma vaccinated against COVID-19 and identify the determinants of their vaccination decision. This study is based on a cross-sectional exploratory observational online survey assessing parents' risk perception in the context of COVID-19.

COVID-19 hospitalization among children <18 years by variant wave in Norway

Robert Whittaker; Margrethe Greve-Isdahl; Håkon Bøås (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pediatrics
here is limited evidence on whether the relative severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and adolescents differs for different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants. This study compares the risk of hospitalization to acute COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among unvaccinated persons <18 years with COVID-19 (cases) between waves of the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron (sublineage BA.1) variants in Norway.
Traditional Chinese medicine in treating children with Coronavirus disease 2019: a scoping review

Naifan Duan; Bin Liu; Xiaona Li (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently widely spread across the world. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the overall treatment process. As a special group of population, the treatment outcome of children with COVID-19 has attracted much attention. This study summarizes the current situation of TCM treatment of children with COVID-19. The results showed that TCM displayed a positive role in the treatment process, and that no significant adverse reactions were found.
The attitudes of children undergoing orthodontic treatment toward face mask wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross sectional study

Jessica Olivia Chereches; Gabriela Ciavoi; Abel Emanuel Moca (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Children
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the protective face mask has proven to be essential. The protective face masks cover the lower part of the face, including teeth and, for orthodontic patients, the orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to assess the impact that the restrictive measures that were imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic and, especially, wearing a protective face mask had on a sample of Romanian children, and to compare the results previously obtained on a sample of Romanian teenagers with the results obtained after investigating children under the age of 12 years. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in two orthodontic offices from the city of Oradea, Romania. The study sample included children with ages between 8 and 11.9 years that were undergoing an orthodontic treatment with removable or fixed orthodontic appliances.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 13 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease prevention, face masks, infectious disease, pandemic, respiratory diseases | Countries: Romania
Prevalence and risk factors of post-COVID-19 condition in adults and children at 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge: a prospective, cohort study in Moscow (StopCOVID)

Ekaterina Pazukhina; Margarita Andreeva; Ekaterina Spiridonova (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Medicine

Previous studies assessing the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae in adults and children were performed in the absence of an agreed definition. This research investigated prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) (WHO definition), at 6- and 12-months follow-up, amongst previously hospitalised adults and children and assessed risk factors. Prospective cohort study of children and adults with confirmed COVID-19 in Moscow, hospitalised between April and August, 2020. Two follow-up telephone interviews, using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium survey, were performed at 6 and 12 months after discharge.

Improvement in school-aged children with asthma during the Covid-19 pandemic

Zülfikar Akelma; Nevzat Başkaya; Sema Çetin (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

The coronavirus 2019 disease (Covid-19) pandemic led to a number of measures being introduced in many countries worldwide. Lockdowns were imposed on individuals aged <18 years, education was delivered online, and mask-wearing was made compulsory in public places, resulting in an unprecedented period for children. Real-life data showing how children with asthma are affected by major changes are limited. This study investigated how asthmatic children are affected by pandemic conditions based on real-life data. Patients with asthma aged 6–18 years followed up from March to May 2019—before the Covid-19 pandemic—were included in the study. Data from March to May 2020 and 2019 were then compared to reveal the effects of pandemic-related lifestyle changes on symptoms, frequency of exacerbations, and drug use in asthmatic children.

Routine SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for all children

Kristina De Paris; Sallie R. Permar

Published: July 2022   Journal: Immunological Reviews
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented health and economic losses. Children generally present with less severe disease from this virus compared with adults, yet neonates and children with COVID-19 can require hospitalization, and older children can develop severe complications, such as the multisystem inflammatory syndrome, resulting in >1500 deaths in children from COVID-19 since the onset of the pandemic. The introduction of effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in school-age children and adult populations combined with the emergence of new, more highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants has resulted in a proportional increase of infections in young children. Here, we discuss (1) the current knowledge on pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis in comparison with adults, (2) the data on vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in children, and (3) the benefits of early life SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.
Difficult questions about long COVID in children

Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to leave long-lasting marks on a generation of children and young people, mainly from indirect effects, including those of school closures, social isolation and a so-called immunity debt resulting from 2 years with reduced exposure to common pathogens. A small proportion of children have had serious sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection itself, with the most dramatic being multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).  Furthermore, a less well-defined entity, termed long COVID or post-COVID-19 condition, has been suggested, referring to children with long-lasting symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection that are not explained by another disease.
Long COVID in children and young people: uncertainty and contradictions

Carolyn A. Chew-Graham; Tracy A. Briggs; Binita Kane

Published: June 2022   Journal: British Journal of General Practice

‘Long COVID’ describes both ongoing symptomatic COVID-19 (5–12 weeks after onset) and post-COVID-19 syndrome (≥12 weeks after onset). Long COVID is also a patient-preferred term so will be used throughout this editorial to describe symptoms lasting ≥4 weeks after an acute episode of COVID-19. As the phenomenon of long COVID emerged and came to be recognised, including with the publication of the guideline by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network, and the Royal College of General Practitioners, there was still limited evidence about whether children and young people could suffer with prolonged symptoms following an acute COVID-19 infection. The general opinion was still that SARS-CoV-2 was a mild infection in the young.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 72 | Issue: 719 | No. of pages: 2 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, infectious disease, pandemic, respiratory diseases | Countries: United Kingdom
Hearing outcomes of infants born to mothers with active COVID-19 infection

Panagiota Kosmidou; Ioannis Karamatzanis; Sotiris Tzifas (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. A major concern of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women is vertical maternal-fetal transmission and the ramifications on infant hearing. This retrospective study aims to investigate whether perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 has an impact on the hearing of the offspring. The study population included neonates born to unvaccinated COVID-19 positive mothers in the University Hospital of Patras, Greece from March 2020 to January 2021. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were performed on the neonates on the first, second,, and seventh day of life. All neonates underwent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) within the first three months of life and were all examined at the age of nine months.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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