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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 120
Effectiveness and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Peng Gao; Shan Cai; Qiao Liu (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The proportion of children and adolescents with COVID-19 had gradually increased according to data reported by WHO. However, there was no meta-analysis of effectiveness and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in children and adolescents. This paper aimed to provide investigationbased medical evidence and reference recommendations for children and adolescents in regard to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. It systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to 5 January 2022. RCTs and observational studies that examined the effectiveness and safety were included.
Investigating the association between severity of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes

Anita Dileep; Sham ZainAlAbdin; Salah AbuRuz (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
Pregnant women with COVID-19 require special attention and care, since the infection does not only affect the mother, but also her neonate and adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study is to investigate association between the maternal COVID-19 severity and risk of developing adverse neonatal outcomes. Patients were stratified into asymptomatic/mild and moderate to severe COVID-19. The following neonatal outcomes were assessed: gestational age at the time of delivery, birth weight, neonatal infection, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission.
Socioeconomic disadvantages and vulnerability to the pandemic among children and youth: a macro-level investigation of American counties

Bocong Yuan; Xinting Huang; Jiannan Lic (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
This study intends to reveal the underlying structural inequity in vulnerability to infection of the novel coronavirus disease pandemic among children and youth. Using multi-source data from New York Times novel coronavirus disease tracking project and County Health Rankings & Roadmap Program, this study shows that children and youth in socioeconomically disadvantaged status are faced with disproportionate risk of infection in this pandemic. On the county level, socioeconomic disadvantages (i.e., single parent family, low birthweight, severe housing problems) contribute to the confirmed cases and death cases of the novel coronavirus disease. Policymakers should pay more attention to this vulnerable group to implement more targeted and effective epidemic prevention and control.
Association between risk perception and influenza vaccine hesitancy for children among reproductive women in China during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national online survey

Min Du; Liyuan Tao; Jue Liu (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

In China, the national prevalence of parental influenza vaccine hesitancy (IVH) during the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the association between risk perception and parental IVH are still unclear. This study aimed to explore the association between risk perception and IVH for children among reproductive women in China, a poorly studied area. From December 14, 2020, to January 31, 2021, we conducted a national anonymous online survey on IVH for children among reproductive women in China. We assessed risk perception including perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, and benefits using the Health Belief Model and then classified each variable into three groups based on tertiles. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of risk perception related to vaccine hesitancy after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and knowledge of influenza, among other factors. Additionally, subgroup analysis was performed.

Infants hospitalized for acute COVID-19: disease severity in a multicenter cohort study

Joanna Merckx; Shaun K. Morris; Joan Robinson (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Age is the most important determinant of COVID-19 severity. Infectious disease severity by age is typically J-shaped, with infants and the elderly carrying a high burden of disease. This study reports on the comparative disease severity between infants and older children in a multicenter retrospective cohort study of children 0 to 17 years old admitted for acute COVID-19 from February 2020 through May 2021 in 17 pediatric hospitals. It compares clinical and laboratory characteristics and estimate the association between age group and disease severity using ordinal logistic regression.
Sanitary measures to contain COVID-19 spread decreased pediatric hospitalizations due to other respiratory infections in São Paulo, Brazil

Gabriela Marengone Altizani; Viviane da Mata Pasti Balbão; Gilberto Gambero Gaspar (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

After the Covid-19 pandemics hit Brazil and sanitary measures were adopted to contain its dissemination, pediatric hospital admissions were apparently fewer than usual. The authors aimed to describe the time trends of public hospital admissions of children and adolescents due to respiratory infections (RIs) in São Paulo State, Brazil, before and after the adoption of sanitary measures to contain the dissemination of Covid-19. Ecological, time-series study on the monthly average number of admissions per day of children and adolescents (< 16 years) admitted to public hospitals of São Paulo due to acute RIs between January 2008 and March 2021. Data from 2008 to 2019 were used to adjust the statistical model, while data from 2020 and 2021 were compared to the values predicted by the model.

Paediatric hospitalisations due to COVID-19 during the first SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant wave in South Africa: a multicentre observational study

Jeané Cloete; Annelet Kruger; Maureen Masha (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health

South Africa reported a notable increase in COVID-19 cases from mid-November, 2021, onwards, starting in Tshwane District, which coincided with the rapid community spread of the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. This increased infection rate coincided with a rapid increase in paediatric COVID-19-associated admissions to hospital (hereafter referred to as hospitalisations). The Tshwane Maternal-Child COVID-19 study is a multicentre observational study which investigated the clinical manifestations and outcomes of paediatric patients (aged ≤19 years) who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were admitted to hospital for any reason in Tshwane District during a 6-week period at the beginning of the fourth wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in South Africa. It used five data sources, which were: (1) COVID-19 line lists; (2) collated SARS-CoV-2 testing data; (3) SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing data; (4) COVID-19 hospitalisation surveillance; and (5) clinical data of public sector COVID-19-associated hospitalisations among children aged 13 years and younger.

COVID-19 treatment in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Prateek Kumar Panda; Indar Kumar Sharawat; Vivekanand Natarajan (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: ournal of Family Medicine and Primary Care

Exact information about the efficacy of various medications proposed by regulatory bodies in children with COVID-19 is limited due to the lack of controlled trials in the existing literature. Different electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, COCHRANE CENTRAL, LitCovid, medRxiv, and bioRxiv) were searched for articles describing the management of COVID-19 cases in children with 18 shortlisted medications. Prospective/retrospective studies/case series (with at least 20 cases) reporting COVID-19 in patients aged ≤14 years were searched to collect information regarding clinical details and severity of participants, medications used, and outcome. The pooled estimate of these parameters across studies was performed using a random-effect or fixed-effect meta-analysis depending on the degree of heterogeneity.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 3292-3302 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, infectious disease, medical care, pandemic, respiratory diseases
Genomic and serological assessment of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in child labor

Niloofar Najafi; Hoorieh Soleimanjahi; Shadab Shahali (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Pathogens and Global Health
Since working children have limited access to testing and monitoring for COVID-19, this study decided to measure SARS-CoV-2 prevalence among them and compare it to non-working children. Its objective is to compare the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 genome and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody among working and non-working children. Volunteer child labor studying at Defense of Child Labor and Street Children and randomly selected 5–18-year-old (same range as child labor group) unemployed children participated in this study. The groups, respectively, had 65 and 137 members. This is an analytical cross-sectional study that surveys molecular prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR, and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody by ELISA in working and non-working children.
Caregiver experiences managing persistent childhood asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic

Brennen Caveney; Jill S. Halterman; Maria Fagnano (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Clinical Pediatrics
COVID-19 has adversely affected child wellness, but it is unclear whether the pandemic led to changes in home management of chronic diseases like asthma. This research surveyed 93 caregivers of children with persistent asthma from 2 ongoing asthma trials to measure changes in home asthma management, stressors, access to health care, and caregivers’ worry about COVID-19 affecting their child’s health. It conducted descriptive analyses, and assessed whether caregiver worry about COVID-19 was associated with asthma management, stressors, health care access, or recent symptoms.
Which children and young people are at higher risk of severe disease and death after hospitalisation with SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and young people: a systematic review and individual patient meta-analysis

Rachel Harwood; Helen Yan; Nishanthi Talawila Da Camara (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
This study aimed to describe pre-existing factors associated with severe disease, primarily admission to critical care, and death secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised children and young people (CYP), within a systematic review and individual patient meta-analysis. It searched Pubmed, European PMC, Medline and Embase for case series and cohort studies published between 1st January 2020 and 21st May 2021 which included all CYP admitted to hospital with ≥ 30 CYP with SARS-CoV-2 or ≥ 5 CYP with PIMS-TS or MIS-C. Eligible studies contained (1) details of age, sex, ethnicity or co-morbidities, and (2) an outcome which included admission to critical care, mechanical invasive ventilation, cardiovascular support, or death. Studies reporting outcomes in more restricted groupings of co-morbidities were eligible for narrative review. It used random effects meta-analyses for aggregate study-level data and multilevel mixed effect models for IPD data to examine risk factors (age, sex, comorbidities) associated with admission to critical care and death. Data shown are odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Exploring the attitudes, concerns, and knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccine by the parents of children with rheumatic disease: cross-sectional online survey

Özlem Akgün; Gülşah Kavrul Kayaalp; Fatma Gül Demirkan (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Vaccine
Vaccination programs are effective strategies in preventing infectious diseases and controlling epidemics. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in children has not yet been approved globally, and it is unclear what attitude families will take when it is approved in children. This study aimed to investigate the underlying causes of vaccine acceptance, hesitation, and refusal, as well as concerns about the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine by parents of children with rheumatic diseases.
A response to COVID-19 school closures: the feasibility of a school-linked text message intervention as an adaptation to school-supervised asthma therapy

Juliana Arenas; Sarah Becker; Hannah Seay (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

School-supervised asthma therapy improves asthma medication adherence and morbidity, particularly among low-income and underrepresented minority (URM) children. However, COVID-19-related school closures abruptly suspended this therapy. In response, we developed a school-linked text message intervention. The purpose of the study is to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a school-linked text message intervention.

SARS-CoV-2 infections in children: understanding diverse outcomes

Petter Brodin

Published: February 2022   Journal: Immunity
SARS-CoV-2 infections mostly lead to mild or even asymptomatic infections in children, but the reasons for this are not fully understood. More efficient local tissue responses, better thymic function, and cross-reactive immunity have all been proposed to explain this. In rare cases of children and young people, but very rarely in adults, post-infectious hyperinflammatory syndromes can develop and be serious. This paper will discuss our current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and hypothesize that a life history and energy allocation perspective might offer an additional explanation to mild infections, viral dynamics, and the higher incidence of rare multisystem inflammatory syndromes in children and young people.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 55 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 201-209 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, pandemic, respiratory diseases
The indirect effects of COVID-19 upon global childhood pneumonia

Mike Saunders; Laura Nellums

Published: January 2022   Journal: Public Health in Practice

The relative scarcity of paediatric COVID-19 disease infers protection from its direct harms. This study aims to highlight the potentially severe indirect effects of COVID-19 upon global childhood pneumonia. This is a discussion piece written from the authors’ perspective.It uses the social determinants of health to describe the indirect impact of COVID-19 upon global childhood pneumonia.

16 - 30 of 120

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.