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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The digital divide, gender and education: challenges for tribal youth in rural Jharkhand during Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Kumari Vibhuti Nayak; Shamsher Alam

Published: August 2022   Journal: Decision
When analysing the Covid-19 pandemic potential consequences on education, it is evident that it had adverse effects on the existing educational inequalities worldwide. However, little is known about how the digital divide have worsened the conventional educational system and reinforced pre-existing gender inequalities among the historically marginalised communities. This research paper explores how the pandemic, along with digital divide, deteriorated the educational system among the socially deprived groups (i.e. tribals also known as indigenous or Adivasis) and place them in a disadvantageous position. The paper reflects on how the Covid-19 pandemic re-configured the pre-existing issues of educational inequalities and how the digital dived have been manifested in a way that has particularly affected the young tribal girls. For this study, semi-structured interviews with tribal students, their parents and teachers residing in a remote area of Jharkhand, India, were conducted to understand their experiences of shifting to online education mode. Other than accessibility and infrastructure issue, the findings reveal that the elements of cultural and social issues (related to perceived benefits of education for girls and mindset or beliefs parents and teachers towards effectiveness of digital mode of education delivery) create and reinforce the digital divide for the tribal girls in the hinterlands.
COVID-19 and vulnerable children well-being: interview with left-behind children in rural China

AUTHOR(S)
Endale Tadesse; Sabika Khalid; Cai Lianyu (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: 9
This study sought to explore the psychological well-being, academic adjustment, and quality of parental attachment of LBC during COVID-19 based on Left-Behind Children’s (LBC) word of mouth.  In light of the abundance of quantitative studies, this qualitative study explored the psychological, academic, and parental attachment experiences of rural LBC during COVID-19. To this end, this study conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 LBCs aged 10–15 in May 2021.
Investigation of obesity, eating behaviors and physical activity levels living in rural and urban areas during the covid-19 pandemic era: a study of Turkish adolescent

AUTHOR(S)
Mehmet Gülü; Hakan Yapici; Elena Mainer-Pardos (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics volume

The purpose of this study was to determine the eating behaviors, obesity and physical activity status of children of similar ages living in rural and urban areas and to examine these relationships during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic process. The research was conducted using the scanning model. The research group consists of children living in rural and urban areas in Turkey. The sample of the study consists of a total of 733 adolescent participants, 351 females (47.9%) and 382 males (52.1%). After anthropometric measurements were made, the Physical Activity Questionnaire for older children and the Yale Food Addiction Scale for children 2.0 were used to determine the food addiction and physical activity status of children during the COVID19 pandemic process. Since the groups were homogeneously distributed, independent samples t-test and Pearson correlation test were used.

Exploring the factors associated with dietary diversity of children aged 6-59 months in some rural and slum areas of Bangladesh amid COVID-19 pandemic: a mixed-effect regression analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Satyajit Kundu; Abu Sayeed; Abebaw Gedef Azene (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

Dietary diversity (DD) is one of the key components of diet quality, and malnutrition due to poor diet quality led to child morbidity and mortality. However, in Bangladesh, there is a lack of information on childhood DD (aged 6–59 months) amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the minimum DD and its associated factors among children aged 6–59 months during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. A cross sectional study was carried out in six districts of Bangladesh. A total of 1190 respondents were included using cluster random sampling. Individual Dietary Diversity scale (IDDS) for children was used to assess the children's dietary diversity score. Factors associated with DD of children were identified using multilevel binary logistics regression model.

Rural parent's experiences of stress and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic and school closure

AUTHOR(S)
Emily Wilson; Jungwon Eum; Yuenjung Joo (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated social and economic disruptions, resulting in cascading effects on the health and well-being of global citizens. However, little research has focused on how COVID-19 has affected rural regions, despite rurality being a critical factor for understanding community impact and response to the pandemic. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of rural Nebraskan parents with young children during the COVID-19 pandemic and school shutdown, and the strategies they used to support their families during that time.
The effect of digital screen exposure and temperament on sleep problems in children during the COVID-19 pandemic: rural area in Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Birsel Molu; Melike Taşdelen Baş; Funda Özpulat

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Turkish Sleep Medicine
More and more children experience sleep problems, which are believed to be exacerbated by the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and digital screen exposure. This descriptive and cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and digital screen exposure and temperament in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 122 parents of children aged 3-6 years. Data were collected using a descriptive characteristics questionnaire, the children’s sleep habits questionnaire, and the short temperament scale for children.
Implementation of a coordinated approach to child health program at a rural elementary school during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Melissa Perian; Marcia Cooke; Henna Muzaffar (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

A Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) is an evidence-based school health program focusing on increasing healthy eating and physical activity and reducing screen time. This project aimed to determine if CATCH program will have significant effects on self-rated knowledge, habits of physical activity, healthy eating (fruit and vegetable consumption), and screen time among 3rd and 5th-grade students at a rural elementary school during the 2020–2021 school year. To evaluate this 4-month project, a pre- and post-intervention School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey was distributed to 51 3rd and 5th-grade students. The program included six 30-minute education sessions specific to grade level and healthy snacks including fruits and vegetables. A family fun event (virtual 2K walk/run due to COVID-19) was organized. Prizes (i.e., water bottles, jump ropes) were given to students for participating in the family fun event and at Track and Field day to encourage healthy behavior.

Perceived knowledge on management of COVID-19 by rural, youths and women: A blurred dialectic of the ontologies and experiences in rural Gwanda South, Zimbabwe

AUTHOR(S)
Nkosinathi Muyambo; Philani Mlilo; Urethabisitse Mathe (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Cogent Social Sciences
The paper explores the COVID-19 ontologies and experiences of children, youths and women in Ward 17 of rural Gwanda South. It argues that the locals have indistinct insights and perspectives on the pandemic. Most of them managed to conceptualize COVID-19 from a “realistic” and “fatalistic” standpoint. Adopting a mixed-method research design that inclines more towards a qualitative approach, data has been collected through document review that was validated with key informant interviews and questionnaire survey.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 8 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 17 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, infectious disease, pandemic, rural families, women's health | Countries: Zimbabwe
Covid-19 related factors associated with antenatal care in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Mostafa Kamal; Anisur Rahman; Sonia Singh

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management
Available literature reveals that usage of Maternal Health Care Services (MHCSs), including antenatal care (ANC), has been decreased significantly in the developing countries due to Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the COVID-19 related factors on the MHCSs utilization in Bangladeshi women are yet to be examined. Therefore, this study examines the effect of COVID-19 on the use of ANC services among rural communities in Bangladesh.
COVID-19 distress impacts adolescents’ depressive symptoms, NSSI, and suicide risk in the rural, Northeast US

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca A. Schwartz-Mette; Natasha Duell; Hannah R. Lawrence (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology
Widespread concern exists about the impacts of COVID-19 and related public health safety measures (e.g., school closures) on adolescent mental health. Emerging research documents correlates and trajectories of adolescent distress, but further work is needed to identify additional vulnerability factors that explain increased psychopathology during the pandemic. The current study examined whether COVID-19-related loneliness and health anxiety (assessed in March 2020) predicted increased depressive symptoms, frequency of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and suicide risk from pre-pandemic (late January/early February 2020) to June 2020.
Effect of the Covid 19 pandemic on depression and mother-infant bonding in uninfected postpartum women in a rural region

AUTHOR(S)
Özlem Erten; İsmail Biyik; Cenk Soysal (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Postpartum depression and maternal-infant attachment scores were examined in uninfected women during the COVID 19 pandemic in Kutahya, a rural province in Turkey's North Aegean region. This cohort study was conducted in the Kutahya Health Sciences University Hospital obstetrics unit between April 2021 and August 2021. 178 low-risk term pregnant women who gave birth were given the surveys Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBQ) 6 weeks after birth. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale was used to determine postpartum depression and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale was used to determine maternal attachment.

Foundational literacy and numeracy in rural Afghanistan: findings from a baseline learning assessment of accelerated learning centres

AUTHOR(S)
Sophia Kan; Mirwais Fahez; Marco Valenza

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: March 2022

In Afghanistan, 93% of children cannot read a simple text by the age of 10. Education is not available to everyone, especially for girls and children in remote areas. A form of community-based education, called Accelerated Learning Centers (ALCs), can help close the distance barrier and meet the needs of out-of-school children and girls. In May 2021, an assessment of foundational literacy and numeracy skills of ALC students and nearby government school students was conducted. Results show that children at ALCs are learning at similar levels or better compared with children who attend government schools. This report provides insight into practices to improve education in rural areas in Afghanistan.

Treatment-seeking and uptake of malaria prevention strategies among pregnant women and caregivers of children under-five years during COVID-19 pandemic in rural communities in South West Uganda: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Ivan Mugisha Taremwa; Scholastic Ashaba; Rose Kyarisiima (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Despite efforts to avert the negative effects of malaria, there remain barriers to the uptake of prevention measures, and these have hindered its eradication. This study explored the factors that influence uptake of malaria prevention strategies among pregnant women and children under-five years and the impact of COVID-19 in a malaria endemic rural district in Uganda. This was a qualitative case study that used focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and key informant interviews involving pregnant women, caregivers of children under-five years, traditional birth attendants, village health teams, local leaders, and healthcare providers to explore malaria prevention uptake among pregnant women and children under-five years. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and data were analyzed using thematic content approach.

EdTech for Ugandan girls: Affordances of different technologies for girls’ secondary education during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Kalifa Damani; Rebecca Daltry; Katy Jordan (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Development Policy Review

This article discusses the use of educational technology (EdTech) in girls’ education at PEAS schools (‘Promoting Education in African Schools’) in rural Uganda during the COVID-19-related school closures. This article addresses a research gap surrounding the potential use of EdTech to support girls’ education, focusing on the barriers to girls’ EdTech use and how technology might be used to enhance girls’ education in disadvantaged rural areas – specifically their academic learning and their social and emotional learning. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods case study approach was used. Quantitative exploration of a dataset of 483 Ugandan students, from 28 PEAS schools, was first conducted, followed by interviews with PEAS staff to elucidate the reasons and context behind the findings.

Empowering rural youth through farmers’ organizations

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth Ssendiwala; Esha Singh; Sashwati Mishra

Institution: International Fund for Agricultural Developmen
Published: December 2021

This paper captures and synthesizes key approaches, strategies and lessons for empowering rural youth in the Asia-Pacific region from farmers’ organizations (FOs) and regional and international development agencies. The paper dives deep into the initiatives and strategies employed in the region and beyond that empower rural communities, especially rural youth. It presents a synthesis of what has worked well in the field, strategies and approaches employed by FOs and development agencies, and methods for leveraging the comparative advantage of FOs in offering sustainable rural livelihoods for youth. It also highlights the efforts by FOs to address the challenges rural youth face in terms of productivity and socio-economic factors.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.