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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Covid-19 related factors associated with antenatal care in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Mostafa Kamal; Anisur Rahman; Sonia Singh

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management
Available literature reveals that usage of Maternal Health Care Services (MHCSs), including antenatal care (ANC), has been decreased significantly in the developing countries due to Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the COVID-19 related factors on the MHCSs utilization in Bangladeshi women are yet to be examined. Therefore, this study examines the effect of COVID-19 on the use of ANC services among rural communities in Bangladesh.
COVID-19 distress impacts adolescents’ depressive symptoms, NSSI, and suicide risk in the rural, Northeast US

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca A. Schwartz-Mette; Natasha Duell; Hannah R. Lawrence (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology
Widespread concern exists about the impacts of COVID-19 and related public health safety measures (e.g., school closures) on adolescent mental health. Emerging research documents correlates and trajectories of adolescent distress, but further work is needed to identify additional vulnerability factors that explain increased psychopathology during the pandemic. The current study examined whether COVID-19-related loneliness and health anxiety (assessed in March 2020) predicted increased depressive symptoms, frequency of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and suicide risk from pre-pandemic (late January/early February 2020) to June 2020.
Effect of the Covid 19 pandemic on depression and mother-infant bonding in uninfected postpartum women in a rural region

AUTHOR(S)
Özlem Erten; İsmail Biyik; Cenk Soysal (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Postpartum depression and maternal-infant attachment scores were examined in uninfected women during the COVID 19 pandemic in Kutahya, a rural province in Turkey's North Aegean region. This cohort study was conducted in the Kutahya Health Sciences University Hospital obstetrics unit between April 2021 and August 2021. 178 low-risk term pregnant women who gave birth were given the surveys Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBQ) 6 weeks after birth. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale was used to determine postpartum depression and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale was used to determine maternal attachment.

Foundational literacy and numeracy in rural Afghanistan: findings from a baseline learning assessment of accelerated learning centres

AUTHOR(S)
Sophia Kan; Mirwais Fahez; Marco Valenza

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: March 2022

In Afghanistan, 93% of children cannot read a simple text by the age of 10. Education is not available to everyone, especially for girls and children in remote areas. A form of community-based education, called Accelerated Learning Centers (ALCs), can help close the distance barrier and meet the needs of out-of-school children and girls. In May 2021, an assessment of foundational literacy and numeracy skills of ALC students and nearby government school students was conducted. Results show that children at ALCs are learning at similar levels or better compared with children who attend government schools. This report provides insight into practices to improve education in rural areas in Afghanistan.

Treatment-seeking and uptake of malaria prevention strategies among pregnant women and caregivers of children under-five years during COVID-19 pandemic in rural communities in South West Uganda: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Ivan Mugisha Taremwa; Scholastic Ashaba; Rose Kyarisiima (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Despite efforts to avert the negative effects of malaria, there remain barriers to the uptake of prevention measures, and these have hindered its eradication. This study explored the factors that influence uptake of malaria prevention strategies among pregnant women and children under-five years and the impact of COVID-19 in a malaria endemic rural district in Uganda. This was a qualitative case study that used focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and key informant interviews involving pregnant women, caregivers of children under-five years, traditional birth attendants, village health teams, local leaders, and healthcare providers to explore malaria prevention uptake among pregnant women and children under-five years. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and data were analyzed using thematic content approach.

EdTech for Ugandan girls: Affordances of different technologies for girls’ secondary education during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Kalifa Damani; Rebecca Daltry; Katy Jordan (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Development Policy Review

This article discusses the use of educational technology (EdTech) in girls’ education at PEAS schools (‘Promoting Education in African Schools’) in rural Uganda during the COVID-19-related school closures. This article addresses a research gap surrounding the potential use of EdTech to support girls’ education, focusing on the barriers to girls’ EdTech use and how technology might be used to enhance girls’ education in disadvantaged rural areas – specifically their academic learning and their social and emotional learning. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods case study approach was used. Quantitative exploration of a dataset of 483 Ugandan students, from 28 PEAS schools, was first conducted, followed by interviews with PEAS staff to elucidate the reasons and context behind the findings.

Empowering rural youth through farmers’ organizations

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth Ssendiwala; Esha Singh; Sashwati Mishra

Institution: International Fund for Agricultural Developmen
Published: December 2021

This paper captures and synthesizes key approaches, strategies and lessons for empowering rural youth in the Asia-Pacific region from farmers’ organizations (FOs) and regional and international development agencies. The paper dives deep into the initiatives and strategies employed in the region and beyond that empower rural communities, especially rural youth. It presents a synthesis of what has worked well in the field, strategies and approaches employed by FOs and development agencies, and methods for leveraging the comparative advantage of FOs in offering sustainable rural livelihoods for youth. It also highlights the efforts by FOs to address the challenges rural youth face in terms of productivity and socio-economic factors.

Effects of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on parents' attitudes towards green space and time spent outside by children in Cambridgeshire and North London, United Kingdom

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Howlett; Edgar C. Turner

Published: December 2021   Journal: People and Nature

In the United Kingdom, children are spending less time outdoors and are more disconnected from nature than previous generations. However, interaction with nature at a young age can benefit wellbeing and long-term support for conservation. Green space accessibility in the United Kingdom varies between rural and urban areas and is lower for children than for adults. It is possible that COVID-19 lockdown restrictions may have influenced these differences. In this study, we assessed parents' attitudes towards green space, as well as whether the COVID-19 lockdown restrictions had affected their attitudes or the amount of time spent outside by their children, via an online survey for parents of primary school-aged children in Cambridgeshire and North London, UK (n = 171). We assessed whether responses were affected by local environment (rural, suburban or urban), school type (state-funded or fee-paying) or garden access (with or without private garden access).

‘To prevent this disease, we have to stay at home, but if we stay at home, we die of hunger’ – livelihoods, vulnerability and coping with Covid-19 in rural Mozambique

AUTHOR(S)
Judith E. Krauss; Luis Artur; Dan Brockington (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: World Development

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing and travel restrictions have been introduced to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus (hereinafter Covid). In many countries of the Global South, NPIs are affecting rural livelihoods, but in-depth empirical data on these impacts are limited. This study traced the differentiated impacts of Covid NPIs throughout the start of the pandemic May to July 2020. It conducted qualitative weekly phone interviews (n=441) with 92 panelists from nine contrasting rural communities across Mozambique (3 to 7 study weeks), exploring how panelists’ livelihoods changed and how the NPIs intersected with, and often exacerbated, existing vulnerabilities, and created new exposures.

Continuing to teach in a time of crisis: The Chinese rural educational system’s response and student satisfaction and social and cognitive presence

AUTHOR(S)
Jing Wang; Yuqin Yang; Hongli Li (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BJET British Journal of Educational Technology
This research consisted of two studies to investigate how the Chinese rural educational system supported students' online learning and to determine the factors that influenced students' online learning quality (satisfaction and cognitive and social presence) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Study 1, based on interviews with three curriculum officers, seven principals and 30 course teachers, found that great efforts were made to realize digital equity and education for all students. The necessity of providing resources and support to teachers and students (facilitating conditions) was recognized, along with the importance of teachers' online course design and organization and the facilitation of discourse (teaching presence and social presence). Based on the findings of Study 1 and the literature review, a conceptual model of facilitating conditions and teaching presence reported to influence students' online learning quality was generated. In Study 2, 1,409 students from three rural primary schools were surveyed to test the conceptual model.
The gendered path for girls in rural communities: the impact of COVID-19 on youth presenting at juvenile detention facilities

AUTHOR(S)
April N. Terry; Ashley Lockwood; Morgan Steele (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Crime & Delinquency
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, girls and women represented one of the fastest growing populations within the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Since the spread of COVID-19, suggestions were provided to juvenile justice bodies, encouraging a reduction of youth arrests, detainments, and quicker court processing. Yet, the research comparing peri-COVID-19 changes for girls and boys is lacking, with an oversight to gender trends and rural and urban differences. This study used Juvenile Intake and Assessment Center (JIAC) data from a rural Midwestern state to look at rural and urban location trends for both boys and girls. Results suggest rural communities are responding differently to girls’ behaviors, revealing a slower decline in intakes compared to boys and youth in urban areas.
How variation in internet access, digital skills, and media use are related to rural student outcomes: GPA, SAT, and educational aspirations

AUTHOR(S)
Keith N. Hampton; Craig T. Robertson; Laleah Fernandez (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Telematics and Informatics
Some have pointed to divides in the availability of fixed home broadband Internet access as a contributor to rural students’ lower levels of educational attainment. Based on standardized exams (SAT Suite) and a survey of rural Michigan students in grades 8–11, we find that rural students with broadband home Internet access are more interested in school and leave homework incomplete less often. However, the relationship to classroom grades (GPA) is relatively trivial. Yet, this study finds that students who are not dependent on a cell phone for Internet access and those with higher digital skills, especially social media skills, rank considerably higher on the SAT.
Rural disparities in early childhood well child visit attendance
Published: December 2020   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Young children (ages 1–5) living in rural Virginia attend fewer well child visits than their urban counterparts. Variability in well child visit attendance rates can be detected using an estimate of the developed land in the zip code. Covid-19 may further impact rural children's access to developmental screenings because of limited access to telemedicine. Children should attend well child visits (WCVs) during early childhood so that developmental disorders may be identified as early as possible, so treatment can begin. The aim of this research was to determine if rurality impacts access to WCV during early childhood, and if altering rurality measurement methods impacts outcomes.

The COVID-19 impact on childcare in agricultural populations

AUTHOR(S)
Marsha Salzwedel; Amy Liebman; Kate Kruse (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Agromedicine
The corona virus pandemic pulled back the curtain on rural America’s already fragile childcare system and shed light on the critical role that quality, affordable, accessible childcare plays in the lives of workers and families, as well as in the success of agricultural businesses. This commentary aims to describe how existing childcare problems were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, potentially impacting both the health and economics of farm households and farmworker families. For solutions to be successful, efforts will need to be collaborative, with federal interventions spurred on by childcare stakeholders. Successful collaborations will result in a better childcare system that nurtures children while their parents contribute to our nation’s production of agricultural products.
Pros and cons of e-learning by children in rural areas during lockdown situation and ways to empower it

AUTHOR(S)
Desam Sudhakar Reddy; L. S. R. C. V. Ramesh

Published: September 2020   Journal: International Journal of Innovative technology and Research
E-learning for children in rural and remote areas during lockdown is beyond reach for many where internet facilities are poor. Since, Primary Health care of rural students remains key concern, stress on e-learning becomes prerequisite during covid-19 lockdown.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 7-9 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, e-learning, lockdown, rural families | Countries: India
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.