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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Impact of COVID-19 on the symptoms of asthma in children and its management

M. Jahangir Alam

Published: December 2022   Journal: Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital Journal
Abstract not available.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 37 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, health services, lockdown, respiratory diseases, rural families, social distance | Countries: Bangladesh
Impact of COVID-19 infection control and prevention measures on physical-sports activity among adolescents in a rural population

Luis E. Fernández-Álvarez; Alejandro Carriedo; María Sánchez-Zafra (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation
The aim of this study was to analyse the changes related to the practice of physical-sports activities (P-SA) in adolescents owing to COVID-19 infection control and prevention measures. A total of 259 students (mean age=13.98±1.61 years) from a high school gave information on their physical-sports habits during the first year of the pandemic.
ICT literacy, resilience and online learning self-efficacy between Chinese rural and urban primary school students

Jiaxin Li; Xinyi Huang; Xinyu Lei (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
In the process of large-scale online education during the COVID-19 pandemic, students’ online learning has caused widespread public concerns. This study investigated the relationships between Chinese rural and urban primary school students’ information communications technology (ICT) literacy, student resilience, and online learning self-efficacy in a large-scale online education environment during the pandemic in China. We compared 5,037 primary school students in rural areas to 5,045 primary school students in urban areas with matching gender and grade in nine regions in China’s Guangdong province, using a survey comprising an ICT literacy scale, a student resilience scale, an online learning self-efficacy scale, and an ICT devices scale. The ICT literacy, resilience and online learning self-efficacy of primary school students in rural areas were significantly lower than those in urban areas (p < 0.01).
Parenting pre-teens during COVID-19 in a rural Midwestern community: an interpretive phenomenological study

Sarah Oerther; Daniel B. Oerther

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
To uncover the experiences of parenting Generation Z pre-teen children in rural communities impacted by the Stay Home Missouri order from April through May 2020. Researchers have focused on urban parents, leading to gaps in understanding the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on rural parents and children. A qualitative study employing interpretive phenomenology. 14 white cis-male-sexed fathers and cis-female-sexed mothers living in midwestern rural communities participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews with 14 participants parenting pre-teen children were conducted. The interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. The COREQ checklist was followed. One theme that emerged from the narratives was the study participants’ understandings of parenting, discovered when their routines were disrupted by the Stay Home Missouri order.
Mitigating rural adolescent trauma: remote delivery of a trauma-informed yoga intervention during COVID-19

Lauren Davis; Alexandra Aylward

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Given the prevalence of childhood trauma in rural Montana, this project is intended to help mitigate stressors that may contribute to poor behavioral and mental health in high school-aged children, which may be exacerbated by the collective trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic. The immediate goal was to measure physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents resulting from a remotely delivered trauma-informed yoga intervention designed to foster positive youth development. Our study builds on the successes from an initial feasibility pilot study one year prior in order to evaluate a more robust intervention comparing experimental and control group outcomes. Students at a small, rural high school in Montana volunteered to participate in a 6-week, twice-weekly trauma-informed yoga intervention in their physical education class.
Learning from home: widening rural-urban educational inequality and high school students' self-control in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and school closure

Gaoming Ma; Jiayu Zhang; Liu Hong

Published: December 2022   Journal: Youth & Society
Worldwide school closures and remote learning have been implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. These measures’ impact on young populations’ academic achievements is unclear. This study (N = 1,736, ages 14–20 years, 53% female, and Chinese) analyzed academic examination scores for students at a high school in Eastern China between January and July 2020. Results showed that overall, students’ academic achievements appeared to be negatively affected amid a school closure. More importantly, students’ self-control was introduced as a moderating factor that partially accounted for this difference in the context of remote learning at home. These findings extended our understanding of school closures’ unequal impact on young populations.
The supply is there. So why can't pregnant and breastfeeding women in rural India get the COVID-19 vaccine?

Nadia G. Diamond-Smith; Preetika Sharma; Mona Duggal (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos Global Public Health
Despite COVID-19 vaccines being available to pregnant women in India since summer 2021, little is known about vaccine uptake among this high need population. We conducted mixed methods research with pregnant and recently delivered rural women in northern India, consisting of 300 phone surveys and 15 in-depth interviews, in November 2021. Only about a third of respondents were vaccinated, however, about half of unvaccinated respondents reported that they would get vaccinated now if they could. Fears of harm to the unborn baby or young infant were common (22% of unvaccinated women). However, among unvaccinated women who wanted to get vaccinated, the most common barrier reported was that their health care provider refused to provide them the vaccine. Gender barriers and social norms also played a role, with family members restricting women’s access. Trust in the health system was high, however, women were most often getting information about COVID-19 vaccines from sources that they did not trust, and they knew they were getting potentially poor-quality information. Qualitative data shed light on the barriers women faced from their family and health care providers but described how as more people got the vaccine that norms were changing.
Rural parents' attitudes and beliefs on the COVID-19 pediatric vaccine: an explanatory study

Rachael Lacy; Jini Puma; Michael Tubolino (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos One
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first came to the Unites States in January 2020. Though adult and pediatric vaccines became available to the public, vaccine uptake among youth and particularly younger children has been gradual. This explanatory study aimed to better understand parents’ attitudes and beliefs of the pediatric COVID-19 vaccine and the barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake in a rural community through a brief, online demographic survey, and in-depth qualitative interviews. Forty-one in depth interviews were conducted with parents (31-English and 10-Spanish-speaking) residing in rural and frontier counties in Colorado between September 2021 and February 2022. Six emergent themes related to COVID-19 pediatric vaccine uptake were identified among the population. These themes spanned the three levels of influence in the Social Ecological Model (individual, interpersonal, and community levels).
Nutritional status of younger primary school children in urban and rural areas of Montenegro in relation to sex and age during COVID-19 pandemic: a national study

Dragan Bacovic; Pavle Malovic; Erol Vrevic (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal of Morphology
Prevention and correction of overweight in children and adolescents is also very important for many reasons. According to previous research, the problem tends to vary according to sex, and different ages and the lifestyle in rural and urban areas has changed drastically in recent years and decades. Regarding the above-mentioned, the main goal of this research was to determine the nutritional status of young school children in urban and rural areas of Montenegro in relation to sex and age. The sample in this research has consisted of children aged 6 and 9 (younger school age). The total sample in this research is 800 male and female children who belong to the urban and rural areas of Montenegro. The sample of variables used in this study was: body mass index-percentile values (BMI), and waist circumference and body height ratio (WHtR) which were used as indicators to assess nutritional status.
Trajectories of child growth, child development, and home child-rearing quality during the Covid pandemic in rural Nepal

Laurie C. Miller; Sumanta Neupane; Neena Joshi (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

Children, especially disadvantaged children in poor countries, were expected to be among the “biggest victims” of the Covid pandemic. Economic burdens, decreased nutritious foods, reduced medical care, school closures, and ill-health or death of family members were predicted to increase child undernutrition and developmental delays, and diminish home child-rearing quality. A planned nutrition intervention could not be implemented due to Covid restrictions. However, three surveys (pre-Covid [December 2019], July 2021, and September 2021) in 280 Nepali households (309 parent-dyads, 368 children, 6–66 months old) collected demographics, child anthropometry and development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 [ASQ-3]), and home child-rearing quality (caregiver engagement, learning resources, adult supervision [UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey]). Mixed-effect regression models adjusted for household (wealth, maternal education) and child factors (age, gender) and survey round.

Change and continuity in preventive practices across the COVID-19 pandemic among rural and urban Latinx immigrant worker families

Sara A. Quandt; Sydney A. Smith; Jennifer W. Talton (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Hygiene
The COVID-19 pandemic has put essential workers at high risk for contracting the disease. This study documents situational compliance with public health recommendations such as masking and social distancing among rural and urban Latinx families, with the goal of understanding change over time in COVID-19 risk reduction behaviors. Respondents for 67 rural families and 44 urban families responded to repeated telephone surveys at three time points in the first year of the pandemic, providing data on use of masks and social distancing by themselves and family members while interacting with others at home, work, and in the community. Cumulative logistic regression models were employed to compare changes in risk behaviors between rural and urban groups over time.
COVID-19 vaccine coverage disparities in rural and farm children

Jeffrey J. VanWormer; Gabriella Alicea; Bryan P. Weichelt (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The risks of severe outcomes associated with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) are elevated in unvaccinated individuals. It remains crucial to understand patterns of COVID-19 vaccination, particularly in younger and remote populations where coverage often lags. This study examined disparities in COVID-19 vaccine coverage in farm children and adolescents. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in patients of the Marshfield Clinic Health System (MCHS) in Wisconsin. The sample included children/adolescents age 5-17 years who were eligible for COVID-19 vaccine initiation for ≥ 90 days (as of September 30, 2022), stratified by those who lived vs did not live on a farm. Outcomes included COVID-19 vaccine initiation, series completion, and booster receipt. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations between COVID-19 vaccination and farm, as well as rural and non-rural, residence.

The impact of COVID-19 on education experiences of high school students in semi-rural Georgia

Jasleen K. Ashta; Rachel Weingart; Julie A. Gazmararian

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

This study examines the consequences of COVID-19 pandemic on academic and career concerns of high school students; relationship between attendance and grades with educational concerns; and association between student perception of the pandemic and decision to attend school virtually or in-person. Diverse students in grades 9-12 from two public high schools in semi-rural Georgia (n = 666) completed a survey shortly after school closures. Survey results were linked to academic and demographic data. Analyses were examined for differences by demographic and education measures.

Has the COVID-19 pandemic widened the urban-rural gap in early child development in China? Evidence from the rural side

Chuchu Zheng; Yongping Yu; Juncen Lu (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Early Education and Development
This national survey study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on early development of rural preschoolers in China and compare the urban-rural gap. Participants were 11,282 rural preschool teachers recruited through the stratified random sampling method. They completed the survey online via wjx.com, the dominating online survey platform in China. The study compared the results with our previous research on 22,466 urban teachers and found: (1) most preschoolers in rural China had development improvement during the quarantine; (2) there were no significant urban-rural differences in early development; (3) three distinct profiles of rural preschoolers emerged: the low, medium, and high levels. Those 3–4 year-olds in public preschools in western China tended to have development loss or even development regression; and (4) increased parental involvement was found the significant predictor of rural preschoolers’ development improvement during the quarantine.
Rural children's well-being in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives from children in the Midwestern United States

Lisa A. Newland; Daniel J. Mourlam; Gabrielle A. Strouse

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
Children in rural areas are more likely to experience a variety of risk factors that increase their vulnerability to physical and mental health disparities. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model (1986) was used as a framework for understanding rural children’s perceptions and well-being within multiple interactive contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic. This phenomenological study was designed to explore rural children’s perceptions of their well-being and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their contexts and well-being. This sub-study of the Children’s Understandings of Well-Being project followed the standard qualitative interview protocol with additional prompts related to the pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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