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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Mitigating rural adolescent trauma: remote delivery of a trauma-informed yoga intervention during COVID-19

Lauren Davis; Alexandra Aylward

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Given the prevalence of childhood trauma in rural Montana, this project is intended to help mitigate stressors that may contribute to poor behavioral and mental health in high school-aged children, which may be exacerbated by the collective trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic. The immediate goal was to measure physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents resulting from a remotely delivered trauma-informed yoga intervention designed to foster positive youth development. Our study builds on the successes from an initial feasibility pilot study one year prior in order to evaluate a more robust intervention comparing experimental and control group outcomes. Students at a small, rural high school in Montana volunteered to participate in a 6-week, twice-weekly trauma-informed yoga intervention in their physical education class.
Learning from home: widening rural-urban educational inequality and high school students' self-control in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and school closure

Gaoming Ma; Jiayu Zhang; Liu Hong

Published: December 2022   Journal: Youth & Society
Worldwide school closures and remote learning have been implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. These measures’ impact on young populations’ academic achievements is unclear. This study (N = 1,736, ages 14–20 years, 53% female, and Chinese) analyzed academic examination scores for students at a high school in Eastern China between January and July 2020. Results showed that overall, students’ academic achievements appeared to be negatively affected amid a school closure. More importantly, students’ self-control was introduced as a moderating factor that partially accounted for this difference in the context of remote learning at home. These findings extended our understanding of school closures’ unequal impact on young populations.
The supply is there. So why can't pregnant and breastfeeding women in rural India get the COVID-19 vaccine?

Nadia G. Diamond-Smith; Preetika Sharma; Mona Duggal (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos Global Public Health
Despite COVID-19 vaccines being available to pregnant women in India since summer 2021, little is known about vaccine uptake among this high need population. We conducted mixed methods research with pregnant and recently delivered rural women in northern India, consisting of 300 phone surveys and 15 in-depth interviews, in November 2021. Only about a third of respondents were vaccinated, however, about half of unvaccinated respondents reported that they would get vaccinated now if they could. Fears of harm to the unborn baby or young infant were common (22% of unvaccinated women). However, among unvaccinated women who wanted to get vaccinated, the most common barrier reported was that their health care provider refused to provide them the vaccine. Gender barriers and social norms also played a role, with family members restricting women’s access. Trust in the health system was high, however, women were most often getting information about COVID-19 vaccines from sources that they did not trust, and they knew they were getting potentially poor-quality information. Qualitative data shed light on the barriers women faced from their family and health care providers but described how as more people got the vaccine that norms were changing.
Rural parents' attitudes and beliefs on the COVID-19 pediatric vaccine: an explanatory study

Rachael Lacy; Jini Puma; Michael Tubolino (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos One
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first came to the Unites States in January 2020. Though adult and pediatric vaccines became available to the public, vaccine uptake among youth and particularly younger children has been gradual. This explanatory study aimed to better understand parents’ attitudes and beliefs of the pediatric COVID-19 vaccine and the barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake in a rural community through a brief, online demographic survey, and in-depth qualitative interviews. Forty-one in depth interviews were conducted with parents (31-English and 10-Spanish-speaking) residing in rural and frontier counties in Colorado between September 2021 and February 2022. Six emergent themes related to COVID-19 pediatric vaccine uptake were identified among the population. These themes spanned the three levels of influence in the Social Ecological Model (individual, interpersonal, and community levels).
Nutritional status of younger primary school children in urban and rural areas of Montenegro in relation to sex and age during COVID-19 pandemic: a national study

Dragan Bacovic; Pavle Malovic; Erol Vrevic (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal of Morphology
Prevention and correction of overweight in children and adolescents is also very important for many reasons. According to previous research, the problem tends to vary according to sex, and different ages and the lifestyle in rural and urban areas has changed drastically in recent years and decades. Regarding the above-mentioned, the main goal of this research was to determine the nutritional status of young school children in urban and rural areas of Montenegro in relation to sex and age. The sample in this research has consisted of children aged 6 and 9 (younger school age). The total sample in this research is 800 male and female children who belong to the urban and rural areas of Montenegro. The sample of variables used in this study was: body mass index-percentile values (BMI), and waist circumference and body height ratio (WHtR) which were used as indicators to assess nutritional status.
Trajectories of child growth, child development, and home child-rearing quality during the Covid pandemic in rural Nepal

Laurie C. Miller; Sumanta Neupane; Neena Joshi (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

Children, especially disadvantaged children in poor countries, were expected to be among the “biggest victims” of the Covid pandemic. Economic burdens, decreased nutritious foods, reduced medical care, school closures, and ill-health or death of family members were predicted to increase child undernutrition and developmental delays, and diminish home child-rearing quality. A planned nutrition intervention could not be implemented due to Covid restrictions. However, three surveys (pre-Covid [December 2019], July 2021, and September 2021) in 280 Nepali households (309 parent-dyads, 368 children, 6–66 months old) collected demographics, child anthropometry and development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 [ASQ-3]), and home child-rearing quality (caregiver engagement, learning resources, adult supervision [UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey]). Mixed-effect regression models adjusted for household (wealth, maternal education) and child factors (age, gender) and survey round.

Change and continuity in preventive practices across the COVID-19 pandemic among rural and urban Latinx immigrant worker families

Sara A. Quandt; Sydney A. Smith; Jennifer W. Talton (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Hygiene
The COVID-19 pandemic has put essential workers at high risk for contracting the disease. This study documents situational compliance with public health recommendations such as masking and social distancing among rural and urban Latinx families, with the goal of understanding change over time in COVID-19 risk reduction behaviors. Respondents for 67 rural families and 44 urban families responded to repeated telephone surveys at three time points in the first year of the pandemic, providing data on use of masks and social distancing by themselves and family members while interacting with others at home, work, and in the community. Cumulative logistic regression models were employed to compare changes in risk behaviors between rural and urban groups over time.
COVID-19 vaccine coverage disparities in rural and farm children

Jeffrey J. VanWormer; Gabriella Alicea; Bryan P. Weichelt (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The risks of severe outcomes associated with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) are elevated in unvaccinated individuals. It remains crucial to understand patterns of COVID-19 vaccination, particularly in younger and remote populations where coverage often lags. This study examined disparities in COVID-19 vaccine coverage in farm children and adolescents. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in patients of the Marshfield Clinic Health System (MCHS) in Wisconsin. The sample included children/adolescents age 5-17 years who were eligible for COVID-19 vaccine initiation for ≥ 90 days (as of September 30, 2022), stratified by those who lived vs did not live on a farm. Outcomes included COVID-19 vaccine initiation, series completion, and booster receipt. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations between COVID-19 vaccination and farm, as well as rural and non-rural, residence.

The impact of COVID-19 on education experiences of high school students in semi-rural Georgia

Jasleen K. Ashta; Rachel Weingart; Julie A. Gazmararian

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

This study examines the consequences of COVID-19 pandemic on academic and career concerns of high school students; relationship between attendance and grades with educational concerns; and association between student perception of the pandemic and decision to attend school virtually or in-person. Diverse students in grades 9-12 from two public high schools in semi-rural Georgia (n = 666) completed a survey shortly after school closures. Survey results were linked to academic and demographic data. Analyses were examined for differences by demographic and education measures.

Has the COVID-19 pandemic widened the urban-rural gap in early child development in China? Evidence from the rural side

Chuchu Zheng; Yongping Yu; Juncen Lu (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Early Education and Development
This national survey study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on early development of rural preschoolers in China and compare the urban-rural gap. Participants were 11,282 rural preschool teachers recruited through the stratified random sampling method. They completed the survey online via wjx.com, the dominating online survey platform in China. The study compared the results with our previous research on 22,466 urban teachers and found: (1) most preschoolers in rural China had development improvement during the quarantine; (2) there were no significant urban-rural differences in early development; (3) three distinct profiles of rural preschoolers emerged: the low, medium, and high levels. Those 3–4 year-olds in public preschools in western China tended to have development loss or even development regression; and (4) increased parental involvement was found the significant predictor of rural preschoolers’ development improvement during the quarantine.
Rural children's well-being in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives from children in the Midwestern United States

Lisa A. Newland; Daniel J. Mourlam; Gabrielle A. Strouse

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
Children in rural areas are more likely to experience a variety of risk factors that increase their vulnerability to physical and mental health disparities. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model (1986) was used as a framework for understanding rural children’s perceptions and well-being within multiple interactive contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic. This phenomenological study was designed to explore rural children’s perceptions of their well-being and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their contexts and well-being. This sub-study of the Children’s Understandings of Well-Being project followed the standard qualitative interview protocol with additional prompts related to the pandemic.
Rural youth employability trends and the COVID-19 pandemic

Liva Grinevica; Baiba Rivza; Peteris Rivza

Published: November 2022   Journal: The Open Agriculture Journal

The COVID-19 pandemic seriously impacts youth employability, especially in rural regions. In rural areas, the lack of system and availability of education, vocational education and training can have a negative impact on a young person's ability to obtain an education and continue to succeed in the labour market. These circumstances can hinder a young person's transition to the labour market. The paper presents a brief analysis of rural youth employment trends, the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the labour market in Latvia, and an analysis of the youth employability using dynamic series analysis. The research methodology implemented for the present research study is based on the theoretical concepts and statistical data regarding the rural youth employment trends and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Rural parent and elementary school student resilience to COVID-19: disability status and parental predictors of change

Suzannah B. Chatlos; Preeti G. Samudra; Jillian M. Magoon (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: School Psychology International
Little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic relates to child and parent functioning in a rural population. The present study investigated how disability status and parent factors related to resilience in a rural population before and after the shift to remote instruction. Parents of elementary-aged children in a rural area of the U.S. completed an online questionnaire, rating their own functioning and their child's academic, cognitive, and socioemotional functioning (1) retrospectively thinking back to a month before the pandemic, and (2) at the time of the survey, approximately four months after the onset of pandemic changes.
The digital divide, gender and education: challenges for tribal youth in rural Jharkhand during Covid-19

Kumari Vibhuti Nayak; Shamsher Alam

Published: August 2022   Journal: Decision
When analysing the Covid-19 pandemic potential consequences on education, it is evident that it had adverse effects on the existing educational inequalities worldwide. However, little is known about how the digital divide have worsened the conventional educational system and reinforced pre-existing gender inequalities among the historically marginalised communities. This research paper explores how the pandemic, along with digital divide, deteriorated the educational system among the socially deprived groups (i.e. tribals also known as indigenous or Adivasis) and place them in a disadvantageous position. The paper reflects on how the Covid-19 pandemic re-configured the pre-existing issues of educational inequalities and how the digital dived have been manifested in a way that has particularly affected the young tribal girls. For this study, semi-structured interviews with tribal students, their parents and teachers residing in a remote area of Jharkhand, India, were conducted to understand their experiences of shifting to online education mode. Other than accessibility and infrastructure issue, the findings reveal that the elements of cultural and social issues (related to perceived benefits of education for girls and mindset or beliefs parents and teachers towards effectiveness of digital mode of education delivery) create and reinforce the digital divide for the tribal girls in the hinterlands.
COVID-19 and vulnerable children well-being: interview with left-behind children in rural China

Endale Tadesse; Sabika Khalid; Cai Lianyu (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: 9
This study sought to explore the psychological well-being, academic adjustment, and quality of parental attachment of LBC during COVID-19 based on Left-Behind Children’s (LBC) word of mouth.  In light of the abundance of quantitative studies, this qualitative study explored the psychological, academic, and parental attachment experiences of rural LBC during COVID-19. To this end, this study conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 LBCs aged 10–15 in May 2021.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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