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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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On the effect of age on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households, schools and the community

AUTHOR(S)
Edward Goldstein; Marc Lipsitch; Muge Cevik

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Journal of Infectious Diseases

There is limited information on the effect of age on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in different settings. This research reviewed published studies/data on detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in contacts of COVID-19 cases, serological studies, and studies of infections in schools.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease transmission, schools, COVID-19
A new generation: 25 years of efforts for gender equality in education
Institution: UNESCO - Global Education Monitoring Report Team
Published: October 2020
Over the past 25 years girls' access to education has dramatically improved. However, girls, particularly those with intersecting disadvantages in terms of poverty or disability, still face the worst forms of acute exclusion in world's poorest countries. Education is a critical lever for women's rights. The potential increase in early pregnancy is likely to be a result of increased early marriages, a consequence of households being plunged deeper into poverty due to the pandemic.
COVID-19 trends among school-aged children — United States, March 1–September 19, 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca T. Leeb; Sandy Price; Sarah Sliwa (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Children aged <10 years can transmit SARS-CoV-2 in school settings, but less is known about COVID-19 incidence, characteristics, and health outcomes among school-aged children (aged 5–17 years) with COVID-19. Since March, 277,285 COVID-19 cases in children have been reported. COVID-19 incidence among adolescents aged 12–17 years was approximately twice that in children aged 5–11 years. Underlying conditions were more common among school-aged children with severe outcomes related to COVID-19. Weekly incidence, SARS-CoV-2 test volume, and percentage of tests positive among school-aged children varied over time and by region of the United States. It is important for schools and communities to monitor multiple indicators of COVID-19 among school-aged children and layer prevention strategies to reduce COVID-19 disease risk for students, teachers, school staff, and families. These results can provide a baseline for monitoring trends and evaluating mitigation strategies.

Cite this research | Vol.: 69 | No. of pages: 1410-1415 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease control, disease transmission, schools, COVID-19 | Countries: United States
Detection and reporting potential child and youth victimization cases from school: the role of knowledge

AUTHOR(S)
Ana M. Greco; Noemí Pereda; Georgina Guilera

Published: September 2020   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
Knowledge of child victimization among school staff is believed to affect the detection and reporting of potential cases in the school environment, but the current evidence is scarce and contradictory. Interventions should aim to provide more detailed and concrete information about reporting procedures and to explore ways of recreating the experience of detecting and reporting, particularly in a context in which detection procedures may have to be carried out online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This would help to overcome fears and barriers to identifying children at risk and to notifying the corresponding authorities about their situation.
Increased proportion of physical child abuse injuries at a level I pediatric trauma center during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Mark L. Kovler; Susan Ziegfeld; Leticia M. Ryan (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
The Covid-19 pandemic has forced mass closures of childcare facilities and  schools. While these measures are  necessary to  slow  virus transmission, little is  known regarding the secondary health consequences of social distancing. The purpose of this study is to assess the proportion of injuries secondary to physical child abuse (PCA) at a level I pediatric trauma center during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Objectives for COVID-19 testing in school settings
Institution: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Published: August 2020
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of major aspects of testing, contact tracing, contact identification and contact follow-up in school settings within the EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom (UK).
Managing psychological distress in children and adolescents following the COVID-19 epidemic: a cooperative approach

AUTHOR(S)
Xiao Zhou

Published: August 2020   Journal: Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy
Children and adolescents are susceptible to the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic and tend to show posttraumatic distress. Immediately after an epidemic, governments and social organizations often provide psychological services for children and adolescents to relieve their distress. However, many adolescents report distress even long after a traumatic event because of the unaddressed traumatic atmosphere in schools or families. To advance this issue, this article proposes a cooperative model of psychological services provision for children and adolescents in response to the COVID-19 epidemic.
Children and adolescents are susceptible to the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic and tend
to show posttraumatic distress. Immediately after an epidemic, governments and social organizations
often provide psychological services for children and adolescents to relieve their distress. However, many
adolescents report distress even long after a traumatic event because of the unaddressed traumatic
atmosphere in schools or families. To advance this issue, this article proposes a cooperative model of
psychological services provision for children and adolescents in response to the COVID-19 epidemic
Children and adolescents are susceptible to the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic and tend
to show posttraumatic distress. Immediately after an epidemic, governments and social organizations
often provide psychological services for children and adolescents to relieve their distress. However, many
adolescents report distress even long after a traumatic event because of the unaddressed traumatic
atmosphere in schools or families. To advance this issue, this article proposes a cooperative model of
psychological services provision for children and adolescents in response to the COVID-19 epidemic
School-based health centers during academic disruption: Challenges and opportunity in urban mental health

AUTHOR(S)
Leonell Torres-Pagán; Angelica Terepka

Published: August 2020   Journal: Psychological Trauma : Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy
School based health centers (SBHC) provide healthcare services to youth and their families. In response to the global health crisis from COVID-19, schools’ closures have impacted the access to vital services during times of increased need for physical and mental healthcare. Youth of minority racial and ethnic backgrounds living in urban settings face compounding factors including adverse childhood events, economic disadvantages, and barriers to healthcare. The mental health response of SBHCs in New York City as it relates to population specific factors such as family supports, economic considerations, and healthcare correlates is explored. The role of school based health centers and recommendations for interventions addressing mental health concerns in youth during COVID-19 are discussed.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 276-278 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Mental Health | Tags: health care facilities, mental health services, schools, COVID-19 response | Countries: United States
Children wait for a teacher in a classroom at Treichville Regional School, in the city of Abidjan. Although the school reopened after being closed for many years due to armed conflict, most teachers remain absent. (2011)
Framework for reopening schools
Global school closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic present an unprecedented risk to children’s education, protection and well-being. Schools do much more than teach children how to read, write and count. They also provide nutrition, health and hygiene services; mental health and psychosocial support; and dramatically reduce the risk of violence, early pregnancy and more. And it’s the most vulnerable children who are the hardest hit by school closures, and we know from previous crises that the longer they are out of school, the less likely they are to return.When deciding whether to reopen schools, authorities should look at the benefits and risks across education, public health and socio-economic factors, in the local context, using the best available evidence. This policy brief aims to inform the decision-making process regarding school reopening, support national preparations and guide the implementation process, as part of overall public health and education planning processes. The guidelines outline six key priorities to assess the readiness of those schools and inform planning.
School Closure and Management Practices During Coronavirus Outbreaks Including COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review

AUTHOR(S)
Russel Viner; Simon Russel; Helen Croker (et al.)

Published: May 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, 107 countries had implemented national school closures by March 18, 2020. It is unknown whether school measures are effective in coronavirus outbreaks (eg, due to severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], Middle East respiratory syndrome, or COVID-19). This systematic review seeks to identify what is known about the effectiveness of school closures and other school social distancing practices during coronavirus outbreaks. Data from the SARS outbreak in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore suggest that school closures did not contribute to the control of the epidemic. Modelling studies of SARS produced conflicting results. Recent modelling studies of COVID-19 predict that school closures alone would prevent only 2–4% of deaths, much less than other social distancing interventions. Policy makers need to be aware of the equivocal evidence when considering school closures for COVID-19, and that combinations of social distancing measures should be considered. Other less disruptive social distancing interventions in schools require further consideration if restrictive social distancing policies are implemented for long periods.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 5 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: children, school attendance, schools, COVID-19
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.