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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 31
Examining school based health service utilization among marginalized youth in Connecticut during COVID.

AUTHOR(S)
April Joy Damian

Published: June 2022   Journal: Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing

This study examines how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affecting utilization of medical and behavioral health services through school based health centers (SBHC s). It leveraged the electronic health records from one of the largest sponsors of SBHCs in the country, and tested differences in SBHC utilization with chi-square tests one year prior to the pandemic (pre-pandemic: March 2019-February 2020) compared to one year into the pandemic period (March 2020-February 2021).

School health promotion in pandemic times. Results of the COVID-HL school principal study

AUTHOR(S)
Kevin Dadaczynski; Orkan Okan; Melanie Messer

Published: May 2022   Journal: Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz
Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, in welchem Ausmaß Schulen Maßnahmen der Gesundheitsförderung und Prävention während der COVID-19-Pandemie umsetzen. Von besonderem Interesse sind hierbei Unterschiede nach demografischen Variablen, Schulform, Bundesland und die Beteiligung an Landesinitiativen der Gesundheitsförderung.
Screening and vaccination against COVID-19 to minimise school closure: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Elisabetta Colosi; Giulia Bassignana; Diego Andrés Contreras (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Lancet. Infectious diseases

Schools were closed extensively in 2020-21 to counter SARS-CoV-2 spread, impacting students' education and wellbeing. With highly contagious variants expanding in Europe, safe options to maintain schools open are urgently needed. By estimating school-specific transmissibility, this study evaluates costs and benefits of different protocols for SARS-CoV-2 control at school. The study developed an agent-based model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools. It used empirical contact data in a primary and a secondary school and data from pilot screenings in 683 schools during the alpha variant (B.1.1.7) wave in March-June, 2021, in France. It fitted the model to observed school prevalence to estimate the school-specific effective reproductive number for the alpha (Ralpha) and delta (B.1.617.2; Rdelta) variants and performed a cost-benefit analysis examining different intervention protocols.

The role of school connectedness in supporting the health and well-being of youth: recommendations for school

AUTHOR(S)
Ellen M. McCabe; Caroline Davis; Lauryn Mandy (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: NASN school nurse
The importance of students feeling connected in school cannot be overstated, as this perception is crucial to support their health and well-being. A lack of school connectedness can lead to adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including bully victimization. Numerous factors, including individual, social, and environmental, influence students' perceived sense of school connectedness. School nurses are well positioned to establish and maintain school connectedness due to their knowledge, accessibility to students, and familiarity with the school environment. This article details the importance of school connectedness and describes the associations between school connectedness, bullying, and mental health. In addition, we offer recommendations geared toward school nurses regarding strengthening school connectedness and promoting a culture of care and inclusivity within school environments, especially salient in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 testing among US children, parental preferences for testing venues, and acceptability of school-based testing

AUTHOR(S)
Chloe A. Teasdale; Luisa N. Borrell; Yanhan Shen (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Public health reports

Testing remains critical for identifying pediatric cases of COVID-19 and as a public health intervention to contain infections. This study surveyed US parents to measure the proportion of children tested for COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic, preferred testing venues for children, and acceptability of school-based COVID-19 testing. It conducted an online survey of 2074 US parents of children aged ≤12 years in March 2021. It applied survey weights to generate national estimates, and it used Rao-Scott adjusted Pearson χ2 tests to compare incidence by selected sociodemographic characteristics. It used Poisson regression models with robust SEs to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of pediatric testing.

Long COVID—the new “invisible” illness: how school nurses can support the nursing and educational teams for student success

AUTHOR(S)
Megan Roesler; Patricia Fato; Barbara Obst

Published: December 2021   Journal: NASN School Nurse
School-age children are not immune to COVID-19 or the pronounced and persistent symptoms associated with a long-COVID diagnosis. Students may present with a variety of symptoms affecting their physical, cognitive, and mental health. The school community should be educated on the school-based interventions and recommendations for creating an individualized safe and successful return to school plan. As we await approval for vaccinations in school-age children younger than 12 years and continue to reposition ourselves to the waves of this pandemic and new variants of the virus, understanding the medical and educational long-term effects on our students may be a long-term need.
Prospective pilot study evaluating SARS-CoV-2 transmission-limiting measures in an on-site school

AUTHOR(S)
Shilpa G. Jani; Jasmin Ma; Uma Pulendran (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Academic Pediatrics

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a comprehensive set of preventive measures in limiting secondary transmission of COVID-19 in schools. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an independent K-8 school in San Mateo County, California. The research was conducted between September 14, 2020 through March 22, 2021 and consisted of: (1) demographic and epidemiological questionnaires; (2) daily symptom reporting; (3) weekly RT-PCR testing; and (4) periodic on-site qualitative observations.

A rural school’s adaptations, improvements, and innovations during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Kristen C. Wilcox

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership
COVID-19 prompted unprecedented disruptions to schools with challenges particularly severe for high-poverty remote rural schools. This case study recounts the story of a rural school that had participated in a research–practice partnership (RPP) multi-year improvement effort prior to the pandemic and documents the ways the RPP and the school-based improvement team worked to navigate pandemic-related disruptions. This case study provides educational leaders with insights into ways to surmount challenges and innovate especially during times of significant disruption and provides prompts to consider with regard to the use of RPP support and improvement science-based processes and tools.
Is symptom screening useful for identifying COVID-19 infection in school settings? Georgia, USA

AUTHOR(S)
Megan Swanson; Marisa Hast; Eleanor Burnett (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Journal of School Nursing
This study’s goal was to characterize the utility of symptom screening in staff and students for COVID-19 identification and control of transmission in a school setting. It conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data for staff, students and associated household members in a Georgia school district exposed to COVID-19 cases who received RT-PCR testing and symptom monitoring. Among positive contacts, 30/49 (61%) of students and 1/6 (17%) of staff reported no symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Symptom sensitivity was 30% in elementary students and 42% in middle/high students. Fifty-three percent (10/19) of symptomatic positive contacts had at least one household member test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with 50% (10/20) of asymptomatic positive contacts. The absence of symptoms in children is not indicative of a lack of SARS-CoV-2 infection or reduced risk of infection for associated household members. Testing all close contacts of people with COVID-19 in schools is needed to interrupt transmission networks.
"Public health and social measures' considerations for educational authorities: schooling in the time of COVID-19: Considerations for health and educational authorities on the public health and social measures to reopen schools as safely as possible"

AUTHOR(S)
Kalpana Vincent; Viviane Bianco; Sarah Fuller (et al.)

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

The return to face-to-face learning helps children return to a sense of normality, although different normality as prevention and control measures have likely altered school and classroom routines. It is important that schools should have a risk-mitigation strategy in place. Countries should ensure these strategies carefully balance the likely benefits for, and harms to, younger and older age groups of children when making decisions about implementing infection prevention and control measures. Any measure needs to be balanced with the even worse alternative of schools being closed and Any measure introduced by schools should follow standard protocols for implementation. This publication shares more detailed considerations for health and educational authorities on the public health and social measures to reopen schools as safely as possible.

Schooling in the time of COVID-19, a resource pack produced by UNICEF ECARO and WHO Europe
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

Schools are essential for children’s learning, health, safety and well-being. But students’ learning suffered a major setback when most educational institutions reduced or cancelled in-person instruction and moved to remote learning and teaching to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Prolonged school closures continue to jeopardise the future of millions of children across the globe. The Europe and Central Asia Region is no exception. Schools should be the first to open and last to close. Getting children back in the classroom remains a priority for UNICEF and WHO Regional Offices, striking a balance between applying public health and social measures and ensuring that children are able to continue learning and socializing to the greatest extent possible. UNICEF and WHO have created several tools and resources to support countries in their back-to-school efforts. This joint UNICEF Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia (UNICEF/ ECARO) and WHO Regional Office for Europe Schooling Resource Pack has an easy-to-find compilation of materials to help parents/caregivers, teachers and students return to school safely.

What is the best-available evidence about the effects of public-health measures in schools (K-12), as well as about supporting adherence to these measures?

This study searched the COVID-END global and domestic inventories of best evidence syntheses to identify evidence documents that focused on the effects of and supporting adherence to public health measures in schools (K-12). The search terms used were: “school” AND (“effectiveness” OR “adherence” OR “public health measure” OR “public health” OR “measure”). It also contacted 40+ Canadian evidence-synthesis teams by email.

Pooled RT-qPCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in schools - a cluster randomised trial

AUTHOR(S)
Alexander Joachim; Felix Dewald; Isabelle Suárez (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine

The extent to which children and adolescents contribute to SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains not fully understood. Novel high-capacity testing methods may provide real-time epidemiological data in educational settings helping to establish a rational approach to prevent and minimize SARS-CoV-2 transmission. This study investigated whether pooling of samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-qPCR is a sensitive and feasible high-capacity diagnostic strategy for surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in schools. In this study, students and school staff of 14 educational facilities in Germany were tested sequentially between November 9 and December 23, 2020, two or three times per week for at least three consecutive weeks. Participants were randomized for evaluation of two different age adjusted swab sampling methods (oropharyngeal swabs or buccal swabs compared to saliva swabs using a ‘lolli method’).

Disinfectant use by K-12 school staff to combat SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Timothy J. Hilbert; Candace Brancato; Kelsey Carter (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Infection Control
K-12 school staff from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio were asked about their use of disinfectants to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in schools. Survey participants (n=1,555) reported frequent use of disinfectants, often using unknown products, and were provided little to no training on safe and effective use. Participant concerns included student involvement in disinfection, inadequate ventilation, surface contact time, and potential health effects.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from remote learning during COVID19

The COVID-19 pandemic led to school closures around the world, affecting almost 1.6 billion students. The effects of even short disruptions in a child’s schooling on their learning and well-being have been shown to be acute and long lasting. The capacities of education systems to respond to the crisis by delivering remote learning and support to children and families have been diverse yet uneven.

This report reviews the emerging evidence on remote learning throughout the global school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic to help guide decision-makers to build more effective, sustainable, and resilient education systems for current and future crises.

1 - 15 of 31

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.