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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Socio-behavioural factors associated with child oral health during COVID-19

Ravi Kumar Gudipaneni; Mohammed Farhan O. Alruwaili; Kiran Kumar Ganji (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Dental Journal

The aim of this study was to identify the sociobehavioural factors that influenced children's oral health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The online cross-sectional study was conducted in Al Jouf Province in the northern region of Saudi Arabia. A total of 960 parents of children aged 5 to 14 years were invited by multistage stratified random sampling. Descriptive, multinomial, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios and determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

Barriers and facilitators to comprehensive, school-based physical activity promotion for adolescents prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study

Ashleigh M. Johnson; Pooja S. Tandon; Kiana R. Hafferty (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Health Education Research
This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to comprehensive, school-based physical activity (PA) promotion among adolescents prior to and during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, considering the perspectives of students, parents, and school staff. Data were collected from 2020 to 2021 using semi-structured individual interviews with students (n = 15), parents (n = 20), and school staff (n = 8) at a Title I middle school (i.e. high percentage of students from low-income families). Two theoretical frameworks guided analysis: the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program framework and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. Using an iteratively developed codebook, data were coded, thematically analyzed, and synthesized. PA barriers and facilitators were present throughout the school day, at home, and in the community. Key determinants included pandemic-induced challenges (e.g. COVID-19 exposure); neighborhood characteristics/weather (e.g. neighborhood safety); school–family communication/collaboration; implementation climate (i.e. school staff’s support for programming); time, spatial, and monetary resources (e.g. funding); staffing capacity/continuity and school champions; staffing creativity and adaptability; PA opportunities before, during, and after school; and child’s motivation/engagement.
Influence of high school socioeconomic status on athlete injuries during the COVID-19 pandemic: an ecological study

Garrett Bullock; Albert Prats-Uribe; Charles Thigpen (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy

It is presently unclear how the cessation of high school sport has affected injury incidence at different socioeconomic levels. The COVID-19 pandemic may have disproportionately affected athletes of lower socioeconomic status, potentially increasing injury risk in this population. This study aims to:  1) describe athlete injury incidence prior to and during the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 school years in high school athletes by socioeconomic status; 2) investigate the association between socioeconomic status and injury incidence in high school athletes.

The continued impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on education and mental health among sub-Saharan African adolescents

Dongqing Wang; Olufemi A. Adedokun; Ourohiré Millogo (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
This multicountry survey assessed the levels and the determinants of the impacts of the pandemic on education and mental health among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential factors that may exacerbate these adverse impacts. A phone survey was conducted among adolescents in nine diverse areas in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Tanzania between July and December 2021. Approximately 300 adolescents per area and 2,803 adolescents in total were included. The survey collected information on adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics, current COVID-19 preventive measures, and the impacts of the pandemic on daily activities, education, and mental health. Log-binomial models were used to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for determinants of education and mental health outcomes.
Psychosocial implications of COVID-19 on children in Nigeria

Abiodun Adewole; Kayode Anthony Ogedengbe; Oluwagbemiga Oyinlola (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Children and Teenagers
There has been a plethora of research since the emergence of COVID-19 around the world but several of these studies have not focused on the psychosocial implication of the novel Coronavirus on children in Nigeria. Though the psychosocial impact of the virus is huge, there is paucity of literature addressing the needs of the Nigerian children during the pandemic. The paper explored the psychosocial implications (health, poverty issues, safety needs and learning) of COVID-19 on children in Nigeria. The study recommends the expansion of social assistance for children of families in extreme poverty, and there is a need to adapt standard physical distancing protocols to reflect the characteristics of children in different settings. Also, the Government of Nigeria should prioritize child-centred services. Training parents and caregivers on how to talk to their children about the pandemic, managing their mental health and providing tools to help children’s learning will be crucial.
"The internet is keeping me from dying from boredom": understanding the management and social construction of the self through middle-class Indian children's engagement with digital technologies during the COVID-19 lockdown

Damanjit Sandhu; Ravinder Barn

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
This paper unpacks how everyday lives of urban middle-class children were mediated by digital technologies during the COVID-19 national lockdown in India. In contemporary India, children’s engagements with digital technologies are structured by their social class, gender, and geographical locations. The resultant disparities between “media-rich” and “media-poor” childhoods in India are stark. This paper argues that the national lockdown in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic exposed India’s “media-rich” children to particular threats and obstacles. Based on semi-structured interviews and mapping exercises with 16- to 17-year-old urban middle-class young people, it explores how being confined to their homes for an extended period when their schools shifted to online delivery of teaching and learning; young people negotiated risks and sought digital opportunities in the management and social construction of the self.
Addressing social determinants of mental health in pediatrics during the COVID-19 pandemic

Andrea E. Spencer; Jennifer Sikov; William G. Adams (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Progress Report
In this report, our study's findings in context of new events and research since June 2019 are discussed, with particular attention to the impacts of both the pandemic and racism on SDOH, child mental health, and primary care-based screening efforts.
Social determinants of health screening in pediatric healthcare settings

Abby L. Nerlinger; Gift Kopsombut

Published: October 2022   Journal: Current Opinion in Pediatrics

This article outlines updates in social determinants of health (SDOH) screening practices in pediatric healthcare and community settings. The transition to value-based care and the COVID-19 pandemic have both had significant impacts on screening practices, with implications for providers, communities, and policymakers. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated social needs for vulnerable patients and families, resulting in increased recognition by healthcare teams through screening. Policy frameworks like value-based care that aim to deliver whole-child care in the community are reorienting the logistics of screening, including screening in acute-care settings and community settings. Recent studies on family and provider perspectives should be integrated into screening practices.

Early pandemic impacts on family environments that shape childhood development and health: a Canadian Study

Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac; De-Lawrence Lamptey; Jane Harley (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Child

Changes to income and employment are key social determinants of health that have impacted many families during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research aimed to understand how changes to employment and income influenced family environments that contribute to early childhood development and health. A concurrent triangulation mixed method design was used through a cross-sectional survey on early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic involving families with young children in the Canadian Maritime provinces (n = 2158). Analyses included multivariate regression models to examine whether changes to employment and income predicted changes to Family access to resources and social support, parenting Abilities and self-care at home, and home Routines and Environments (FARE Change Scale). Content analysis was used to identify themes from the open-ended questions.

Sociodemographic factors affecting depression-anxiety-stress levels and coping strategies of parents with babies treated in neonatal intensive care units during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sevcan T. Kılıç; Asena Taşgıt

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Neonatal Nursing

This study aimed to determine the sociodemographic factors affecting the depression-anxiety-stress levels and coping strategies of parents with babies treated in neonatal intensive care units during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March and October 2021. The sample consisted of 93 parents. Data were collected using a descriptive questionnaire, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS- 42), and Coping Style Scale (CSS).

Sociodemographic variation in children's health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic

Traci A. Bekelman; Emily A. Knapp; Yanan Dong (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Childhood Obesity.

Societal changes during the COVID-19 pandemic may affect children's health behaviors and exacerbate disparities. This study aimed to describe children's health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, how they vary by sociodemographic characteristics, and the extent to which parent coping strategies mitigate the impact of pandemic-related financial strain on these behaviors. This study used pooled data from 50 cohorts in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program. Children or parent proxies reported sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and parent coping strategies.

COVID-19 and the Rohingya revugees in Bangladesh: socioeconomic and health impacts on women and adolescents

Bezon Kumar; Susmita Dey Pinky; Orindom Shing Pulock (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies 1
COVID-19 has exacerbated the existing crisis that the vulnerable refugee population faces. More than a million Rohingya refugees live in Bangladesh. COVID-19 has affected both males and females. It is critical to understand how this population group is coping during this trying period. They are constituted by 52% women and 55% adolescents. The socioeconomic and physiological repercussions of the pandemic on the Rohingya people are contextualised in this study. The socioeconomic and health impacts of COVID-19 on Rohingya women and adolescents in Bangladesh are investigated. Because of the restrictions imposed, over 63% of Rohingya adolescent females suffered from food scarcity. The vast majority of respondents (87%) stated that they had reduced their meal frequency, resulting in a protein deficiency. Since their arrival in Bangladesh, they have had limited access to medical and educational facilities. The pandemic has further exacerbated the situation. Girls are more vulnerable to sexual and gender-based abuse, early marriage, school dropout, and pregnancy. This research aims to add to existing knowledge on refugees, Rohingya, women, and adolescents
Spatial clusters, social determinants of health and risk of COVID-19 mortality in Brazilian children and adolescents: a nationwide population-based ecological study

Victor Santana Santos; Thayane Santos Siqueira; Ana I. Cubas Atienzar (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas

Data regarding the geographical distribution of cases and risk factors for COVID-19 death in children and adolescents are scarce. We describe the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths in paediatric population and their association with social determinants of health in Brazil. This is a population-based ecological study with a spatial analysis of all cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Brazil among children and adolescents aged 0–19 years from March 2020 to October 2021. The units of analysis were the 5570 municipalities. Data on COVID-19 cases and deaths, social vulnerability, health inequities, and health system capacity were obtained from publicly available databases. Municipalities were stratified from low to very high COVID-19 incidence and mortality using K-means clustering procedures, and spatial clusters and relative risks were estimated using spatial statistics with Poisson probability models. The relationship between COVID-19 estimates and social determinants of health was explored by using multivariate Beta regression techniques.

Social determinants of severe injury among pediatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: an exploratory study

Rebeccah L. Sokol; Usha Sethuraman; Katherine Oag (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
This study sought to identify social determinants of health (SDH) patterns associated with severe pediatric injuries. It used cross-sectional data from children (≤18 years) admitted to a pediatric trauma center between March and November 2021 (n = 360). It used association rule mining (ARM) to explore SDH patterns associated with severe injury. It then used ARM-identified SDH patterns in multivariable logistic regressions of severe injury, controlling for patient and caregiver demographics. Finally, it compared results to naive hierarchical logistic regressions that considered SDH types as primary exposures rather than SDH patterns.
Environmental and social determinants of leisure-time physical activity in children with autism spectrum disorder

Jihyun Lee; Sean Healy; Justin A. Haegele (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Disability and Health Journal

It is increasingly recognized that children's physical activity behaviors are shaped by neighborhood environment factors and their parent's support. However, these factors have been scarcely studied among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a population at risk of inactivity. This cross-sectional survey study was designed to examine how neighborhood environmental factors and parental support are related to physical activity levels of children with ASD. Also, this study examined if the relationship between the environment and physical activity is modified by demographic factors and COVID-19 related concerns.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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