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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 544
Parental home monitoring and support and students' online learning and socioemotional well-being during COVID-19 school suspension in Hong Kong

AUTHOR(S)
Cheng Yong Tan; Qianqian Pan; Yuxiao Zhang (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Contextualized in the prolonged period of COVID-19-related school suspension in Hong Kong, the present study unravels relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), parental involvement, and learning outcomes for a matched sample of 186 primary and 932 secondary school students and their parents who participated in the eCitizen Education 360 survey. Three-step latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed different types of parental involvement at home and in school. For the primary school sample, students’ SES did not predict membership in the parental involvement typology, but students whose parents provided more home monitoring and support had the highest level of online self-efficacy. As for the secondary student sample, students whose parents provided more home monitoring and support tended to have access to more home learning resources. Students whose parents provided home monitoring and support had the highest levels of online self-efficacy, acquisition of digital skills, and cognitive-emotional regulation, and were the least worried about school resumption. The study underscores complex patterns of parental involvement and identifies effective parental involvement practices that contribute to students’ home online learning during the school suspension.
Perspectives of socioeconomically disadvantaged parents on their children's coping during COVID‐19: implications for practice

AUTHOR(S)
Ami N. Seivwright; Zoe Callis; Paul R. Flatau

Published: June 2022   Journal: Children & Society
Disruptions caused by COVID-19 have the potential to create long-term negative impacts on children's well-being and development, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged children. However, we know little about how socioeconomically disadvantaged families are coping with the pandemic, nor the types of support needed. This study presents qualitative analysis of responses to an open-ended question asking parents how children are coping with the restrictions associated with COVID-19, to identify areas in which these cohorts can be supported. Four main themes were identified: health concerns, schooling difficulties, social isolation and adjustment to restrictions. Health concerns included exacerbation of pre-existing health conditions, fear about the virus, difficulty getting children to understand the pandemic and increased sedentary behaviour. Schooling difficulties referred to the challenges of home schooling, which were behavioural (e.g. difficulty concentrating) and logistical (e.g. technology). Social isolation, expressed as missing friends, family and/or institutions was common. Finally, parents expressed that children experienced both positive adjustments to restrictions, such as spending more time with family, and negative adjustments such as increased screen time.
Debate in public versus independent secondary schools in New York City: post-COVID-19 health literacy and equal access to basic educational opportunities.

AUTHOR(S)
Erin T. Jacques; Corey H. Basch; Joseph Fera (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Community Health
Speech and debate (referred to hereafter as debate) has the potential to play an integral role in increasing the health literacy of secondary school students, yet we did not identify published studies examining the prevalence of debate programs in public and independent secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to describe the presence of debate in a probability sample of public and independent secondary schools in New York City (NYC) and explore whether there were differences in the availability of debate programs when schools were classified based on public versus independent status, school enrollment, borough location, and proportion of non-white students enrolled. The sampling frame was constructed using NYC Open Data for the public schools and the publicly available membership directory of the New York State Association of Independent Schools.
Disparity in built environment and its impacts on youths' physical activity behaviors during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions

AUTHOR(S)
Xiangli Gu; Jean Keller; Tao Zhang (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Guided by the social ecological model, this study aimed to examine the relations of built environments (i.e., walking/cycling infrastructure, recreation facilities, neighborhood safety/crime), youth’s transition abilities, and changes of youth’s physical activity (PA) and play behaviors due to COVID-19-based restrictions. Ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities were also examined on studies variables during the COVID-19 restrictions. A cross-sectional research design was used to assess an anonymous online survey completed by US parents/guardians. The final sample had 1324 children and adolescents (Meanage = 9.75; SD = 3.95; 51.3% girls), and 35.5% the families were of upper socioeconomic class (income > $150,000). Parents reported the perceived built environment and neighborhood safety, child’s PA and play behaviors during COVID-19 pandemic shelter-in-place restrictions.

Impact of family rejection and racism on sexual and gender minority stress among LGBTQ young people of color during COVID-19.

AUTHOR(S)
J. P. Salerno; K. A. Gattamorta; N. D. Williams

Published: May 2022   Journal: Psychological Trauma
Given the inequitable impact of COVID-19 on sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth and current sociopolitical racial justice concerns in the United States, this study examines the impact of SGM-related family rejection and racism since the start of COVID-19 on SGM-related internalized homophobia and identity concealment among SGM college students of color (SOC). Method: Participants were a subset of SOC (n = 200) from a larger nonprobability cross-sectional study about minority stress and COVID-19 pandemic experiences among SGM college students. Participants completed survey items specifically related to changes in minority stress and racism experiences since the start of COVID-19. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and interactive effects of racism and family rejection on identity concealment and internalized homophobia since the start of COVID-19 (adjusting for covariates).
Depressive risk among Italian socioeconomically disadvantaged children and adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional online survey.

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Serra; Anna Presicci; Luigi Quaranta (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Children and adolescents and low-income individuals are considered particularly vulnerable for mental health implications during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Depression is a frequent negative emotional response during an epidemic outbreak and is also prone importantly to environmental risk like stressors derived from income inequality. This study aimed to assess depressive symptomatology in a sample of Italian low-income minors during the COVID-19 outbreak. It hypothesized that the stronger were the negative effects of the pandemic on socioeconomic conditions, the higher would have been the risk for showing depressive symptoms.
Behavioral, affective, and cognitive parenting mechanisms of child internalizing and externalizing problems during the COVID-19 pandemic.

AUTHOR(S)
Francesca Penner; Yasmin Elzaki; Haglaeeh T. Contreras (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased mental health concerns, including depression and anxiety among parents and internalizing and externalizing problems among youth. To better understand the mechanisms and moderators of child mental health during the pandemic, the current study tested two moderated mediation models in which parent depression and anxiety indirectly impacted child internalizing and externalizing problems through negative effects on multiple parenting variables, with these associations moderated by families’ exposure to COVID-19-stressors. A national sample representative of U.S. parents (N = 796, 48.2% female, Mage = 38.87 years, 60.3% Non-Hispanic white, 18.1% Hispanic/Latinx, 13.2% Non-Hispanic Black/African-American, 5.7% Asian, 2.8% Other Race) completed a cross-sectional online survey in February-April 2021.
Social and psychological fffects of COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' and young adults' mental health: a cross-cultural mediation study.

AUTHOR(S)
Konstanze Schoeps; Alicia Tamarit; Usue De la Barrera (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Psychological Reports
The ongoing pandemic has dramatically disrupted daily life, increasing the risk of developing psychiatric disorders and poor mental wellbeing. The compound effects of social, political and psychological stressors have increased psychological symptoms among adolescents and young people, with worries about COVID-19 playing a central role in the clinical course of their mental health problems caused by the pandemic. The aim of this cross-cultural study was to examine the social psychological effects of COVID-19 on adolescents’ and young people’s mental health and wellbeing in Ibero-American population. Participants involved 6,283 adolescents and young adults from five different Spanish-Speaking countries (83.7% female) aged between 12 and 30 years (M = 18.79; SD = 3.48).
The public library's role in youth learning: remediation and acceleration during COVID

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth McChesney

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Library Administration
This article summarizes key research findings about academic learning loss during the COVID-19 pandemic and how public libraries can help youth with learning remediation and acceleration. Given the educational crisis, it is urgent that public library services and programs create more equitable practices for all children, particularly children of color. Finally, the article highlights specific practices instituted by several library systems that address COVID-related learning loss and are aligned to two areas of national priority: summer learning and out-of-school time.
On race and ethnicity during a global pandemic: An ‘imperfect mosaic’ of maternal and child health services in ethnically-diverse South London, United Kingdom

AUTHOR(S)
Sergio A. Silverio; Kaat De Backer; Tisha Dasgupta (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: eClinicalMedicine

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought racial and ethnic inequity into sharp focus, as Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic people were reported to have greater clinical vulnerability. During the pandemic, priority was given to ongoing, reconfigured maternity and children’s healthcare. This study aimed to understand the intersection between race and ethnicity, and healthcare provision amongst maternity and children’s healthcare professionals, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods A qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews (N = 53) was undertaken with maternity (n = 29; August-November 2020) and children’s (n = 24; June-July 2021) healthcare professionals from an NHS Trust in ethnically-diverse South London, UK. Data pertinent to ethnicity and race were subject to Grounded Theory Analysis, whereby data was subjected to iterative coding and interpretive analysis. Using this methodology, data are compared between transcripts to generate lower and higher order codes, before super-categories are formed, which are finally worked into themes. The inter-relationship between these themes is interpreted as a final theory.

Inclusive and resilient societies: equality, sustainability and efficiency
Institution: UNESCO, Fundacion La Caixa
Published: May 2022

This first UNESCO Policy Report on Inclusive and Resilient Societies, released as the world enters the third year of the pandemic, analyses the causes, nature and evolution of inequalities during the COVID-19 crisis. High-level analysis and findings are detailed in this summary, with detail provided in the report.

The COVID-19 pandemic: health impact on unaccompanied migrant children.

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer L Siegel

Published: May 2022   Journal: Social Work
From the point of apprehension by U.S. Customs and Border Protection at the U.S.–Mexican border to their reunification with sponsors in U.S. communities, unaccompanied children (UC) face political, social, and economic conditions, heightening their risk for mental and physical health burdens that may be exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such risk underscores the importance of social work practice and advocacy for the improved treatment and experiences of UC. This article uses a structural vulnerability conceptual lens to summarize the existing literature regarding UC and argues that UC’s liminal immigration status, economic precarity, and lack of healthcare access place this group at high structural vulnerability during the pandemic. Further, this article identifies and describes three contexts of structural vulnerability of UC that are important points of social work intervention: (1) at the border, where migrant children are denied their legal right to seek protection; (2) in detention and shelter facilities; and (3) during reunification with sponsors. This article concludes with important practice and policy opportunities for social workers to pursue to obtain social justice for an important and highly vulnerable migrant child population.
Prior home learning environment is associated with adaptation to homeschooling during COVID lockdown.

AUTHOR(S)
Cléa Girard; Jérôme Prado

Published: May 2022   Journal: Heliyon
The COVID-19 crisis in 2020 led to exceptional measures to contain the spread of the virus. In France as in many countries around the world, the government ordered a lockdown with school closure for several weeks. A growing number of studies suggest that family socio-economic status might be an important predictor of how families adapted to homeschooling during lockdown. However, socio-economic status is a distal factor that does not necessarily inform on the specific characteristics of the home learning environment that may more directly influence parental adaptation to homeschooling during lockdown. Here we aimed to examine how parental adaptation to homeschooling during lockdown was influenced by prior parental attitudes and expectations towards academic learning, as well as prior familiarity with literacy and numeracy activities at home. The present study involves 52 families who participated in a study about the home learning environment in 2018. At that time, parents completed an extensive questionnaire assessing their beliefs and attitudes towards academic learning and the frequency of literacy and numeracy activities are home. At the end of the first 2020 French lockdown, the same parents were asked to complete a questionnaire, this time assessing homeschooling conditions during lockdown as well as parental confidence towards academic domains.
Mind the gap 2: seeking safe and sustainable solutions for girls’ education in crises
Institution: Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies
Published: May 2022

This report summarizes progress, gaps, challenges and opportunities in improving education and training for girls and women affected by conflict and crisis. This report monitors progress since the first Mind the Gap report and highlights the following thematic areas: distance education and the digital divide, school-related gender-based violence, and girls’ education during climate crisis.  The report aims to support the Charlevoix Declaration on Quality Education’s commitment to enhance the evidence base and monitor progress toward gender-equitable education in crises. The report draws from data on 44 crisis-affected countries, from recent research, and from a set of case studies of interventions in a range of crisis-affected contexts.

Women at the last mile: how investments in gender equality have kept health systems running during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Anushka Kalyanpur; Ihlas Altinci; Emmanuel Ojwang (et al.)

Institution: CARE
Published: May 2022
Even before COVID-19, investments in health systems—and especially female health workers—were too low. In 2019 the world had a gap of 18 million health workers. Two years and fifteen million deaths later, we have at least 26 million fewer health workers than we need. , This leaves us severely underprepared for future pandemics and other major shocks to the health system, including conflict and climate change. We must invest in health systems that don’t just meet the needs of today, but that are also resilient in the face of future shocks. Pandemic preparedness requires gender equality: equal recognition, support, and fair pay for ALL health workers. Globally, 70% of health workers are women, but half of their work is unpaid. We must do more to support these health workers. The glimmers of success in COVID-19 built on previous investments in women health workers, their skills, and equality in health systems. Pre-existing investments in equality helped systems respond to COVID-19. Increased investments will build better resilience for the crises that come next. This report highlights case studies and lessons learned from 20 countries during COVID-19.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.