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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 659
Adaptive social protection in Southern Africa
Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
The countries of the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) - Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia, and South Africa are exposed to climatic shocks, especially drought, that pose a continual threat to lives and livelihoods across the subregion. The pandemic has compounded these existing vulnerabilities. Climatic shocks such as these tend to affect the poorest most, exacerbating inequalities and increasing poverty. Food insecurity, which is chronic in the subregion and both a root cause of vulnerability to drought and an outcome of it also increased as a result of impacts from the pandemic. Social safety net programs can help poor and vulnerable households manage the risks they face from shocks, helping to mitigate the impacts on poverty and food insecurity, but their effectiveness can be constrained in several ways. The mobilization of social protection in response to COVID-19 and the challenges that have emerged to that mobilization have strengthened the case for investments in preparedness ahead of future shocks. Adaptive social protection refers to an agenda for preparing social protection systems to improve their response to shocks and to build the resilience of poor and vulnerable households. This report takes stock of ASP in four of the five SACU countries and provides targeted recommendations for each country’s development.
Cambodia poverty assessment: toward a more inclusive and resilient Cambodia

AUTHOR(S)
Wendy Karamba; Kimsun Tong; Isabelle Salcher

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
This poverty assessment evaluates Cambodia’s poverty reduction progress between 2009 and 2019 and contributing factors. Based on the authors understanding of contributing factors, the assessment asks what the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been, and what will be needed to support inclusive recovery. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) recently updated the national poverty lines for Cambodia. Prompted by Cambodia’s transition to lower middle-income status in 2015, the RGC revisited the poverty measurement methodology in 2017; the review confirmed that the way Cambodians live and spend today has changed considerably as the country became richer, and that the national poverty lines needed revising to better reflect economic realities. This assessment uses the new poverty lines to evaluate Cambodia between 2009 and 2019, coupled with other data sources. This poverty assessment covers 5 chapters. Chapter 1 examines the progress Cambodia made in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity between 2009 and 2019. Chapter 2 examines the evolution of nonmonetary poverty between 2009 and 2019. Chapter 3 examines the profile of poverty and inequality in 2019/20. Chapter 4 examines the 2019 fiscal system and its effects on poverty and inequality in 2019/20. Chapter 5 examines COVID-19 socio-economic effects on Cambodian Households in 2020.
Towards an inclusive recovery from COVID-19 impacts : a policy brief

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia Belhaj Hassine; Sharon Faye Piza; Francine Claire Fernandez

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
Coronavirus (COVID-19) partly reversed gains made in three decades of sustained decline in poverty and a decade of accelerated reduction in inequality in Philippines. Although the economy is recovering gradually, there are signs that the recovery may be uneven. Income recovery also seems to be slower for the poor. The COVID-19 pandemic may have long-term negative impacts on development of human capital. To manage the pandemic shock, a considerable number of poor households have relied on such adverse coping mechanisms as reducing food consumption, which may aggravate already prevalent child malnutrition and stunting. Policy needs to be directed to support an inclusive recovery and to address enduring medium to long term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Real choices real lives: Latin America
Institution: Plan International
Published: October 2022

This report, focusing on evidence from Brazil, Dominican Republic, and El Salvador, forms part of Plan International’s ongoing research, Real Choices, Real Lives – a qualitative, longitudinal study following the lives of girls living in nine countries* around the world from their birth (in 2006), until they turn 18 (in 2024). Through annual data collection, Real Choices, Real Lives captures unique insights into what it means to grow up as a girl across different contexts, including how families and communities shape expectations of what girls can do, and be, right from the moment they are born.

A global review of COVID-19 policy and programmatic responses to child labour in agrifood systems

This review aims to look into the consequences of (1) the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures put in place to mitigate the spread of the pandemic and (2) the policies and programmatic responses to mitigate socio-economic consequences of the pandemic and how they have potentially interacted with child labour drivers, especially in agrifood systems. Thus, this review aims to document and spell out how policy and programmatic responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular social protection measures, have the potential to prevent or contain an increase of child labour in agriculture at large.

Food system opportunities in a turbulent time

AUTHOR(S)
Cesar Calderon; Alain Kabundi; Kubota Megumi (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: October 2022
African economies are facing a series of challenges to their post-pandemic recovery. Economic activity in the region is slowing to 3.3 percent amid global headwinds, including weak global growth and tightening global financial conditions. Elevated inflation rates and resulting policy tightening, as well as the rising risk of debt distress, are also impacting economic activity. While food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa was increasing before the onset of Covid-19, the pandemic and the food and energy crisis have contributed to the recent steep increase in food insecurity and malnutrition. Climate shocks, low productivity in agriculture, lack of infrastructure also contribute to rising food insecurity in the region. The economic fallout from the multiple crises affecting the region has lowered household incomes, increased poverty, widen inequality and heightened food insecurity. This report discusses short-term measures combined with medium- to long-term policy actions that can strengthen African countries' capacity to build resilience and seize opportunities to unlock productivity-enhancing growth while protecting the poor and vulnerable.
Coping with shocks: migration and the road to resilience
Institution: The World Bank
Published: October 2022
South Asia is facing renewed challenges. The impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on food and energy prices on domestic inflation is long-lasting. Externally, countries’ current account balances deteriorate rapidly as imports rise on the back of economic recovery and rising inflation, remittances decline, and foreign capital flows out following monetary tightening in advanced economies. An economic slowdown in advanced economies and trading partners can also be a drag to the exports sector and remittances inflows, which many countries in the region depend on. These immediate challenges can translate to persistent deterrent to long-term growth and development. Higher energy prices already are changing the attitude of many countries outside the region about green transition and carbon reduction. The South Asia region is thus at a critical juncture. The theme chapter provides a deep dive into COVID-19 and migration. Migrant workers and remittances flows are important for South Asia as sources of income and means to smooth local income shocks for households, and as an important source of foreign reserves for the country. The pandemic changed the flows of migration, as some migrants had to return home and some had to stay in foreign countries due to COVID-related restrictions. The chapter studies the long-run trend of migration in the region, how COVID-19 impacted migration and remittance inflows, whether migration has (or has not) recovered, and proposes policies to address underlying problems.
Social protection and response to COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean

AUTHOR(S)
Nurth Palomo; Luis Vargas Faulbaum; Anna Carolina Machado (et al.)

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has hit the foundations of the economy and provoked devastating social effects in all the countries in the world, being Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) one of the most affected regions. The region is also experiencing a significant deterioration in the levels of poverty and extreme poverty, which affects children and adolescents more significantly. This Research Report analyzes digital payment systems for social protection interventions in the region.

Examining the relationship between discrimination, access to material resources, and black children's behavioral functioning during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nneka Ibekwe-Okafor; Jacqueline Sims; Sihong Liu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how longstanding systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children's behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing).
Impact of COVID-19 inequalities on children: an intersectional analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Gabriel Lemkow–Tovías; Louis Lemkow; Lucinda Cash-Gibson (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Sociology of Health & Illness
Societal concerns about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have largely focussed on the social groups most directly affected, such as the elderly and health workers. However, less focus has been placed on understanding the effects on other collectives, such as children. While children’s physical health appears to be less affected than the adult population, their mental health, learning and wellbeing is likely to have been significantly negatively affected during the pandemic due to the varying policy restrictions, such as withdrawal from face to face schooling, limited peer-to-peer interactions and mobility and increased exposure to the digital world amongst other things. Children from vulnerable social backgrounds, and especially girls, will be most negatively affected by the impact of COVID-19, given their different intersecting realities and the power structures already negatively affecting them.
Sociodemographic and mental health characteristics associated with changes in movement behaviours due to the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Amanda Lien; Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga; Karen A. Patte (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Activity, Sedentary and Sleep Behaviors volume

Control measures enacted to control the spread of COVID-19 appear to have impacted adolescent movement behaviours. It remains unclear how these changes relate to sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of mental health. Understanding these relationships can contribute to informing health promotion efforts. The purpose of this study is to examine sociodemographic and mental health characteristics associated with changes in movement behaviours (physical activity, screen time, sleep duration) due to the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents. This cross-sectional study used May–June 2020 survey data and included 7349 students from Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia (Canada). ANOVA, χ2 tests, and estimation of effect sizes using Cohen’s d and h tests were performed between self-reported perceived changes (increase; decrease; no change) to physical activity, TV watching, social media use, and sleep duration as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, depression and anxiety symptoms, flourishing-languishing, and self-rated mental health.

Female teachers' double burden during the pandemic: overcoming challenges and dilemma between career and family

AUTHOR(S)
Priyono Tri Febrianto; Siti Mas'udah; Lutfi Apreliana Megasari

Published: October 2022   Journal: Sociologia
The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) challenged educators, especially female teachers, as they shouldered the double burden of being both teachers and spouses. This study articulates the online teaching experiences of Indonesian women that work as elementary school teachers. Moreover, the study explores strategies implemented by these teachers to overcome this career-family dichotomy. Carried out in Indonesia’s East Java province, this descriptive mixed method study surveyed 347 married female teachers, 212 of which have school-aged children.
Impact of COVID-19 on child labor in the Province of Chimborazo

AUTHOR(S)
Cristian Alexander Mejía Ortiz; Gissela Estefania Mera Rojas; Vivian Lizbeth Ruiz Sudario (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: ESPOCH Congresses: The Ecuadorian Journal of S.T.E.A.M.
Child labor violates the children’s fundamental rights and interrupts their intellectual growth and potential. The prevalence of child labor in Ecuador has increased significantly in recent years, and the COVID-19 health crisis has only aided it. The province of Chimborazo over time has taken the lead amongst the other Ecuadorian provinces, showing a significant increase in the rate of child labor which has now become too complex to solve. Although, as a result of COVID-19, the rate of child labor has increased worldwide, the national and provincial rate of child labor in Ecuador significantly reduced due to the social distancing policies. However, once the infections were controlled, it resumed the pre-pandemic situation as many children from low-income families were forced to seek alternative income to survive during the pandemic; likewise, all commercial, production, and service activities were affected.
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young people's experiences of careers support: a UK-wide and youth-centred analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Cristiana Orlando

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling
Young people have been among the hardest hit groups during the COVID-19 pandemic, experiencing disruptions to their education and facing challenging transitions to the labour market (Wilson & Papoutsaki, 2021). This paper analyses data from research conducted by the Institute of Employment Studies (IES) during the pandemic involving 1,345 young people aged 16-25, both in education, employment and not in education, training or employment across the UK, at different points in time (April-September 2021). The mixed-method research adopted a youth-centred approach to explore the impact of the pandemic on young people’s experience of careers support. The analysis gives young people a voice and highlights three key ways in which access to careers support can be improved. These findings have implications for leaders across government and education around the development young people’s careers support following the pandemic.
Does the pandemic affect inequality within families? The case of dual-earner couples in Israel

AUTHOR(S)
Efrat Herzberg-Druker; Tali Kristal; Meir Yaish

Published: October 2022   Journal: Gender & Society
This article exploits the unique consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak to examine whether time constraints drive the unequal division of unpaid labor between dual-earner couples in Israel. Using the first wave of longitudinal household data that was collected in Israel since the outbreak of the pandemic, we focused on 325 dual-earner couples who stayed employed during the first lockdown. By employing OLS regressions, we examined the association between changes in employment hours and changes in unpaid labor for partnered men and women.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.