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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Giving birth in unpredictable conditions: association between parents' COVID-19 related concerns, family functioning, dyadic coping, perceived social support and depressive symptoms

Theano Kokkinaki; Katerina Koutra; Olga Michopoulou (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Healthcare
The way postpartum parents’ COVID-19-related concerns are associated with the family environment, support resources and depressive symptoms areunder-investigated. Two hundred and forty-three new parents (132 mothers, 111 fathers) completed self-report questionnaires within an 8-week period after birth. Parental concerns for COVID-19-related life changes were assessed with the COVID-19 Questionnaire, perceived social support with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, perceived family functioning with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales IV Package, dyadic coping behaviors with the Dyadic Coping Inventory and maternal/paternal postnatal depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
Children have faced several challenges: analyzing reports of children who became orphans caused by COVID-19

Sarah Madinatu Hassan

Published: November 2022   Journal: Ilomata International Journal of Social Science
Many children have become orphans due to COVID-19. Their experiences have been under reported due to focus on other areas. This study explores adverse social consequences of children who became orphans due to COVID-19. With the aid of a documentary review approach, this study extracts and analyzes reports from 11 highly ranked news reporting sites in the United States of America that contained expert opinions and narratives on the negative social consequences of being orphaned by COVID-19. Analysis of data followed the narrative thematic analysis procedure. The outstanding themes identified are the loss of caregivers and primary social support system, and increased risk of mental health concerns.
The correlation between social support and adversity quotient in young mothers with 0-1 year old babies during the Covid-19 pandemic

Ameliya Alfirdosi; Nur Eva; Fonny Dameaty Hutagalung (et al.)

Published: November 2022
Infant mortality is one of the world’s most serious health problems. Under normal conditions, infant mortality in Indonesia is still a serious concern and is increasingly becoming a major challenge, especially in the current pandemic situation. The government has designated COVID-19 as a national nonnatural disaster and stated that there was an increase in infant mortality during the pandemic. One of the factors in the high number of infant mortality is early marriage. The initial interview indicated that some mothers experience problems and anxiety in caring for babies aged 0-1 years during the COVID-19 pandemic which is expected to affect the mental health of mothers. The study aimed to find out the adversity quotient and social support in young mothers with children aged 0-1 years during the covid-19 pandemic, and to find out the relationship between adversity quotient and social support. The methods used in this research are descriptive analysis and correlational analysis. The sample number in the study was 124 respondents. The measurement instruments in this study were 50 items on the adversity quotient scale and 12 items on social support scales that had a reliability of .969 and .915, respectively.
How did children with disabilities experience education and social welfare during Covid-19?

Kjetil Klette‐Bøhler; Dagmara Bossy; Vyda Mamley Hervie

Published: November 2022   Journal: Social Inclusion
Research suggests that children with disabilities have been systemically marginalised during the Covid-19 pandemic as contamination measures complicated some social policies. School closure, quarantine, and the increased use of social media in remote schooling have placed children with disabilities in a vulnerable situation. This article explores the subjective consequences of such processes through the analysis of qualitative interviews with parents who had children with disabilities. To contextualise our analysis, we also draw on expert interviews with bureaucrats and social workers and data from a survey that was sent out to parents who had children with disabilities. Taken together, these data sources provide a rich empirical context to study how the pandemic influenced the access of children with disabilities to education and social services in Norway.
Everyday life of children in out-of-home care during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic

Pia K. Eriksson; Siiri Utriainen

Published: November 2022   Journal: European Journal of Social Work
This article scrutinises the impacts of COVID-19 on the everyday life of children in out-of-home care in Finland during the first year of the pandemic. A content analysis was conducted on survey data of municipal social workers’ evaluations on the effect of the pandemic on 773 children in foster and residential care.
Adaptations and staff experiences in delivering parenting programmes and other family support services in three community-based organisations in Cape Town, South Africa during the COVID pandemic

Yulia Shenderovich; Hlengiwe Sacolo-Gwebu; Zuyi Fang (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Global Public Health
This study explored how organisations working on parenting programmes and other types of family support and violence prevention in low-resource settings experienced the pandemic. In August 2020–May 2021, we interviewed (1) staff from three community-based organisations delivering evidence-informed parenting interventions and other psychosocial services for families in Cape Town, South Africa, (2) staff from a parenting programme training organisation and (3) staff from two international organisations supporting psychosocial services in South Africa.
Strategies to improve adolescent food security from the perspectives of policy advocates, parents, and adolescents

Kaitlyn Harper; Rebecca Skinner; Michelle Martinez-Baack (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Nutrients
This study explored strategies to improve adolescent food security using semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 policy advocates, 12 parents and 15 adolescents aged between 17 and 20 years, living in households who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in 2020. This study was part of a larger evaluation of adolescent food insecurity conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, USA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Three key strategies arose during analysis—improving federal nutrition assistance programs for households, federal nutrition assistance programs for individual adolescents, and leveraging school programs and resources. Respondents described concordant views regarding the role of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in supporting households but held discordant views about the role of other federal programs, such as the school nutrition programs and Pandemic Electronic Benefit Transfer program.
Family strengthening in the context of COVID-19: adapting a community-based intervention from Kenya to the United States

Eve S. Puffer; Savannah L. Johnson; Kaitlin N. Quick (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Prevention Science
COVID-19 led to widespread disruption of services that promote family well-being. Families impacted most were those already experiencing disparities due to structural and systemic barriers. Existing support systems faded into the background as families became more isolated. New approaches were needed to deliver evidence-based, low-cost interventions to reach families within communities. This research adapted a family strengthening intervention developed in Kenya (“Tuko Pamoja”) for the United States.

The impact of COVID-19 and immigration enforcement on service delivery for immigrant origin families involved in the child welfare system

Kristina Lovato; Megan Finno-Velasquez; Sophia Sepp (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal
This descriptive study sought to explore how child welfare agencies and community partner organizations experienced and adapted service provision for immigrant children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were completed with 31 child welfare agency practitioners and community partners in 11 states who work with immigrant clients or on immigration related policies within the child welfare sector. Data were coded and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach.
Addressing the social service needs of Latinx families impacted by COVID-19 and immigration-related stressors

Kristina Lovato; Jesse Jeffrey Ramirez

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Social Service Research
This qualitative study explored how service providers perceived the stressors that Latinx immigrants experienced due to COVID-19 and the restrictive immigration enforcement climate in the U.S. The study also examined how social service providers responded to immigrant families’ social service needs in light of the impediments imposed by the pandemic. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted via telephone and Zoom with social service providers. (n = 28) who provided direct services to immigrant clients in Los Angeles, CA. Colaizzi’s (1978) phenomenological method was utilized as a data analysis guide. Findings showed that Latinx immigrants experienced: (a) high rates of economic stressors and negative mental health outcomes due to the pandemic; (b) immigration-related distress and barriers seeking services; (c) shifting social service needs; and (d) relied on spiritual practices and mutual aid. Culturally responsive practice and policy implications are included.
Nowcasting impact of COVID-19 on multidimensional child poverty

Olivera Fiala; Aristide Kielem; Enrique Delamónica (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Statistical Journal of the IAOS
From the onset, it was clear that the impact of the global economic and social crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic was unlikely to affect all children equally. Thus, it was necessary to ascertain the impact of COVID-19 on child poverty as the events unfolded. Many of the indirect effects of the pandemic – disruptions to health services, delayed vaccination programmes, widespread school closures, and increases in food insecurity – have significant impacts on the realisation of children’s rights and, consequently, were expected to increase material deprivations across different dimensions. The question was by how much? In this article we explain the modelling and methodological approach to project or nowcast the answer to that question. The method is dynamic as it was revised as additional information emerged during 2020 and 2021.
Working and caring for a disabled adopted child during a pandemic

Claudia Sellmaier; JaeRan Kim

Published: July 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
Integrating work and family demands can be challenging for families caring for a child with one or more disabilities. The pandemic and its changes to work, schooling and service delivery potentially added to these challenges. This exploratory mixed methods study sought to understand how the pandemic affected adoptive parents' work–life fit and service use. A total of 200 participants responded to survey questions about parenting an adopted child with a disability prior to, and after, the onset of Covid-19. More than half of the parents (59.2%) reported that it was somewhat to very difficult to integrate both work and family demands. Parents with greater access to workplace flexibility and supportive supervisors had significantly less difficulties combining work and family. Families who reported more problems with accessing mental health services, special education and respite care reported significantly more challenges with work–family fit. Parents reported increased stress due to the pandemic changes, but many also shared positive changes such as more time for family. Online services were experienced as effective for some children and reduced time spent driving to appointments. Recommendations for workplace and social service practice and policy supporting adoptive parents of children with disabilities are discussed.
Early (years) reactions: comparative analysis of early childhood policies and programs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

Joanne Kearon; Sarah Carsley; Meta van den Heuvel (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

During the first wave of COVID-19 there was little evidence to guide appropriate child and family programs and policy supports. This study compared policies and programs implemented to support early child health and well-being during the first wave of COVID-19 in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Singapore, the UK, and the USA. Program and policy themes were focused on prenatal care, well-baby visits and immunization schedules, financial supports, domestic violence and housing, childcare supports, child protective services, and food security.

Interrupted access to and use of family planning among youth in a community-based service in Zimbabwe during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic

Constancia V. Mavodza; Sarah Bernays; Constance R. S. Mackworth-Young (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Studies in Family Planning
The COVID-19 pandemic has had serious impacts on economic, social, and health systems, and fragile public health systems have become overburdened in many countries, exacerbating existing service delivery challenges. This study describes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on family planning services within a community-based integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health intervention for youth aged 16–24 years being trialled in Zimbabwe (CHIEDZA). It examines the experiences of health providers and clients in relation to how the first year of the pandemic affected access to and use of contraceptives.
Trajectories of mental health status during the early phase pandemic in China: A longitudinal study on adolescents living in the community with confirmed cases

Dongfang Wang; Jingbo Zhao; Shuyi Zhai (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Psychiatry Research
Sufficient research reports that individuals living in the community with confirmed COVID-19 cases are more likely to exhibit poor mental health condition. However, little is known about the longitudinal trajectories of mental health status among these people who are exposed to increased risk of contracting COVID-19. Using a 3-wave longitudinal survey between February and June 2020, data has been collected from 2,352 adolescents living in the community with confirmed cases.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.