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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The associations between accelerometer-measured physical activity levels and mental health in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Wen Yang; Ming Hui Li; Jane Jie Yu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
This study aims to examine the associations between physical activity (PA) levels and mental health in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic, 117 participants aged between 6 and 17 years with IDs from 10 Hong Kong special schools were included. There were positive dose–response associations between PA (i.e., light PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA) and mental health, and participants with higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-concept (SC) had better social quality of life (QoL) than those with lower levels of MVPA and SC. Moreover, personal and environmental factors such as age, body mass index, school, sex, ID level, and parental education level influenced the PA levels and QoL in children and adolescents with IDs.
Exploring home-based learning by using mobile for children with autism during Covid-19 pandemic

Muhamad Fairus Kamaruzaman; Faizah Abdul Majid; Nurshamshida Md Shamsudin (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal

Educating children with autism is a big responsibility for special education teachers and parents. Since the Covid-19 pandemic hit Malaysia, the learning approach has been shifted to virtual learning. The use of education technology has gained state-of-the-art research interest in children with autism, especially in the context of mobile learning. This study will examine how mobile learning could assist children with autism in coping with their daily routine study during the pandemic era. Instructors, teachers, and parents of children with autism may find the findings useful as one of their references in determining their teaching aids and strategies.

Mental health impact of COVID-19 on Saudi families and children with special educational needs and disabilities in Saudi Arabia: a national perspective

Shuliweeh Alenezi; Mohamad-Hani Temsah; Ahmed S. Alyahya (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed a multidimensional impact on mental health due to health concerns, social distancing and lockdowns, job loss, and limits in institutional support. Accordingly, COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already high prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Hence, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND to identify their ongoing health, including psychological wellbeing and support needs. The current study examines the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional national study design was utilized as a part of an international consortium using an online Arabic survey. Data were collected from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Development beneficiaries from May to July 2020. The sample consisted of 1,848 parents of children with SEND aged between 1 and 18 years (mean = 9.66; SD = 4.31). A descriptive and bivariant analysis is reported.

Home schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom: the experience of families of children with neurodevelopmental conditions

Athanasia Kouroupa; Amanda Allard; Kylie M. Gray (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
The COVID-19 outbreak, and associated school restrictions affected the learning experience of students worldwide. The current study focused on the learning experiences of United Kingdom children with neurodevelopmental conditions, including autism and/or intellectual disability. Specifically, the aim was to examine families’ experience with school support for home schooling, families’ resources, and level of satisfaction with schools among families whose children engaged with home schooling, hybrid learning, and school-based learning during the pandemic. An online survey took place in 2021, approximately 1 year since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited mostly through social media with support via several charities across the United Kingdom. Participants were 809 parents/carers of children with autism and/or intellectual disability aged 5 – 15 years. Of these, 59% were learning from home daily during home schooling, 19% spent some days in school (hybrid learning), and 22% were going to school daily during school restrictions. Parents/carers reported on the support received from schools, the resources accessed, and the resources needed but not accessed to facilitate learning. They also reported on their level of satisfaction with school support and school management of COVID-19 risks.
An exploration into the implications of the Covid‐19 restrictions on the transition from Early Years Education to Key Stage 1 for children with special educational needs and disability: a comparative study

Jessica Wythe

Published: August 2022   Journal: British Journal of Special Education
This small-scale comparative study explores how the coronavirus pandemic has impacted on the transition from Early Years Education to Key Stage 1 (KS1) for children with special educational needs and disability (SEND) in a SEND specialist school in the UK. Two focus group interviews were conducted with nine professionals who work across three KS1 classes for pupils with moderate learning difficulties at a SEND specialist provision setting. This study aimed to compare their experiences and observations of how the children responded to this significant transition in September 2020, in the context of the coronavirus restrictions, and how their practice, provision and transitional support were adapted to meet the needs of the children and to adhere to the changing Covid-19 guidance.
Challenges of online learning for children with special educational needs and disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review

Indre Bakaniene; Martyna Dominiak-Świgoń; Miguel Augusto Meneses da Silva Santos (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected education at all levels in various ways. This paper provides a review of the literature on the challenges of online learning for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). In total, 17 studies from nine countries were analysed. The challenges of online learning for children with SEND reported by teachers and parents and the strategies applied to overcome the challenges were identified.

Silver linings of the Covid-19 pandemic… for some! Comparing Experiences and Social demographic characteristics of autistic and non-autistic children with SEND in England

Susana Castro-Kemp; Arif Mahmud

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Several studies on the impact of Covid-19 on children’s wellbeing have been published, including for those with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities. However, limited evidence is available on who these children may be, their socioeconomic background, age, gender or type of school attended. This study examines the role of socio-demographic characteristics on the experiences of Autistic Children, compared to non-Autistic children, to assess the detrimental impact of the pandemic, but also potential silver linings. Primary-school aged Autistic children were more likely to mention a silver lining (for mental health), as well as younger non-Autistic children from more affluent backgrounds. Similar effects were observed for older non-Autistic boys with special needs attending mainstream settings (regarding physical health).
Parent satisfaction with the parent-provider partnership and therapy service delivery for children with disabilities during COVID-19: associations with sociodemographic variables

Ashley N. Murphy; Ellie Bruckner; Linzy M. Pinkerton (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Families, Systems, & Health
 The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) significantly disrupted therapy service delivery for children with disabilities and their families. Parents of children with disabilities have been particularly impacted as a large degree of responsibility has been placed on them to both manage and deliver therapies remotely. However, little is known regarding whether sociodemographic factors are associated with parents’ perceptions of therapy service delivery during COVID-19. This study explored the relationship between sociodemographic factors and parents’ satisfaction with therapies for children with disabilities during COVID-19. Two hundred seven parents of children with disabilities completed an online survey battery that included the Family-Provider Partnership Scale and sociodemographic characteristics and assessed their satisfaction with their child[ren]’s therapies during COVID-19.
Satisfaction of parents in the implementation of PdPR on special education during the Covid-19 pandemic

Livesha A. P. Singgaravi; Syar Meeze Bin Mohd Rashid

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development
This study aims to identify the level of parental satisfaction in the implementation of Special education PdPR during the Covid-19 pandemic. The implementation of PdPR played a very important role in improving the quality of education during the Covid-19 pandemic. The design of this study used a quantitative method that used a questionnaire instrument distributed through Google Form. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, which is demographic information, the second part on the level of parental satisfaction and the third part on the barriers to the implementation of PdPR. A total of 50 respondents consisting of parents of primary school special education students were involved in this study. The study data obtained were analyzed descriptively in the form of frequency and percentage which were categorized into two parts, the analysis of parental satisfaction with PdPR learning and the barriers faced by parents to implement PdPR.
Education services for children with special needs in inclusive schools during the pandemic era of COVID-19

S. Suharsiwi; W. S. Pandia; A. Suradika (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Sciences
This study aims to obtain information on educational services for Children with Special Needs during a pandemic in Indonesia, which includes 1) educational services for Children with Special Needs, 2) the role of parents, and 3) barriers for parents, teachers and children in learning during the pandemic. This study uses a descriptive qualitative approach, case studies of research subjects on 9 parents and 9 accompanying teachers from 4 schools in Jakarta and Depok, Indonesia. Data collection techniques using observation, interviews, and documentation collection. Thematic analysis is identifying patterns and themes by coding.
Animation based instructional approach for learning attainment and cognitive functioning of Indian children with ADHD during COVID-19 crisis

Jaishree Devi; Ananta Kumar Jena

Published: May 2022   Journal: Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
Animation based online instructional sessions were organised for enhancing learning attainment and cognitive functioning skills for children diagnosed with ADHD symptoms. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of animation-based instruction for the empowerment of learning attainment in relation to the cognitive functioning in students with ADHD during COVID-19 crisis. Quasi-experimental design was done on students with ADHD (n = 75, 11–12 years) from three different schools of Assam, India.
The reported effects of the pandemic on the academic and developmental progress of pupils in specialist provisions in England. Using estimates from school and college leaders to determine differences between economically disadvantaged and non-economi

Rob Webster; Amy Skipp; Claire Tyers (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
This paper addresses an identified gap in research during the COVID-19 pandemic: how the disruption impacted on pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) attending specialist (i.e., non-mainstream) settings in England. Estimates provided by around 200 special school and college leaders at two time points during the pandemic are used to provide overall estimates of the extent to which the pandemic and time spent out of school had on the academic and developmental progress of pupils in these settings.
Lockdown in France: impact on families of young children with special needs

Stéphanie Pinel-Jacquemin; Amalia Martinez; Maud Martinasso (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Families with young children have faced serious challenges during the first lockdown as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to remote working, parents have had to monitor their children’s schoolwork and manage their daily lives. When one of the children also has neuro-developmental disorders, this results in an increased burden. We can therefore wonder how these families with one or more young children (under 6 years old) with special needs have experienced and dealt with this lockdown. In this context, the “COVJEUNENFANT” study focused more specifically on the subjective experience, as a parent, of those who cared for children with special needs (i.e., with developmental disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, proven disabilities or chronic health conditions) compared to the general population. It aimed to see if the consequences of the health crisis were significantly different from those perceived by respondents in the general population (n = 490) and if the sociodemographic structure of these families differed from those of other respondents.

How did autistic children, and their parents, experience school transition during the Covid-19 pandemic?

Aimee Code; Laura Fox; Kathryn Asbury (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The British Journal of Special Education
Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the start of the academic year in September 2020 was a unique time for those transitioning to a new school. This study aimed to explore the experiences of parents who supported autistic children making a range of different school transitions in 2020. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 13 parents of autistic children in the UK, and data were analyzed with reflexive thematic analysis. For some parents, the Covid-19 pandemic negatively impacted on aspects of school transitions. However, other parents expressed the view that these same circumstances created opportunities to approach the school transition in a unique, improved manner. This article sheds light on the heterogeneity of experiences and perceptions of parents of autistic children, and highlights the need to examine the impact of Covid-19 on school transitions, including practices that it may be advantageous to retain.
Associations between social isolation and parenting stress during the first wave of COVID-19 in Italian children with special educational needs

Laura Zampini; Paola Zanchi; Paolo Riva (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
The parents of 413 children with typical development (TD) or special educational needs (SEN) filled in an online survey to investigate the associations between the restrictions introduced to face COVID-19 and parenting stress and parental disciplinary practices. The parents of children with SEN showed a significantly higher stress level than TD children's parents. However, they showed a lower inclination to overreact. In both groups, the parents who feel less supported, feel their needs threatened, and report having a child with more difficulties were more likely to exhibit parenting stress. Data on the associations between COVID-19 restrictions and the stress perceived by parents could help to focus the attention of the public health system on their parents' needs, leading to practices aimed to prevent parenting stress and burnout.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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