Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   60     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 60
Inclusive education for exceptional children in Egypt and the US: reforming Egyptian inclusive education system in post-pandemic world

Noha Abbas

Published: January 2023   Journal: Gulf Education and Social Policy Review
Inclusive education means that exceptional children (EC) can fully participate in the learning process alongside their typically developing peers, supported by reasonable accommodations and teaching strategies that are tailored to meet their individual needs. The main goal of inclusion policies for EC is to provide high-quality education for all without discrimination and to ensure the implementation of equal opportunity principles. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the reality of inclusive education systems in Egypt and the United States (US) and to develop a better understanding of similarities and differences and thus identify the lessons learned. The study applied a comparative analysis method.
Parents' competence, autonomy, and relatedness in supporting children with special educational needs in emergency remote teaching during COVID-19 lockdown

Kaisa Pihlainen; Serja Turunen; Anitta Melasalmi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: European Journal of Special Needs Education
Actions to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as emergency remote teaching (ERT), affected the lives of school children, their parents, and schooling in spring 2020. Rapid changes in routines due to lockdown and ERT were challenging, especially for many children with special needs (SEN). This article focuses on parents’ perspectives regarding their basic psychological needs, i.e. competence, autonomy, and relatedness, in relation to the schooling of their children with SEN. Questionnaire data consisted of the views of 120 parents who described 179 resources and 151 challenges concerning their basic psychological needs during ERT of their children. Data were analysed following the principles of theoretical categorising.
Remote graphic-based teaching for pupils with visual impairments: understanding current practices and co-designing an accessible tool with special education teachers

Kaixing Zhao; Julie Mulet; Clara Sorita (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction
The lockdown period related to the COVID-19 pandemic has had a strong impact on the educational system in general, but more particularly on the special education system. Indeed, in the case of people with visual impairments, the regular tools relying heavily on images and videos were no longer usable. This specific situation highlighted an urgent need to develop tools that are accessible and that can provide solutions for remote teaching with people with VI. However, there is little work on the difficulties that this population encounters when they learn remotely as well as on the current practices of special education teachers. Such a lack of understanding limits the development of remote teaching systems that are adapted. This paper conducted an online survey regarding the practices of 59 professionals giving lessons to pupils with VI, followed by a series of focus groups with special education workers facing teaching issues during the lockdown period. It followed an iterative design process where successive low-fidelity prototypes were designed to drive successive focus groups.
Interpersonal communication between special educational needs teachers and parents of special-needs student during Covid-19 pandemic

Retno Sulistiyaningsih; Nur Rohmah Hidayatul Qoyyimah; Alifia Damara Nurochim (et al.)

Published: November 2022
The pandemic has had a significant impact on all sectors, especially on education which has a systemic impact. The changing pattern of teaching, learning, and the consequences endured are also a problem, especially in schools that administer inclusive education. This results in a changing pattern of communication between teachers, special-needs students, and parents. The study aims to illustrate the interpersonal communication dynamics inherent between a teacher and a parent as a central figure in the study of courage for special-needs students. The type of method used was a qualitative method with a case study approach. The study included five participants, three with details of special educational needs teachers and two for parents of special-needs students. The study was conducted in a data search phase through observation, documentation, and interviews. To strengthen the results, the focus group discussion included the five participants directly. For data analysis Miles and Huberman method was applied, whereas for data credibility data triangulation was used.
Initial evaluation practices to identify young children with delays and disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Elizabeth A. Steed; Rachel Stein; Renee Charlifue-Smith (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Early Intervention
This study utilized a mixed methods design to analyze responses from a nationally distributed survey of professionals’ (N = 1,000) experiences conducting initial evaluations for early intervention and preschool special education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most personnel reported pausing their initial evaluations at some point during the pandemic. Professionals conducting initial evaluations reported various changes to their prepandemic initial evaluation process, including moving the evaluation to a remote format and asking about the impact of the pandemic on the family. Changes to the initial evaluation process were more often reported by personnel conducting initial evaluations for early intervention when compared with personnel conducting initial evaluations for preschool special education.
Challenges and opportunities of online training for work with children with special needs

Irena Georgievska; Marija Ristevska; Jasminka Kochoska (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: European Journal of Education and Pedagogy
The trends and changes that have occurred in recent years, as a result of the COVID pandemic and the modernization of education, have led to an increase in the flexibility of the education system and the implementation of technological changes in the educational process itself. That is why the realization of online teaching in primary and secondary schools in the Republic of North Macedonia has started. The organization of online teaching monitoring imposed a change in the paradigm of the pedagogy itself, the organization of teaching, and the ways of working during the whole teaching process. Online teaching was and still is supported by a number of practicums, online training, and education for teachers in order to smoothly implement this type of teaching. This paper examines those perspectives that relate to the specifics of online teaching and its impact on the development of students with disabilities. For that purpose, the views of online teaching are explained, experiences and definitions, and methods for working in online teaching, as well as the characteristics of online teaching. The last point of the paper covers empirical research on teachers and their experiences with distance learning with students with disabilities.
Parent's engagement in the learning needs of learners with Down syndrome in the new normal education

Jeny Hinggo; Janus Naparan; Genesis Naparan

Published: October 2022   Journal: International Journal of Theory and Application in Elementary and Secondary School Education
This study probed parental engagement in the learning needs of the learners with Down syndrome (DS) in their homes in Zamboanga Sibugay, Philippines, during this new normal education. Parents of a child with DS were the primary participants of this study. Merriam’s case study approach was utilized as a research design. Multiple data sources were considered, such as interview transcripts and observation notes during the actual interview.
Understanding educators' perspectives and experiences of COVID-19 in schools serving children with intellectual/developmental disabilities

Erin F. Jones; Vini Singh; Calliope Holingue (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted educators, both personally and professionally. However, very little is known about the extent of these impacts among educators’ serving children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). The present study surveyed 230 educators (teachers, staff, and administrators) to assess their wellbeing, concerns during the pandemic, and perceived importance of various COVID-19 school mitigation strategies. Data were gathered May/June of 2021 from two separate school districts, one in the Midwest and the other in the Mid-Atlantic, serving children with IDD. Nearly half of all survey respondents reported poor wellbeing.
The associations between accelerometer-measured physical activity levels and mental health in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Wen Yang; Ming Hui Li; Jane Jie Yu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
This study aims to examine the associations between physical activity (PA) levels and mental health in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic, 117 participants aged between 6 and 17 years with IDs from 10 Hong Kong special schools were included. There were positive dose–response associations between PA (i.e., light PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA) and mental health, and participants with higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-concept (SC) had better social quality of life (QoL) than those with lower levels of MVPA and SC. Moreover, personal and environmental factors such as age, body mass index, school, sex, ID level, and parental education level influenced the PA levels and QoL in children and adolescents with IDs.
Exploring home-based learning by using mobile for children with autism during Covid-19 pandemic

Muhamad Fairus Kamaruzaman; Faizah Abdul Majid; Nurshamshida Md Shamsudin (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal

Educating children with autism is a big responsibility for special education teachers and parents. Since the Covid-19 pandemic hit Malaysia, the learning approach has been shifted to virtual learning. The use of education technology has gained state-of-the-art research interest in children with autism, especially in the context of mobile learning. This study will examine how mobile learning could assist children with autism in coping with their daily routine study during the pandemic era. Instructors, teachers, and parents of children with autism may find the findings useful as one of their references in determining their teaching aids and strategies.

Mental health impact of COVID-19 on Saudi families and children with special educational needs and disabilities in Saudi Arabia: a national perspective

Shuliweeh Alenezi; Mohamad-Hani Temsah; Ahmed S. Alyahya (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed a multidimensional impact on mental health due to health concerns, social distancing and lockdowns, job loss, and limits in institutional support. Accordingly, COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already high prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Hence, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND to identify their ongoing health, including psychological wellbeing and support needs. The current study examines the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional national study design was utilized as a part of an international consortium using an online Arabic survey. Data were collected from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Development beneficiaries from May to July 2020. The sample consisted of 1,848 parents of children with SEND aged between 1 and 18 years (mean = 9.66; SD = 4.31). A descriptive and bivariant analysis is reported.

Home schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom: the experience of families of children with neurodevelopmental conditions

Athanasia Kouroupa; Amanda Allard; Kylie M. Gray (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
The COVID-19 outbreak, and associated school restrictions affected the learning experience of students worldwide. The current study focused on the learning experiences of United Kingdom children with neurodevelopmental conditions, including autism and/or intellectual disability. Specifically, the aim was to examine families’ experience with school support for home schooling, families’ resources, and level of satisfaction with schools among families whose children engaged with home schooling, hybrid learning, and school-based learning during the pandemic. An online survey took place in 2021, approximately 1 year since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited mostly through social media with support via several charities across the United Kingdom. Participants were 809 parents/carers of children with autism and/or intellectual disability aged 5 – 15 years. Of these, 59% were learning from home daily during home schooling, 19% spent some days in school (hybrid learning), and 22% were going to school daily during school restrictions. Parents/carers reported on the support received from schools, the resources accessed, and the resources needed but not accessed to facilitate learning. They also reported on their level of satisfaction with school support and school management of COVID-19 risks.
An exploration into the implications of the Covid‐19 restrictions on the transition from Early Years Education to Key Stage 1 for children with special educational needs and disability: a comparative study

Jessica Wythe

Published: August 2022   Journal: British Journal of Special Education
This small-scale comparative study explores how the coronavirus pandemic has impacted on the transition from Early Years Education to Key Stage 1 (KS1) for children with special educational needs and disability (SEND) in a SEND specialist school in the UK. Two focus group interviews were conducted with nine professionals who work across three KS1 classes for pupils with moderate learning difficulties at a SEND specialist provision setting. This study aimed to compare their experiences and observations of how the children responded to this significant transition in September 2020, in the context of the coronavirus restrictions, and how their practice, provision and transitional support were adapted to meet the needs of the children and to adhere to the changing Covid-19 guidance.
Challenges of online learning for children with special educational needs and disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review

Indre Bakaniene; Martyna Dominiak-Świgoń; Miguel Augusto Meneses da Silva Santos (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected education at all levels in various ways. This paper provides a review of the literature on the challenges of online learning for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). In total, 17 studies from nine countries were analysed. The challenges of online learning for children with SEND reported by teachers and parents and the strategies applied to overcome the challenges were identified.

Silver linings of the Covid-19 pandemic… for some! Comparing Experiences and Social demographic characteristics of autistic and non-autistic children with SEND in England

Susana Castro-Kemp; Arif Mahmud

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Several studies on the impact of Covid-19 on children’s wellbeing have been published, including for those with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities. However, limited evidence is available on who these children may be, their socioeconomic background, age, gender or type of school attended. This study examines the role of socio-demographic characteristics on the experiences of Autistic Children, compared to non-Autistic children, to assess the detrimental impact of the pandemic, but also potential silver linings. Primary-school aged Autistic children were more likely to mention a silver lining (for mental health), as well as younger non-Autistic children from more affluent backgrounds. Similar effects were observed for older non-Autistic boys with special needs attending mainstream settings (regarding physical health).
1 - 15 of 60

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.