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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 38
Associations between social isolation and parenting stress during the first wave of COVID-19 in Italian children with special educational needs

Laura Zampini; Paola Zanchi; Paolo Riva (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
The parents of 413 children with typical development (TD) or special educational needs (SEN) filled in an online survey to investigate the associations between the restrictions introduced to face COVID-19 and parenting stress and parental disciplinary practices. The parents of children with SEN showed a significantly higher stress level than TD children's parents. However, they showed a lower inclination to overreact. In both groups, the parents who feel less supported, feel their needs threatened, and report having a child with more difficulties were more likely to exhibit parenting stress. Data on the associations between COVID-19 restrictions and the stress perceived by parents could help to focus the attention of the public health system on their parents' needs, leading to practices aimed to prevent parenting stress and burnout.
Lessons from United States school district policies and approaches to special education during the COVID-19 pandemic

Melissa E. Mendoza; Timothy F. Brewer; Matthew S. Smith (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Inclusive Education
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many school districts in countries around the world transitioning rapidly to partial or complete remote learning. These disruptions affected all children’s education, but students with disabilities (SWDs) were particularly at-risk because of the challenges of providing accessible support and services through remote teaching programmes. This study examines the experience of SWDs in 24 United States school districts of instructional and adaptation models between August 2020 and February 2021. Districts varied in their approaches to remote instruction, compensatory services and prioritising SWDs for returning to the classroom before other students. Districts also varied substantially in the information provided regarding Distance Learning Plans, changes to Individualised Education Programmes and related service delivery.
Tailoring remote special education for children with down syndrome during COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines

Michael B. Cahapay

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
Down syndrome is the most common form of intellectual disability. However, there is a paucity of educational research focused on this vulnerable segment of learners especially in the present novel situation. This paper aimed to explore how teachers tailor remote special education for children with down syndrome amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. It draws from a phenomenological qualitative study that collected information from online interviews with nine special education teachers handling children with down syndrome.
Parents’ perspectives about special education needs during COVID-19: differences between Spanish and English-Speaking parents

Laura A. Alba; Jessica Mercado Anazagasty; Anacary Ramirez (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Latinos and Education
The purpose of this study was to explore parents’ perspectives about the special education process during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of Spanish-speaking and English-speaking parents (N = 102) of children receiving special education services. Results indicated that language (English or Spanish), but not household income or parental education, was significantly associated with whether or not a child was receiving special education services during COVID-19, such that English-speaking parents were more likely to report that their child was receiving services relative to Spanish-speaking parents.
Parents’ psychological stress and their views of school success for deaf or hard-of-hearing children during COVID-19

Sanyin Cheng; Shengli Cheng (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Communication Disorders Quarterly
This study mainly explored psychological stress due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and how it related to parents’ views of school success in mainland China. The Psychological Stress Questionnaire and Views of Social and Academic Success were administered to 213 parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Results showed that parents’ and children’s characteristics were related to psychological stress due to COVID-19, which significantly negatively predicted parents’ views of school success. The contributions, limitations, and implications of the present research are discussed.
“This will likely affect his entire life”: parents’ views of special education services during COVID-19

Susan Sonnenschein; Michele L. Stites; Julie A. Grossman (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Journal of Educational Research
Research continues to emerge about the impact of COVID-19 on education; however, reports about the impact on students receiving special education services are more limited. This study examined parental views of distance learning for students with disabilities during the COVID-19 crisis. Using a survey disseminated via social media, this study examined parents’ views (N = 153) of PK-12 education for students receiving special education services during COVID-19.
Professionals’ perspectives on service delivery: the impact of COVID-19 on early childhood special education providers

Doug Gomez; Megan Kunze; Elizabeth Glenn (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Topics in Early Childhood Special Education
Early childhood special education (ECSE) professionals were forced to drastically change their methods of providing services as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative study conducted interviews to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted ECSE professionals both personally and professionally. ECSE rofessionals described challenges as well as unexpected positive outcomes associated with continuing to work in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Professionals also explained the importance of increasing parent interaction through coaching interventions while engaging in remote service delivery.
Meeting the needs of students with emotional and behavioral disorders during the COVID-19 school closures

Allison Bruhn; Youn-Jeng Choi; Sara McDaniel (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Behavioral Disorders
The COVID-19 global pandemic left many educators making an emergency transition to remote instruction when schools were initially closed. Although this transition was likely difficult for most students, it may have been particularly difficult for students with emotional or behavioral disorders who have complex and resource-intensive social, emotional, and behavioral needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which special educators and related service providers felt they were able to meet those needs in the context of the pandemic occurring in the Spring of 2020.
Mental health & maltreatment risk of children with special educational needs during COVID-19

Winnie W. Y. Tso; Ko Ling Chan; Tatia M. C. Lee (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Children with special educational needs (SEN) are more vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic with risk of poor mental wellbeing and child maltreatment. To examine the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children with SEN and their maltreatment risk. 417 children with SEN studying at special schools and 25,427 children with typical development (TD) studying at mainstream schools completed an online survey in April 2020 in Hong Kong during school closures due to COVID-19.

Parents’ perceptions of secondary school students’ motivation and well-being before and during the COVID-19 lockdown: the moderating role of student characteristics

Lisette Hornstra; Linda van den Bergh; Jaap J. A. Denissen (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs
During the COVID-19 lockdown of spring 2020, Dutch children were being homeschooled. This study examined how parents’ (n = 470) perceptions of secondary school students’ (Mage = 14.23 years) need satisfaction, academic motivation and well-being differed before the lockdown (assessed retrospectively) and during the lockdown. Furthermore, it examined the differential impact of the lockdown for different groups of children based on parental educational level, academic track, gender and special educational needs (SEN).
The experience of SENCOs in England during the COVID-19 pandemic: the amplification and exposure of pre-existing strengths and challenges and the prioritisation of mental health and wellbeing in schools

Adam Boddison; Helen Curran

Published: December 2021   Journal: About this Journal Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs
A national survey of Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs) in England was conducted during the summer of 2020 in the midst of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The annually conducted survey typically collates demographic data about the SENCO workforce, but given the wider context, this particular survey also included nine questions about SENCOs' experiences during the pandemic. More than 1000 SENCOs participated in the survey and the findings demonstrate the critical contribution of SENCOs in supporting pupils with SEND and maintaining effective communication with their families during the pandemic. The study provides evidence of an amplification effect in relation to the strengths and challenges that SENCOs had been experiencing prior to the pandemic. The study also demonstrates the importance of prioritising mental health and wellbeing in schools for both pupils and staff in the wake of the pandemic, with this being the key priority identified by SENCOs across all types of setting and all phases of education.
An analysis of the impact of school closings on gifted services: recommendations for meeting gifted students’ needs in a post-COVID-19 world

Charlton Wolfgang; Daniel Snyderman

Published: November 2021   Journal: Gifted Education International
Gifted support services were directly impacted by the COVID-19 shutdown in Spring 2020. This qualitative research study consisting of parents (n = 110) and gifted support teachers (n = 53) explored the impact on gifted students’ services and instruction. Utilizing surveys, open-ended response questions, and in-depth interviews, teachers and parents shared their thoughts and perceptions about challenge, enrichment, and students’ social-emotional health throughout the shutdown. Data analysis found that gifted services were directly impacted by the COVID-19 shutdown and parents and teachers shared that challenge and enrichment were lacking. However, data collected also showed that there is much potential to meet students’ academic and social-emotional needs virtually. Utilizing the data collected, a model was created to help teachers, parents, and school districts provide challenge, enrichment, and acceleration, as well as address social-emotional concerns in a virtual environment.
Remote learning, COVID-19, and children with disabilities

Kate Henley Averett

Published: November 2021   Journal: AERA Open
While the COVID-19 pandemic affected the education of nearly all schoolchildren worldwide, pandemic-related school closures did not affect all children in equal ways. Between March and August, 2020, 31 parents of children with disabilities were interviewed as part of a larger interview study of U.S. parents of children in grades K–12. This article analyzes these parents’ narratives about their families’ experiences of pandemic-related remote learning to identify the particular challenges children with disabilities and their families faced with remote learning. It finds that most, but not all, families struggled with remote learning, both when children’s specific needs while learning at home differed from their needs at school, and when schools failed to provide adequate accommodations and services remotely.
Daily behaviors, worries and emotions in children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties during the COVID-19 pandemic

Terpsichori Korpa; Theodora Pappa; Giorgos Chouliaras (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Children
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the coronavirus crisis on behavioral and emotional parameters in children and adolescents with ADHD and Learning Difficulties. A total of 101 children, 5–18 years old, were included in the study, 63 (44 boys) of which were diagnosed with ADHD and learning difficulties (ADHD/LD) and 38 were healthy children (19 boys). The CRISIS questionnaire for parents/caregivers was used. The questionnaire was completed during the first national lockdown in Greece and the data referred to two time-points: 3 months before, and the past 2 weeks. A significant deterioration in the “Emotion/Worries (EW)” symptoms was observed during the pandemic in the control group (2.62 ± 0.16 vs. 2.83 ± 0.18, p < 0.001). No such differences were noted in the ADHD group: 3.08 ± 0.25 vs. 3.12 ± 0.29, p = 0.12.
Online learning performances of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic

Shan He; Lan Shuai; Zhouye Wang (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Inquiry : The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing
This study aims to investigate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms that impair executive function (EF), emotional state, learning motivation, and the family and parenting environment of children and adolescents with ADHD, both with and without severe difficulties. This will be explored within an online learning environment during the period of COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 183 ADHD children diagnosed using DSM-V criteria were selected and divided into 2 groups high difficulties during online learning (HDOL) and low difficulties during online learning (LDOL) according to the answer of Home Quarantine Investigation of the Pandemic (HQIP). The participants filled out a set of questionnaires to assess their emotional state and learning motivation, and their parents also filled out the questionnaires about ADHD core symptoms, EF, and family and parenting environment.
1 - 15 of 38

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.

The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.