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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 43
Teaching and testing by phone in a pandemic

Lee Crawfurd; David K. Evans; Susannah Hares (et al.)

Institution: Center for Global Development
Published: September 2021
How did children learn while schools were closed during 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic? In low-income countries where internet access is scarce, distance learning is often passive, via TV or radio, with little opportunity for teacher-student interaction. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of live tutoring calls from teachers, using a randomized controlled trial with 4,399 primary school students in Sierra Leone. Tutoring calls increased engagement in educational activity but had no effect on mathematics or language test scores, for girls or boys. We also make a methodological contribution, testing the reliability of student assessments conducted by phone. Phone-based assessments have sensible properties, but we find suggestive evidence that scores are higher than with in-person assessments, and there is differential item functioning across survey modes for most individual questions.
Students’ affective engagement, parental involvement, and teacher support in emergency remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from a cross-sectional survey in China

Yang Yang; Keqiao Liu; Miao Li (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Technology in Education
Emergency remote teaching has been widely implemented in the education system worldwide to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing upon data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in eight middle schools in eastern China (a sample size of 1,550 students and 1,550 parents), we employed multiple linear regressions with school fixed effects to examine the associations among student affective engagement, parental involvement, and teacher support in an emergency remote teaching environment. Our results show that higher levels of parental involvement and teacher support are associated with higher levels of student affective engagement with teacher support presenting the strongest relationship with student engagement. These findings contribute to the understanding of emergency remote teaching in different countries where schools and individual households devise varying strategies and solutions.
Collaborating with parents during COVID-19 online teaching: special educator perspectives

Rachel K. Schuck; Rachel Lambert; Mian Wang

Published: August 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
Teachers whose students had trouble independently accessing the online curriculum during COVID-19 online learning had to rely heavily on parents. This paper presents findings from interviews with elementary special educators regarding their experiences collaborating with parents while teaching online. Thematic analysis generated four themes: prioritising non-academic support; increases in mutual understanding; parents implementing educational content; and providing feedback to parents. Teachers emphasised providing socio-emotional support to families and reported opportunities for teachers and parents to learn more about each other. They also highlighted several skills that were not smoothly translating to the home. Implications regarding strong teacher–parent partnerships are discussed.
It’s not homeschool, it’s school at home: parents’ experiences as teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Debra P. Price; Jamey Peersman; Savannah Matherne

Published: July 2021   Journal: Educational Media International
This article explores the oral histories of five parents from the United States and Europe who found themselves teaching their children at home, last spring, when school buildings closed in response to the COVID −19 pandemic. Their stories resulted from interviews conducted via Zoom. This article examines data exclusively shared through an interview process. In addition to the oral histories, thematic analysis was conducted in order to facilitate the communication of themes to education policy holders and administration. Of particular importance were the influences of virtual learning and technology, both hardware and software. Themes based on issues of communication, support, learning environments and curriculum give insight into how schools and communities might respond differently to future events where school buildings are closed, but school remains in session.
Serbian teachers’ perceptions of online assessment during COVID-19 school closure: the role of teachers’ self-efficacy

Stefan Ninković; Stanislava Olić Ninković; Tihomir Lazarević (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Educational Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the temporary closure of schools around the world. Due to the sudden and complete transition to online instruction, teachers were faced with various challenges. The assessment of student performance is one of the integrative segments of remote teaching. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of online assessment and different facets of self-efficacy. The study involved 147 primary and secondary school teachers who completed an online survey.
Remote learning : evidence from Nepal during COVID-19

Karthika Radhakrishnan; Shwetlena Sabarwal; Uttam Sharma

Institution: The World Bank
Published: July 2021
This note discusses early results from a distance education program on foundational numeracy for primary school students in Nepal during Coronavirus (COVID-19) evaluated in a randomized trial. The trial included 3,700 households with children in public school (grades 3-5). It provided support for foundational numeracy through mobile phone-based tutoring. The trial tested delivery through public school teachers and also through NGO facilitators. It led to a 30 percent increase in foundational numeracy, with teachers being slightly more effective at producing learning gains than NGO facilitators. These results suggest that instructional support through mobile phones can be a high-access and low-cost approach to providing instruction at scale.
Trainee Teachers’ Perceptions of Online Teaching During Field Experience with Young Children

Laila Mohebi; Lawrence Meda

Published: July 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
The global pandemic of COVID-19 forced trainee teachers from the United Arab Emirates to have virtual field experiences in the field of early childhood education. The various stakeholders, young children, families, preservice teachers, and university faculty hold different perceptions of online teaching formats. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of trainee teachers and faculty supervisors about online field experiences with young children. The study was done using a qualitative case study within an interpretivist paradigm. Twelve internship students and five supervisors were purposively selected to complete open-ended questionnaires about virtual field experiences.
The Covid-19 pandemic teaching modalities in Turkey: an evaluation of school gardens and classes

Murat Başeğmez; Cevdet Coşkun Aydın

Published: July 2021   Journal: Health Policy and Technology

The main scientific contribution of this study is to design an approach that can regulate school safety and student health in gardens and classes during the pandemic period using GIS. The method of this study is based on the use of school areas and building data, the creation of 4m2 social distance areas for students, and the evaluation of these areas in terms of health measures. To this aim, first, the relevant guidelines issued by the government institutions in Turkey during the COVID-19 process were examined, in relation to how they will reflect on education policies regarding the sanitary safety of schools. This data was obtained from open-source data sets. Then, in the application stage, 20 schools were selected in order to analyse the sustainability of education in the Balgat district. In addition, the sanitary conditions of classrooms and garden areas were evaluated within the framework of educational policies, taking into account the capabilities of geographical information systems (GIS).

Social network-based cohorting to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in secondary schools: a simulation study in classrooms of four European countries

Anna Karoline Kaiser; David Kretschmer; Lars Leszczensky

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Operating schools safely under pandemic conditions is a widespread policy goal. This study analyses the effectiveness of classroom cohorting, i.e., the decomposition of classrooms into smaller isolated units, in inhibiting the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in European secondary schools and compare different cohorting strategies. Using real-world network data on 12,291 adolescents collected in classrooms in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden in 2010/2011, it applys agent-based simulations to compare the effect of forming cohorts randomly to network-based cohorting. Network-based cohorting attempts to allocate out-of-school contacts to the same cohort to prevent cross-cohort infection more effectively.
Understanding English teachers’ non-volitional use of online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: a Chinese study

Fang Huang; Timothy Teo; Jiayi Guo

Published: July 2021   Journal: System
This study investigated factors influenced Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' non-volitional online teaching intentions based on an extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Facilitating conditions, technology complexity, and perceived anxiety were added to the original TAM as extended variables to examine their influence on Chinese EFL teachers' online teaching. Quantitative data were obtained from 158 teachers in Chinese primary and secondary schools and universities. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM), and the extended TAM was found to be valid in explaining Chinese EFL teachers' online teaching intentions during quarantine. Teachers' behavioral intentions were significantly associated with their attitudes and perceived usefulness of online teaching.
Student engagement in K12 online education during the pandemic: the case of Turkey

Gökçe Kurt; Derin Atay; Huriye Arzu Öztürk

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Technology in Education
Student engagement has become a challenge for K-12 students and teachers in online education during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored the factors underlying student engagement and the strategies teachers developed to engage students. Thematically analyzed interview data coming from 22 teachers and 20 students of public high schools revealed teachers’ and students’ similar perceptions of the factors affecting student engagement. The four themes identified were instructional and student related factors along with those related to the learning environment and policies. The teacher strategies for the facilitation of student engagement were instructional, managerial, and affective. Teachers also discussed which of these strategies were helpful in fostering student engagement.
Jumping into the virtual environment implications and possibilities for arts education

Chiho Okuizumi Feindler; Whitney Mayo; Ryan Shaw

Published: June 2021   Journal: Arts Education Policy Review
To start off this special issue on COVID-19 and K-12 arts education, this article places the impact of COVID-19 on public education into context, and drills down to how the pandemic affected the delivery of arts education. The article begins with an overview of the inequities revealed in our public education system by COVID-19. While many of these have been revealed and studied before, the pandemic brought them to the routine attention of the public in a way that earlier advocacy and research efforts have not. The article then addresses how these inequities have influenced the availability and quality of arts education offered during the pandemic, showcasing the continued “second class” status of arts education in public education planning and delivery. Finally, the article ends with some positive outcomes one year into the pandemic for arts education, suggesting possibilities for the future post pandemic, as well as implications and potential warning signs for the next 24 months to come.
Surviving but not thriving: comparing primary, vocational and higher education teachers’ experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown

Helena Kovacs; Caroline Pulfrey; Emilie‑Charlotte Monnier

Published: June 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
This paper examines the impacts of the global pandemic in 2020 on different levels of education system, particularly looking at the changes in teaching practice. The health emergency caused closure of schools, and online distance education became a temporary solution, creating discomfort for many teachers for whom this was the first time engaged with online education. This research investigated two important dimensions, namely, how technology was used and what the newfound distance meant in terms of the teacher-student relationship. The article offers insights into experiences of teaching from lockdown reported by 41 teachers at primary, vocational and higher education level in the region of Vaud, Switzerland. This comparative qualitative research has provided an opportunity for an in-depth analysis of the main similarities and differences at three distinctly different educational levels and a possibility to learn more about common coping practices in teaching. The study gives a contribution to a lack of comparative studies of teacher experiences at different educational levels.
Examining K-12 teachers’ feelings, experiences, and perspectives regarding online teaching during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic

Yunjo An; Regina Kaplan-Rakowski; Junhe Yang (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Educational Technology Research and Development
This mixed-methods study explored K-12 teachers’ feelings, experiences, and perspectives regarding online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also examined teachers’ perspectives of the “new normal” after COVID-19 and of what should be done to better prepare teachers for future emergencies. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from an online survey and follow-up interviews. A total of 107 teachers from 25 different states in the United States completed the online survey, and 13 teachers from 10 different states participated in the follow-up interviews.
The impacts of COVID-19 on early childhood education: capturing the unique challenges associated with remote teaching and learning in K-2
Published: May 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, schools across North America closed to in person learning in March 2020. Since then, it has becoming increasingly clear that physical distancing will need to be prolonged in the 2020/2021 school year and possibly resumed in the future. In response, education ministries shifted teaching and learning online. Research is urgently needed to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on teaching and learning, particularly in the foundational early primary years. This research directly responds to this concern by examining the unique challenges associated with remote teaching and learning in early primary contexts. Given that learning in kindergarten and early primary grades is largely play- and inquiry- based, there is a particular need to investigate the impacts of this move for teachers, parents, and children in K-2. As such, the purpose of this research is twofold: (1) to capture the unique challenges and unanticipated successes associated with remote teaching and learning, and (2) to utilize findings to provide recommendations for remote learning as well as strategies for supporting in-person learning in the COVID-19 era (and post COVID-19 era).
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.