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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The gendered impacts of COVID-19 on labor markets in Latin America and the Caribbean

AUTHOR(S)
Emilia Cucagna; Javier Romero

Institution: The World Bank
Published: January 2021
This note explores the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on labor outcomes among males and females and identifies the dimensions that render workers more resilient to job losses. These findings are then used to discuss implications for policymaking. To overcome the scarcity of data generated by the pause in most statistical operations resulting from social-distancing measures, High-Frequency Phone Surveys (HFPS) collected in the region by the Poverty and Equity Global Practice of the World Bank are used. In this way, the note aims to estimate the gendered outcomes in the labor markets associated with the deepest recession since World War II
Parental social isolation and child maltreatment risk during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Shawna J. Lee; Kaitlin P. Ward; Joyce Y. Lee (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The social isolation and economic stress resulting from pandemic have the potential to exacerbate child abuse and neglect. This study examines the association of parents’ perceived social isolation and recent employment loss to risk for child maltreatment (neglect, verbal aggression, and physical punishment) in the early weeks of the pandemic.
COVID-19 job and income loss jeopardize child well-being: income support policies can help

AUTHOR(S)
Rebekah Levine Coley

Institution: Society for Research in Child Development
Published: December 2020
Within just the first three months of the COVID-19 financial fallout, one in five children in the United States experienced the job loss of an adult in their household. As the pandemic continues and the challenges of job and income recovery persist, families will continue to face unprecedented economic uncertainty. The burdens of job loss and continued economic uncertainty are felt by a wide range of families, though they are especially elevated among lower-income households and families of color. COVID-19-driven increases in job loss, income instability, and resulting strains on housing and food security are impairing child and family wellbeing. Temporary policy supports – such as stimulus checks, expanded Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits, rent moratoriums, and expanded food programs – helped stem these losses and protect children. Yet, burdensome distribution mechanisms and the temporary nature of such benefits limited their reach. As policy supports expire, economic harm is growing. Renewal and reinstatement of economic supports will reduce the stress of economic uncertainty, help financially stabilize families, and enhance parents’ capacity to support their children’s development.
She told us so: rapid gender analysis: filling the data gap to build up equal
Institution: CARE
Published: September 2020

This in-depth research report reveals differing perspectives between women and men when it comes to the challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. In a first of its kind data collection, CARE surveyed more than 10,000 people, including 6,200 women and 4,000 men in more than 40 countries. The report reveals three major areas in which women are more negatively experiencing COVID-19: unemployment, lack of food, and a toll on their mental health.

Covid-19 and the world of work: Rapid assessment of the employment impacts and policy responses Serbia
Institution: International Labour Organisation
Published: September 2020
This rapid country assessments launched by the Employment, LabourMarkets and Youth Branch (EMPLAB) of the ILO in around 14 countries aims to provide constituents and other policy-makers with a practical tool for the real-time diagnosis of the employment impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic to inform policy responses. Serbia adopted the most generous and comprehensive economic package among the Western Balkan economies, providing near universal support to both firms and citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: consequences of parental job loss on psychological and physical abuse towards children

AUTHOR(S)
Monica Lawson; Megan H. Piel; Michaela Simon

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
The current study investigated factors associated with child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic, including parental job loss, and whether cognitive reframing moderated associations between job loss and child maltreatment.
The social safety net in the wake of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Marianne Bitler; Hilary W. Hoynes; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

Published: September 2020
The COVID-19 crisis has led to spiking unemployment rates with disproportionate impacts on low-incomefamilies. School and child-care center closures have also meant lost free- and reduced-price schoolmeals. Food prices have increased sharply leading to reduced purchasing power for families’ limited income. Real time data show significant distress – notably food insecurity rates have increased almost three times overthe pre-COVID rates and food pantry use has also spiked. In this paper, we explore why there is so much unmet need despite a robust policy response.
Child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: consequences of parental job loss on psychological and physical abuse towards children

AUTHOR(S)
Monica Lawson; Megan H. Piel; Michaela Simon

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
The current study investigated factors associated with child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic, including parental job loss, and whether cognitive reframing moderated associations between job loss and child maltreatment.
Portugal: Rapid assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on the economy and labour market

AUTHOR(S)
Ricardo Paes Mamede; Mariana Pereira ; António Simões

Institution: International Labour Organisation
Published: June 2020
The objective of the rapid country assessments launched by the Employment, LabourMarkets and Youth Branch (EMPLAB) of the ILO in around 14 countries at different levels of development is to provide constituents and other policy-makers with a practical tool for the real-time diagnosis of the employment impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic to inform policy responses. The assessments examine the dramatic effects of the pandemic on economic growth and employment and how it has exacerbated labour market vulnerabilities and inequalities. They also show the importance of a prompt and targeted policy response and the value of social dialogue.
COVID-19 impact on child labour and forced labour: the response of the IPEC+ Flagship programme
Institution: International Labour Organisation
Published: May 2020
In line with the ILO’s policy framework to respond to the COVID-19 crisis, country policies responses and the ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of work, this briefing note provides an initial framework for the response of IPEC+ to the crisis. Service provided by IPEC+ will be part of a holistic ILO response to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 and to rebuild better after the crisis.
Impact of COVID-19 on informal workers
The COVID-19 pandemic is a major economic and labour market shock, presenting significant impacts in terms of unemployment and underemployment for informal workers. In rural areas, the livelihoods of especially the self-employed and wage workers are at risk, because agrifood supply chains and markets are being disrupted due to lockdowns and restrictions of movement. Families might resort to negative coping strategies such as distress sale of assets, taking out loans from informal moneylenders, or child labour. Specific groups of workers, including women, youth, children, indigenous people, and migrant workers, who are over represented in the informal economy, will experience further exacerbation of their vulnerability. Response measures should foster the expansion of social protection coverage to informal workers in agriculture and rural sectors, including timely cash transfers, food or in-kind distributions. Specific measures should be tailored towards women workers with care responsibilities at home, families that may resort to child labour as a coping strategy, as well as other vulnerable subgroups. Efforts should be made to maintain agricultural supply chains and strengthen the market linkages for local producers, while promoting decent work.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.