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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Essential work and emergency childcare: identifying gender differences in COVID-19 effects on labour demand and supply

AUTHOR(S)
Jordy Meekes; Wolter H. J. Hassink; Guyonne Kalb

Published: July 2022   Journal: Oxford Economic Papers,
This study examines whether the COVID-19 crisis affects women and men differently in terms of employment, working hours, and hourly wages, and whether the effects are demand or supply driven. COVID-19 impacts are studied using administrative data on all Dutch employees up to December 2020, focussing on the national lockdowns and emergency childcare for essential workers in the Netherlands. First, the impact of COVID-19 is much larger for non-essential workers than for essential workers. Although female non-essential workers are more affected than male non-essential workers, on average, women and men are equally affected, because more women than men are essential workers. Second, the impact for partnered essential workers with young children, both men and women, is not larger than for others. Third, single-parent essential workers respond with relatively large reductions in labour supply, suggesting emergency childcare was insufficient for them. Overall, labour demand effects appear larger than labour supply effects.
Implications of COVID-19 labour market shock for child and household hungers in South Africa: do social protection programs protect?

AUTHOR(S)
Dambala Gelo; Johane Dikgang

Published: July 2022   Journal: Plos One

Recent studies have confirmed that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused massive job losses. However, the impact of this loss on food security is not well-understood. Moreover, a paucity of evidence exists regarding social protection grants’ countervailing effects against such shocks. This study examined the effects of job loss (labour income loss) on child and household hungers (our two measures food insecurity) during COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. It also ascertained whether these effect were offset by alternative social grant programs to document the protective role of the latter.It used South Africa’s National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) and the Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (CRAM) data. These data cover a nationally representative sample of 7073 individuals. We employed a probit model to estimate the effect of job loss and receipts of various social grants on child and households’ hungers. It also estimated the double-selection logit model to account for the model’s uncertainty surrounding the variable selection and treatment-effects estimation using lasso (Telasso) for causal inference of our analysis.

Impact of Covid-19 on student's education due to parents' unemployment

AUTHOR(S)
S. Rathikaa; C. S. Nivedha

Published: June 2022   Journal: AIP Conference Proceedings
This paper is about COVID – 19's impact on student's literacy due to their Parents’ unemployment. It describes the Unemployment rate in India, and describes the way people can manage to give educational impartment to their children. Since March of 1616, the Schools and Colleges have been closed as a precautionary measure to bridle the Corona virus. Because of that many schools and colleges have started the concept of E-Learning and it has become a part of the teaching. Though E-Learning is a good concept; multiple students in India can't afford it due to their poverty and lack of resources like Internet Connection and other electronic devices. The study's aim is to explore the concern of the parents’ during the lockdown and their perspective on the concept of E-learning or Online learning. This study adopted Qualitative research design. For data collection, structured questionnaire was used, responses were collected from the head of the family [either with father or mother]
Risks and protective factors of Hispanic families and their young children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Natasha Cabrera; Minxuan He; Yu Chen (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children
This study examines the risk-related factors during the pandemic and protective factors that might reduce its effects on family functioning in a sample of 161 low-income Hispanic parents in the United States, recruited from an ongoing longitudinal intervention study. They were surveyed about family functioning six months into the pandemic. The study focused on the associations between social (e.g., exposure to the virus) and economic (e.g., job loss) pandemic-related risks on parental stress, parenting, and children’s socioemotional problems and skills, as well as the degree to which coparenting support, parents’ positivity, economic support, and access to services and information mitigated (protected) the negative effects of these stressors on family functioning.
Is household unemployment associated with increased verbal and physical child abuse during the COVID pandemic?

AUTHOR(S)
Ming Ma; Rebecca Orsi; Ashley Brooks-Russell

Published: April 2022   Journal: Child maltreatment
The economic downturn due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic initially led to a large increase in the US unemployment rate. Being laid-off or losing a job could cause financial stress and have an impact on the relationship between parents or other adults in the home and children. This study aimed to assess the effect of household unemployment on child physical and emotional abuse during the early part of the COVID-19 pandemic, with an older population of children.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the employment situation and financial well-being of families with children in Austria: evidence from the first ten months of the crisis

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia Steiber; Christina Siegert; Stefan Vogtenhuber

Published: April 2022   Journal: JFR : Journal of Family Research

 This study investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the employment situation of parents and in turn on the subjective financial well-being of families with children in Austria. The pandemic had strong repercussions on the Austrian labour market. The short-time work (STW) programme covered a third of employees in the first half of 2020 and helped to maintain employment levels. This study provides evidence on how an unprecedented labour market crisis of this sort and in particular the exceptionally wide use of STW had affected the employment situation of parents and the financial well-being of different types of families.

The impact of the COVID-19 recession on Mexican households: evidence from employment and time use for men, women, and children

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren Hoehn-Velasco; Adan Silverio-Murillo; José Roberto Balmori de la Miyar (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
This study examines changes in labor supply, income, and time allocation during the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico. Using an event-study design, it shows that the COVID-19 recession had severe negative consequences for Mexican households. In the first month of the pandemic, employment declined by 17 percentage points. Men recovered their employment faster than women, where men’s employment approaches original levels by 2021Q2. Women, on the other hand, experienced persistent employment losses. Within-household, men also increased their time spent on household chores while neither gender (persistently) increased their time caring for others. Instead, children reduced their time spent on schoolwork by 25%.
Unemployment and child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea

AUTHOR(S)
Young Eun Kim

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Risk factors for child maltreatment have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially due to economic downfalls leading to parental job losses and poor mental health. This study aimed to examine the association between child maltreatment and unemployment rate in the Republic of Korea. Nationally representative data at the province level were used. The monthly excess number of hotline calls related to child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated for each province. Fixed effects regressions was used to examine the relationship between the excess number of hotline calls and unemployment rate.

Precarious parental employment, economic hardship, and parenting and child happiness amidst a pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Wen-Jui Han; Jake Hart

Published: December 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
As labor markets in recent decades have become increasingly volatile and precarious, more workers are susceptible to working conditions that threaten their economic security and thus their well-being and that of their families. This study examined the associations between precarious parental employment, income and job loss, and aggravation in parenting and child happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Its measure of precarity is more comprehensive than those used in prior studies using U.S. samples. The study used an online cross-sectional dataset collected in May 2020 in the United States to examine parenting and child happiness, controlling for a rich set of sociodemographic characteristics.
Impact of COVID-19 among young people currently and formerly in foster care

AUTHOR(S)
Rachel Rosenberg; Sunny Sun; Alaina Flannigan (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

COVID-19 continues to have devastating impacts across the United States, causing high levels of unemployment and disconnection from work and school. Furthermore, some communities are at higher risk for adverse outcomes due to the pandemic, including transition age foster youth. Transition age foster youth report negative impacts on their employment, educational attainment, ability to meet basic needs, and their connection to work and school. The current study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on key young adult outcomes including education, employment, financial well-being, and disconnection from work and school.


Analysis of the health, economic and environmental impacts of COVID-19: The Bangladesh perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Sneh Gautama; Shamsunnahar Setu; Mohd Golam Quader Khan (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Geosystems and Geoenvironment
Although COVID-19 has given an opportunity to the earth to restore her ecosystem, its role in bringing changes in every sector including social, economic, agricultural, industrial, education and health is enormous. The study was conducted to assess the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 in Bangladesh by collecting data from different sources. The result depicted that during the first wave of COVID-19, the detection rate was less than 5%, exceeding almost 30% after detecting the deadlier Indian variant where 65% of the death is noticed by the people older than 50 years. Among all the frontline service providers during Covid, the highest rate of death was observed for doctors in Bangladesh. This study also discussed the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and found that women faced more depression and anxiety than men as well as 43% of children had subthreshold mental disturbances. Three-fourths of the adolescents have been distressed with household stress during the pandemic. Women and girls have encountered increased domestic violence whereas early marriages dropped out many rural girls from education. Decreasing remittance from non-residents and shutting down of RMG industry resulted loss of job and have badly affected economic section. Almost 20 million workers lost their jobs in Bangladesh from the informal sector. Moreover, the healthcare workers who have treated the corona virus patients have been socially stigmatized due to the fear of infection. Corona Virus has jeopardized the agriculture sector and 66 % farmers (53% crop and vegetables, 99% fish farmers) got lower price than they used to get in a normal situation.
The gendered impacts of COVID-19 on labor markets in Latin America and the Caribbean

AUTHOR(S)
Emilia Cucagna; Javier Romero

Institution: The World Bank
Published: January 2021
This note explores the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on labor outcomes among males and females and identifies the dimensions that render workers more resilient to job losses. These findings are then used to discuss implications for policymaking. To overcome the scarcity of data generated by the pause in most statistical operations resulting from social-distancing measures, High-Frequency Phone Surveys (HFPS) collected in the region by the Poverty and Equity Global Practice of the World Bank are used. In this way, the note aims to estimate the gendered outcomes in the labor markets associated with the deepest recession since World War II
Parental social isolation and child maltreatment risk during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Shawna J. Lee; Kaitlin P. Ward; Joyce Y. Lee (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The social isolation and economic stress resulting from pandemic have the potential to exacerbate child abuse and neglect. This study examines the association of parents’ perceived social isolation and recent employment loss to risk for child maltreatment (neglect, verbal aggression, and physical punishment) in the early weeks of the pandemic.
Labour market shocks during the COVID-19 pandemic, inequalities and child outcomes

AUTHOR(S)
Claudia Hupkau; Ingo E. Isphording; Stephen Machin

Published: December 2020
This study analyzes the effect of negative labour market shocks borne by parents during the Covid-19 crisis on resource and time investments in children and the channels through which negative labour market shocks experienced by parents might affect children. Using data collected in the UK before and during the pandemic, it shows that fathers and mothers that were already disadvantaged were more likely to have suffered negative earnings and employment shocks. These shocks had an immediate intergenerational impact: Children whose fathers reported an earnings drop to zero are significantly less likely to have received additional paid learning resources compared to similar children whose fathers did not experience a drop in earnings.
COVID-19 job and income loss jeopardize child well-being: income support policies can help

AUTHOR(S)
Rebekah Levine Coley

Institution: Society for Research in Child Development
Published: December 2020
Within just the first three months of the COVID-19 financial fallout, one in five children in the United States experienced the job loss of an adult in their household. As the pandemic continues and the challenges of job and income recovery persist, families will continue to face unprecedented economic uncertainty. The burdens of job loss and continued economic uncertainty are felt by a wide range of families, though they are especially elevated among lower-income households and families of color. COVID-19-driven increases in job loss, income instability, and resulting strains on housing and food security are impairing child and family wellbeing. Temporary policy supports – such as stimulus checks, expanded Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits, rent moratoriums, and expanded food programs – helped stem these losses and protect children. Yet, burdensome distribution mechanisms and the temporary nature of such benefits limited their reach. As policy supports expire, economic harm is growing. Renewal and reinstatement of economic supports will reduce the stress of economic uncertainty, help financially stabilize families, and enhance parents’ capacity to support their children’s development.
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