Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   472     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 472
Factors associated with parental COVID-19 vaccine attitudes and intentions among a national sample of United States adults ages 18–45

Lakeshia Cousin; Stephanie Roberts; Naomi C. Brownstein (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: About Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This study explored factors associated with parents' attitudes and intentions to seek information about the COVID-19 vaccine for their children (ages 0–18) and intentions to vaccinate their age-eligible children. As part of an anonymous online cross-sectional survey, parents' vaccine attitudes, COVID-19 vaccine intentions for their children, health literacy, health numeracy, and sociodemographic variables were assessed. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models identified factors associated with parents' COVID-19 vaccine intentions for their children.
School immunization coverage in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective cohort study

Hannah Sell; Yuba Raj Paudel; Donald Voaklander (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccine

Few studies have assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on immunization coverage for adolescents, and little is known about how coverage has changed throughout the pandemic. This study aimed to: (1) assess the change in coverage for school-based vaccines in Alberta, Canada resulting from the pandemic; (2) determine whether coverage differed by geographic health zone and school type; and (3) ascertain whether coverage has returned to pre-pandemic levels. Using a retrospective cohort design, this study used administrative health data to compare coverage for human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal conjugate A, C, Y, W-135 (MenC-ACYW) vaccines between pre-pandemic (2017–2018 school year) and pandemic (2019–2020 and 2020–2021 school years) cohorts (N = 289,420). Coverage was also compared by health zone and authority type. The 2019–2020 cohort was followed over one year to assess catch-up.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 41 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 1333-1341 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Canada
Changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among parents with children aged 6–35 months in China: repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2020 and 2021

Kechun Zhang; Xue Liang; Karen Lau Wa Tam (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccines
China is considering to offer COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6–35 months. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and associated factors among parents with children aged 6–35 months in 2020 and 2021. Two rounds of cross-sectional online surveys were conducted among adult factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A subset of 208 (first round) and 229 (second round) parents with at least one child aged 6–35 months was included in the study.
How to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake among children? determinants associated with vaccine compliance

Moshe Hoshen; Vered Shkalim Zemer; Shai Ashkenazi (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

This study has three aims: to elucidate determinants associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake in children and the association with parental vaccination; to compare rates of PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 results between vaccinated and unvaccinated children; to estimate the rate of parental COVID-19 vaccination and its association with the vaccination rate of their children. It performed a retrospective chart review of all children aged 5–11 years registered at a central district in Israel from November 21st, 2021 to April 30th, 2022, and characterized COVID-19 vaccinated vs. unvaccinated individuals. Data retrieved from the electronic medical files included: demographics [age, gender, sector, socioeconomic status (SES)]; COVID-19 vaccination (first and second doses) and influenza vaccination status; co-morbidities; and parental vaccinations for COVID-19. It divided the population into three distinct demographic groups: non-ultra-orthodox Jews (43,889 children), ultra-orthodox Jews (13,858 children), and Arabs (4,029 children).

A cross-sectional study to assess mRNA-COVID-19 vaccine safety among Indian children (5–17 years) living in Saudi Arabia

Marya Ahsan; Riyaz Ahamed Shaik; Ayaz K. Mallick (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccines
The objective of this study is to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Indian children aged 5–17 years who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, as well as to investigate for predictors of AEFI. To examine AEFI following the first and second doses of Pfizer’s vaccine, semi-structured questionnaires were distributed as Google forms at Indian schools in Saudi Arabia. The 385 responses included 48.1% male and 51.9% female children, with 136 responses of children aged 5–11 years (group A) and 249 responses from children aged 12–17 years (group B). Overall, 84.4% of children had two shots. The frequency of AEFI was reported to be higher after the first dose than after the second (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.57–2.86). The reported AEFIs included myalgia, rhinitis, local reaction with fever, a temperature of 102 °F or higher, and mild to moderate injection site reactions. While group B frequently reported multiple AEFIs, group A typically reported just one. Local reaction with low grade fever was more frequently reported in group B after the first dose (24.1%) and second dose (15.4%), while local reaction without low grade fever was most frequently observed in group A after the first (36.8%) and second dose (30%). Only prior COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.44–6.2) was associated with AEFI after the second dose in the study sample, whereas male gender (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.13–2.6) and prior COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.38–6.3) were predictors of AEFI after the first dose. Non-serious myocarditis was reported by only one child. According to the analysis conducted, the Pfizer’s mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was found to be safe in Indian children.
Safety, effectiveness and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccination in children: a cross-sectional study in Pakistan

Zaufishan Zaufishan; Muhammad Usman; Khandah Fishan Mumtaz (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The elevated risk of serious complications like myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination, especially in adolescent has been reported in some instances that need to be tested in regional populations and different ethnicity groups. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the side effects, hesitancy, and effectiveness outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination among children in Pakistan. The study was planned using a cross-sectional design and data from Children and Adolescents (CA) was collected through a convenient sampling method using a validated questionnaire between February to July 2022. A total of 1,108 CA between the age of 12–18 years who received one or two doses of vaccine were selected and data were collected through direct interviews with respondents.

Impact of prenatal COVID-19 vaccination on delivery and neonatal outcomes: results from a New York City cohort

Erona Ibroci; Xiaoqin Liu; Whitney Lieb (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccine
Research suggest prenatal vaccination against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is safe. However, previous studies utilized retrospectively collected data or examined late pregnancy vaccinations. This study investigated the associations of COVID-19 vaccination throughout pregnancy with delivery and neonatal outcomes. It included 1,794 mother-neonate dyads enrolled in the Generation C Study with known prenatal COVID-19 vaccination status and complete covariate and outcome data. It used multivariable quantile regressions to estimate the effect of prenatal COVID-19 vaccination on birthweight, delivery gestational age, and blood loss at delivery; and Poisson generalized linear models for Caesarean delivery (CD) and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission.
Menstrual disturbances in 12- to 15-year-old girls after one dose of COVID-19 Comirnaty vaccine: population-based cohort study in Norway

Ida Henriette Caspersen; Lene K. Juvet; Berit Feiring (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccine

A worldwide COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign targeting adults was launched in late December 2020. Subsequently, the Comirnaty (BNT162b2) vaccine was recommended for children aged 12–15 years in May 2021. In Norway, only one dose of the Comirnaty vaccine was recommended to children aged 12–15 years. Vaccination was not recommended for children who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2. In line with findings in older age groups, the most prevalent adverse events after vaccination that have been reported in 12- to 15-year-old adolescents are injection site pain (in 79 to 86 % of participants), fatigue (in 60 to 66 %), and headache (in 55 to 65 %). Adolescents aged 12–17 years have been found to have a moderately higher risk of adverse reactions than adults. For new vaccines, clinical trials typically collect data on commonly recognized adverse events and safety profiles. However, questions about the menstrual cycle have not been included in clinical studies. A significant number of reports on menstrual disturbances after COVID-19 vaccination have been registered in spontaneous adverse events surveillance systems in several countries (USA, UK, Norway, the Netherlands).

Factors associated with intention to vaccinate children 0-11 years of age against COVID-19

Melissa S. Stockwell; Christina A. Porucznik; Ashton Dixon (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine

Millions of children have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and over 1000 children have died in the US. However, vaccination rates for children 5 to 11 years old are low. Starting in August 2020, we conducted a prospective SARS-CoV-2 household surveillance study in Spanish and English-speaking households in New York City and Utah. From October 21 to 25, 2021, we asked caregivers about their likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine for their child, and reasons that they might or might not vaccinate that child. We compared intent to vaccinate by site, demographic characteristics, SARS-CoV-2 infection detected by study surveillance, and parents’ COVID-19 vaccination status using Chi-square tests and a multivariable logistic regression model, accounting for within-household clustering.

COVID-19 vaccination in children: a public health priority

Eduardo Jorge da Fonseca Lima; Robério Dias Leite

Published: December 2022   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

Covid-19 had a direct impact on children's health. The aim of this review was to analyze epidemiological and clinical data, the consequences of the pandemic, and vaccination aspects in this group. The searches were carried out from January 2020 to November 2022, in the MEDLINE databases (PubMed) and publications of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics.

Willingness of Brazilian caregivers in having their children and adolescents vaccinated against Covid-19

Marcio Fernandes Nehab; Karla Gonçalves Camacho; Adriana Teixeira Reis (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The vaccination of children and adolescents for the prevention of Covid-19 is important to:decrease in deaths and hospitalizations, prevent multisystem inflammatory syndrome, avoid long-term complications and decrease the suspension of on-site classes. Despite of these benefits, some studies have shown that some caregivers are still hesitancy. This is a voluntary and anonymous online survey conducted from November 17 to December 14, 2021, in Brazil, through a free-of-charge platform with a link provided on social networks. A bivariate analysis was conducted with the independent variables, with vaccine hesitancy as the outcome variable, and a multivariate logistic model was used to calculated adjusted odds ratios.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 42 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 735-743 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Brazil
The impact of COVID-19 on supplies of routine childhood immunization in Oromia regional state, Ethiopia: a mixed method study

Takele Menna Adilo; Samson Zegeye Endale; Takele Gezahegn Demie (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Globally, national immunization programs are at risk of disruption due to severe health system constraints caused by the ongoing Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the availability of supplies of routine childhood immunization in the Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. A health facility-based mixed-methods of study design was conducted. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires and key informant interview question guides, respectively. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means, and standard deviations were performed. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the associations between the COVID-19 pandemic and the availability of vaccine-related supplies at health facilities in study area. The qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach.
Vaccination coverage in children in the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: a time series analysis and literature review

Carla Magda Allan S. Domingues; Antônia Maria da Silva Teixeira; José Cássio de Moraes

Published: December 2022   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

This study aims to evaluate the behavior of VCR and VCH, per municipality and per vaccines offered at the NVC, to identify priority areas for intervention. Descriptive study of a time series, using secondary data and accompanied by a narrative review of the literature evaluating VCR and VCH. Vaccines offered to children under one year and to those aged one year in the pre-pandemic period of COVID-19 (2015 to 2019) were selected and compared to those offered during the pandemic period (2020 and 2021).

Do parents vaccinated against COVID-19 protect their children from hospitalization due to COVID-19?

Ömer Günes; Belgin Gülhan; Ahmet Yasin Guney (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

This study aimed to determine whether parental vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevents hospitalization of COVID-19-infected children. This study was based on data obtained from the records of pediatric patients that were followed up for virologically proven COVID-19 infection between August and October 2021, during which time the delta variant was dominant in Turkey and the children were isolating at home.

Parental seasonal influenza vaccine hesitancy and associated factors in Shanghai, China, during the COVID-19 Pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Jingyi Fan; Chuchu Ye; Yuanping Wang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Seasonal influenza may overlap with the COVID-19 pandemic, and children are one of the priority populations for influenza vaccination in China, yet vaccine coverage has been low. This study aimed to investigate the extent of parental influenza vaccine hesitancy (IVH) and to explore the associated factors. The study was conducted in Shanghai, China, from 1 June 2022 to 31 July 2022, using an anonymous questionnaire to survey a random sample of parents of children aged six months to 14 years. Binary logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with IVH.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 15 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: China
1 - 15 of 472

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.