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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 111
Parental plans to vaccinate children for COVID-19 in New York city

AUTHOR(S)
Chloe A. Teasdale; Luisa N. Borrell; Yanhan Shen (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine
Once COVID-19 vaccines are approved for children < 12 years of age, high pediatric vaccination coverage will be needed to help minimize the public health threat from the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. We conducted an online survey of 1,119 parents and caregivers of children ≤ 12 years in New York City from March 9 to April 11, 2021. Among parents surveyed, 61.9% reported plans to vaccinate their youngest child for COVID-19, 14.8% said they do not plan to vaccinate their child and 23.3% were unsure. Female and non-Hispanic Black parents were least likely to report plans to vaccinate their children. Safety, effectiveness and perceptions that children do not need vaccination were the primary reasons for vaccine hesitancy/resistance. Parents who have or will vaccinate themselves were significantly more likely to report they would vaccinate their children.
Parental perspectives on immunizations: impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on childhood vaccine hesitancy

AUTHOR(S)
Kaidi He; Wendy J. Mack; Michael Neely (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Community Health
Childhood vaccine hesitancy has been studied extensively before the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic presented new barriers to pediatric vaccinations. Furthermore, the development of COVID-19 vaccines has complicated factors underlying vaccine hesitancy. This study performed a cross-sectional mobile phone-based survey at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles querying parents regarding perspectives on vaccines before and during the pandemic. Its primary aim was to understand the impact of the pandemic on routine childhood vaccine hesitancy. Secondarily, it examined intent to vaccinate, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and key contributing demographic factors.
Crossing the Rubicon: a fine line between waiting and vaccinating adolescents against COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Shamez N. Ladhani

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection
Several countries with advanced adult COVID-19 immunisation programmes have already started vaccinating adolescents with an mRNA vaccine that recently received emergency use authorisation for 12–15 year-olds. The decision to vaccinate adolescents remains highly divisive among parents, clinicians, politicians and policy makers. There are very few downsides to immunising adolescents with a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine because that would significantly reduce their risk of COVID-19 and all its complications. Based on current evidence, however, adolescents have a very low risk of severe or fatal COVID-19, even among those with comorbidities, or rare complications such as long COVID or Paediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (PIMS-TS), a hyperinflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, currently authorised vaccines are very reactogenic and have limited post-marketing population-level safety data in adolescents and young adults, but these are emerging from countries that have forged ahead with vaccinating adolescents.
Myopericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents 12 through 18 years of age

AUTHOR(S)
Bibhuti B. Das; Utkarsh Kohli; Preeti Ramachandran (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

This research aims to characterize the clinical course and outcomes of children who developed probable myopericarditis after vaccination with the Pfizer- BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. A cross-sectional study of 32 children, aged 12 through 18 years, diagnosed with probable myopericarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination as per the CDC criteria for myopericarditis at 9 US centers between May 10, 2021 and June 20, 2021. We retrospectively collected the following data: demographics, SARS-CoV-2 virus detection or serologic testing, clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, imaging study results, treatment and time to resolutions of symptoms.

COVID-19 vaccines for children in LMICs: another equity issue

AUTHOR(S)
Beate Kampmann; Uduak Okomo

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet Journal

Given the success of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing death and severe disease in adults and their impact on community transmission,  use in children and young people (CYP) inevitably requires consideration. Although severe COVID-19 is rare in CYP, they are affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including education, mental health, and general wellbeing. As of late July, 2021, no COVID-19 vaccine is recommended for children younger than 12 years and safety and efficacy data from phase 3 clinical trials are so far limited: 1131 CYP aged 12–15 years received the Pfizer–BioNTech mRNA vaccine and safety data are available from phase 1 and 2 trials of Sinovac's inactivated CoronaVac vaccine in 438 children aged 3–17 years. Safety data have been reassuring, with published data confirming excellent immunogenicity. There is no reason to believe the vaccines should not be equally protective against COVID-19 in CYP as they are in adults. More than 30 international trials are now recruiting CYP as young as 6 months to assess safety, immunogenicity, dosing, and scheduling questions.
SARS-CoV-2 antibodies started to decline just four months after COVID-19 infection in a paediatric population

AUTHOR(S)
Adin Breuer; Allon Raphael; Hagay Stern (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

This study evaluated the prevalence of paediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections using antibody testing and characterised antibody titres by time from exposure. This was a single-centre, prospective, cross-sectional cohort study. Patients under 18 years old were eligible to participate if they attended the paediatric emergency department at the tertiary Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel, from 18 October 2020 to 12 January 2021 and required blood tests or intravenous access. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and antibody levels were tested by a dual-assay model.

Estimating global and regional disruptions to routine childhood vaccine coverage during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Causey; Nancy Fullman; Reed J. D. Sorensen (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet1
The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission substantially affected health services worldwide. To better understand the impact of the pandemic on childhood routine immunisation, this study estimated disruptions in vaccine coverage associated with the pandemic in 2020, globally and by Global Burden of Disease (GBD) super-region. For this analysis it used a two-step hierarchical random spline modelling approach to estimate global and regional disruptions to routine immunisation using administrative data and reports from electronic immunisation systems, with mobility data as a model input. Paired with estimates of vaccine coverage expected in the absence of COVID-19, which were derived from vaccine coverage models from GBD 2020, Release 1 (GBD 2020 R1), it estimated the number of children who missed routinely delivered doses of the third-dose diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine and first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in 2020.
Short-term outcome of pregnant women vaccinated by BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine

AUTHOR(S)
S. Bookstein Peretz; N. Regev; L. Novick (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology

This study aims to determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Pfizer's BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine among pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women, and to evaluate the obstetric outcome following vaccination. An observational case-control study of pregnant women, who were vaccinated by a 2-dose regimen of BNT162b2 vaccine during gestation between January-February 2021 (study group) and were compared to age-matched non-pregnant women who received the vaccine during the same time period (control group).

Early influenza vaccination rates decline in children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin Fogel; Eric W. Schaefer; Steven D. Hicks

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine

This investigation sought to determine whether early season rates of pediatric influenza vaccination changed in a season when there was a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. This study used cohort and cross sectional data from an academic primary care division in Southcentral Pennsylvania that serves approximately 17,500 patients across 4 practice sites. Early season (prior to November 1) vaccination rates in 2018, 2019 and 2020 were recorded for children, age 6 months to 17 years.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4291-4295 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child immunization, COVID-19, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Should older adult pneumococcal vaccination recommendations change due to decreased vaccination in children during the pandemic? A cost-effectiveness analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Kenneth J. Smith; Angela R. Wateska; Mary Patricia Nowalk (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The COVID-19 pandemic is causing declines in childhood immunization rates. This study examined potential COVID-19-related changes in pediatric 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) use, subsequent impact on childhood and adult pneumococcal disease rates, and how those changes might affect the favorability of PCV13 use in non-immunocompromised adults aged ≥65 years.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4278-4282 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, immunization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies
Intentions of public school teachers in British Columbia, Canada to receive a COVID-19 vaccine

AUTHOR(S)
C. Sarai Racey; Robine Donken; Imogen Porter (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine X
To control the COVID-19 pandemic high vaccine acceptability and uptake will be needed. Teachers represent a priority population to minimize social disruption and ensure continuity in education, which is vital for the well-being and healthy development of youth during the pandemic. The objective of this analysis was to measure public school teachers’ intentions to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in British Columbia (BC), Canada.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, infectious disease, teachers, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Canada
Parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children against COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Kristine M. Ruggiero; John Wong; Casey Fryer Sweeney (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care

With the COVID-19 vaccine rollout is well underway now beginning in children ages 12 and over, it is unknown what percent of parents plan to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine parents’ attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in administering a COVID-19 vaccine.

Children and COVID-19 vaccines

AUTHOR(S)
Lindsay A. Thompson; Sonja A. Rasmussen

Published: June 2021   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Nearly 4 million children in the US have been infected with COVID-19 as of May 2021. While most children have had mild or no symptoms, thousands have been hospitalized and several hundred have died. Children with underlying conditions are more likely to experience severe effects of COVID-19, but even healthy children can be severely affected. Children can spread COVID-19 to others and also can have long-term effects that last months. For these reasons, children need to be protected from COVID-19. Currently, 3 vaccines are authorized for adults in the United States. In studies of tens of thousands of people, these vaccines were safe and effective. The vaccine made by Pfizer was recently authorized for children 12 years and older. Two doses of this vaccine are recommended to be given 3 weeks apart. The other 2 vaccines were authorized for persons 18 years and older but are expected to be available for teenagers soon. Studies in younger children as young as age 6 months are ongoing and if these studies show that they are safe and effective, vaccines could be available for children 6 months and older by late 2021 or early 2022.

 

ISIDOG consensus guidelines on COVID-19 vaccination for women before, during and after pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Gilbert G. G. Donders; Svitrigaile Grinceviciene; Kai Haldre (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Sars-CoV-2 infection poses particular problems in pregnancy, as the infection more frequently causes severe complications than in unaffected pregnant women or nonpregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Now that vaccination is available and rapidly being implemented worldwide, the question arises whether pregnant women should be vaccinated, and if so, whether they should receive priority. Available scientific data and available guidelines about vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were collected by the Guideline Committee of the International Society of Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISIDOG) and were analyzed, discussed and summarized as guidelines for healthcare workers caring for pregnant women. Concluding statements were graded according to the Oxford evidence-based medicine grading system.
Determinant of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine among school teachers in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Simegnew Handebo; Maereg Wolde; Kegnie Shitu

Published: June 2021   Journal: Plos One

Scientists across the world are working on innovating a successful vaccine that will save lives and end COVID-19 pandemic. World Health Organization (WHO) is working to make sure COVID-19 vaccines can be safely delivered to all those who need them. Indeed, the successful deployment and a sufficient uptake of vaccines is equally important. Acceptance and accessibility of such vaccine is a key indicator of vaccination coverage. This study aimed to assess the determinants of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine among school teachers in Gondar City.

16 - 30 of 111

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.