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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 379
Short report: vaccine attitudes in the age of COVID-19 for a population of children with mitochondrial disease

AUTHOR(S)
Eliza Gordon-Lipkina; Christopher Steven Marcumb; Shannon Kruk (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Children with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to morbidity associated with COVID-19. This paper aims to understand attitudes toward routine childhood vaccinations versus the COVID-19 vaccine in a population of families affected by mitochondrial disease (MtD), a form of developmental disability. An online survey was administered via several advocacy groups for children with MtD.

Parental refusal and hesitancy of vaccinating children against COVID-19: findings from a nationally representative sample of parents in the U.S.

AUTHOR(S)
Thadchaigeni Panchalingam; Yuyan Shi

Published: November 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
The uptake rate of COVID−19 vaccines among children remains low in the U.S. This study aims to 1) identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors influencing parental refusal of vaccinating children, and 2) quantify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics in parental hesitancy of vaccinating children. An online survey was conducted from October to November 2021 among a probability-based, representative sample of 1456 parents with children under age 18. The survey included a discrete choice experiment asking parents to choose between two hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine alternatives with varying levels of characteristics in 10 hypothetical scenarios. Logistic regressions were used to estimate parental refusal (refused to choose any vaccine alternatives in all hypothetical scenarios) and random parameter logit regressions were used to estimate parental hesitancy (choice of vaccine alternatives depended on vaccine characteristics) of vaccinating children.
COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among marginalized populations in Kosovo: insight from a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Ha Thi Hong Nguyen; Mrike Aliu; Kimberly Ann Ashburn (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: October 2022
Kosovo has fully vaccinated 45.5 percent of the population, below what is needed to slow the spread of COVID-19. The Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian communities, as marginalized ethnic groups, have been identified as high risk for acquiring COVID-19 and for lower acceptance of vaccines. Factors associated with vaccine acceptance are examined in this qualitative study among Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian community members and representatives from civil society, community leaders, health care providers, and government working directly within these communities. Using a social-ecological model, intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and structural factors influencing vaccine acceptance were identified. Intrapersonal-level factors centered on fear of side effects and doubt about vaccine safety and effectiveness, and lack of trust of health care providers; at the interpersonal level, male head of households decided for the entire family whether to receive the vaccine; in the social context at the community level, exposure to prolific misinformation on social media, television news, and paper pamphlets distributed in study communities created fear, doubt, and anxiety about vaccines, and stereotypes about the strong immune systems of ethnic minority groups reinforced beliefs about the communities low susceptibility to COVID-19; and structural-level barriers included the requirement for identification documents, and a buildup of doubt about motivations of the vaccinators created by massive vaccine-promotion efforts and police harassment in implementing curfew, and other protective measures targeting ethnic minority communities. Implications of these findings highlight a need for a segmented approach in designing subgroup-specific and multicomponent interventions to promote vaccine acceptance. Strategies include training local opinion leaders in door-to-door awareness raising, directly addressing misinformation, and distributing vouchers to be exchanged for incentives after vaccination; using social media where respected health care providers and community members post videos promoting vaccination; and removing or providing an alternative to identification requirements.
Effectiveness of primary series and booster vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents aged 12–17 years in Singapore: a national cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Calvin J. Chiew; M. Premikha; Chia Yin Chong (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Singapore offered the BNT162b2 vaccine (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) to adolescents aged 12–17 years in May 18, 2021, and extended booster vaccines to this group in Jan 21, 2022. Literature on the effectiveness of primary series and booster vaccination among adolescents is scarce outside of Europe and North America. We aimed to determine primary series and booster vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents in Singapore. This national cohort study assessed the incidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents aged 12–17 years vaccinated with BNT162b2 in Singapore from Sept 1 to Dec 15, 2021, during the delta (B.1.617.2) variant wave, and from Jan 21 to April 28, 2022, during the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant wave. Data were collected from official databases maintained by the Ministry of Health of Singapore. Individuals were classified as partly vaccinated (those who had received one dose and those who had received the second dose no more than 7 days previously), fully vaccinated (8 days after receiving a second dose), or boosted (8 days after receiving a third dose) and compared with unvaccinated individuals.
Parental health beliefs, intention, and strategies about covid-19 vaccine for their children: a cross-sectional analysis from five Arab countries in the Middle East

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Haider Mohammed; Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan; Abdulrasool M. Wayyes (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The issue around vaccination of children has brought divergent opinions among the populations across the globe and among the Arab population. There has been a low response rate to the calls for vaccination of children and this is reflective of the sentiments which parents may have towards their children being vaccinated. This study aims to explore the parents’ health beliefs, intentions, and strategies towards the COVID-19 vaccine for their children among Arab population. A cross-sectional study using an online survey from October to December 2021, was carried out in five Arab countries in the Middle East. A reliable health belief model (HBM) including five domains: severity, susceptibility, benefits, barriers and cues to action, was adopted. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed for data analysis.

Willingness and attitudes of parents of children under the age of 12 about the COVID- 19 vaccine in Taif city

AUTHOR(S)
Ayman A. Atalla; Jamal Faydh; Saad Althuwaybi (et al.)

Published: October 2022

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2), is currently a global pandemic with the highest number of people affected in the modern era; only a small proportion of children have been infected with COVID-19. Most of them were asymptomatic or only had mild symptoms. Both direct and indirect advantages will result from an effective and a safe COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy is a potential threat to global public health. Parental attitudes to-wards the vaccines play a key role in the success of the herd immunity for COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the parents’ willingness and attitudes about the COVID- 19 vaccine in Taif city in K.S.A. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 384 parents. The data collection tool was an online questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic data of parents and children, and questions for assessment of parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine. All data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 22. The committee is accredited by the National Committee for Bioethics with No. (HAO-02-T-105) and the proposal fulfills the requirements of Taif Uni-versity and accordingly ethical approval was granted.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 30 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 59-66 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and willingness among pregnant women in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Grazia Miraglia del Giudice; Lucio Folcarelli; Annalisa Napoli (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Pregnant women, especially those with comorbidities, compared to those non-pregnant, have higher risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. However, COVID-19 vaccine uptake is very low among them. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to randomly selected women 18 years of age that were currently pregnant or had just given birth between September 2021 and May 2022 in the geographic area of Naples. Vaccine hesitancy was assessed using the vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS).

Effect of outreach messages on adolescent well child visits and COVID-19 vaccine rates: an RCT

AUTHOR(S)
Mary Carol Burkhardt; Anne E. Berset; Yingying Xu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
To determine effectiveness of text/telephone outreach messages, with and without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine information. We conducted an intent-to-treat, multiarm, randomized clinical trial with adolescents aged 12-17 years. Eligible patients did not have an adolescent well-care visit in the past year or scheduled in the next 45 days or an active electronic health record portal account. We randomized participants to the standard message, COVID-19 vaccine message, or no message (control) group and delivered 2 text messages or telephone calls (per family preference) to the message groups. The primary outcome was adolescent well-care visit completion within 8 weeks, and secondary outcomes were adolescent well-care visit scheduled within 2 weeks and receiving COVID-19 vaccine within 8 weeks.
Maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women receiving COVID-19 vaccination: the preg-co-vax study

AUTHOR(S)
Annamaria Mascolo; Gabriella Di Mauro; Federica Fraenza (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

Although the European Medicines Agency (EMA) encourage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in pregnant women, the scientific evidence supporting the use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is still limited. This study aimed to investigate adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy. It retrieved Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) related to the use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy from the EudraVigilance database for the year 2021. It analyzed AEFI related to the mother and fetus/newborn. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was computed to compare the reporting probability of spontaneous abortion between COVID-19 vaccines.

Parents' intention for their children to receive COVID-19 vaccine: implications for vaccination program in Macao

AUTHOR(S)
Un I Choi; Yimin Pang; Yu Zheng (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

The decision about vaccinating children is subject to their parents' decision. To inform strategies that support full vaccination coverage, it is important to understand the parents' vaccination attitude and tendency to act. This study aims to investigate the intention and the factors affecting parents' decision-making about vaccinating their children. A cross-sectional, self-administered online questionnaire was completed by parents of children aged 3–12 yeas in Macao between 7 March and 17 April 2022. The survey tool was informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) which composes of the variable “intention” and three TPB constructs (Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control). Respondents rated their level of agreement on the construct statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine if the TPB constructs were predictors of parents' intention.

Peripartum outcomes associated with COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Atsuyuki Watanabe; Jun Yasuhara; Masao Iwagami (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

The risk and benefits of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy are under investigation. Pooled evidence regarding neonatal and maternal outcomes in association with COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the association between COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and peripartum outcomes. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched on April 5, 2022. Language restrictions were not applied.

Vaccination double bind: a study of pregnancy and COVID-19 vaccine decision-making

AUTHOR(S)
Kari Campeau

Published: October 2022   Journal: Rhetoric Society Quarterly
COVID-19 vaccination rates among pregnant people are among the lowest in the United States. To better understand how pregnant people are seeking, assembling, and making meaning of different types of information and support, this essay reports on a study of a social media forum created for pregnant and breastfeeding people to discuss COVID-19 vaccination. Data come from 435 forum posts and 17 interviews with forum participants. Findings document four rhetorical strategies that participants developed to move themselves from vaccine uncertainty to vaccine confidence: (1) seeking embodied evidence to personalize vaccine decision making, (2) localizing scientific evidence to their lived contexts, (3) optimizing vaccination, and (4) attending to the affective and relational dimensions of vaccination. These strategies show how participants calibrated two powerful and conflicting rhetorics—one rhetoric that they should get vaccinated as soon as possible, and another that they should make personalized health decisions for their families.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and its determinants among sub-Saharan African adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Dongqing Wang; Angela Chukwu; Mary Mwanyika-Sando (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: PLOS Glob Public Health
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among adolescents poses a challenge to the global effort to control the pandemic. This multi-country survey aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa between July and December 2021. The survey was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing among adolescents in five sub-Saharan African countries, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Tanzania. A rural area and an urban area were included in each country (except Ghana, which only had a rural area), with approximately 300 adolescents in each area and 2662 in total. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions and attitudes on COVID-19 vaccines were measured. Vaccine hesitancy was defined as definitely not getting vaccinated or being undecided on whether to get vaccinated if a COVID-19 vaccine were available. Log-binomial models were used to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between potential determinants and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The percentage of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 14% in rural Kersa, 23% in rural Ibadan, 31% in rural Nouna, 32% in urban Ouagadougou, 37% in urban Addis Ababa, 48% in rural Kintampo, 65% in urban Lagos, 76% in urban Dar es Salaam, and 88% in rural Dodoma. Perceived low necessity, concerns about vaccine safety, and concerns about vaccine effectiveness were the leading reasons for hesitancy.
COVID-19 vaccine perceptions and hesitancy amongst parents of school-aged children during the pediatric vaccine rollout

AUTHOR(S)
Alexandra Byrne; Lindsay A. Thompson; Stephanie L. Filipp (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The United States has the highest number of total cases and deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide (Johns Hopkins COVID Dashboard, 2021). Despite COVID-19 vaccine availability, uptake in the United States has been slow and vaccine hesitancy has been a significant barrier to achieving widespread vaccine uptake. Understanding determinants of vaccine acceptance is essential to implement successful population health interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccination. This study developed an anonymous cross-sectional parent survey to assess factors associated with parent and child COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy during the initial pediatric vaccine rollout amongst adolescents 16 years +. The survey was sent via email to 25,308 parents registered to the Alachua County Public School System in May 2021 and remained active until July 2021.

One vaccine to counter many diseases? Modeling the economics of oral polio vaccine against child mortality and COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Angela Y. Chang; Peter Aaby; Michael S. Avidan (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Recent reviews summarize evidence that some vaccines have heterologous or non-specific effects (NSE), potentially offering protection against multiple pathogens. Numerous economic evaluations examine vaccines' pathogen-specific effects, but less than a handful focus on NSE. This paper addresses that gap by reporting economic evaluations of the NSE of oral polio vaccine (OPV) against under-five mortality and COVID-19. It studied two settings: (1) reducing child mortality in a high-mortality setting (Guinea-Bissau) and (2) preventing COVID-19 in India. In the former, the intervention involves three annual campaigns in which children receive OPV incremental to routine immunization. In the latter, a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model was developed to estimate the population benefits of two scenarios, in which OPV would be co-administered alongside COVID-19 vaccines. Incremental cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratios were modeled for ranges of intervention effectiveness estimates to supplement the headline numbers and account for heterogeneity and uncertainty.

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