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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Parental attitudes, intentions, decisions, and psychological wellbeing regarding COVID-19 vaccination: preschool, school-age, and adolescent caregivers

Liang-Jen Wang; Kuang-Che Kou; Kuo-Shu Tang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The vaccination of all children may be one of the most important public health measures for preventing a wider spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the community. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude, intention, decision making, and psychological well-being among the caregivers of children who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Taiwan. The caregivers of children (98 preschool children, 191 school-age children, and 154 adolescents) who received COVID-19 vaccination were invited to fill in the following questionnaires: Adopting Self-Protective Behavior Scale, Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Parental Bonding Instrument. Compared to the caregivers of adolescents, the caregivers of preschool children exhibited more protective behaviors toward the COVID-19 pandemic. The caregivers of preschool children also displayed a higher emotional impact than those of adolescents and took a greater interest in the family’s opinion about vaccination. Finally, we found that COVID-19 ideological invasion and protective parenting style were significantly related to the prevalence of mental illness among caregivers.
Associations between routine adolescent vaccination status and parental intent to get a COVID-19 vaccine for their adolescent

Cassandra Pingali; Fan Zhang; Tammy A. Santibanez (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Although COVID-19–associated illness is generally mild in adolescents, they can experience severe health outcomes, including hospitalization and death.1 COVID-19 vaccinations are effective for preventing serious COVID-19–associated illness in adolescents.1 The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends persons aged 6 months or older receive COVID-19 vaccination.2 As of April 14, 2022, among US individuals aged 12 to 17 years, COVID-19 vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) was 68%,3 lower than for other vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents.4 The ACIP recommends adolescents aged 11 to 12 years receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations.2 This cross-sectional study investigated associations between routine adolescent vaccination status and parental intent or hesitancy to get a COVID-19 vaccine for their adolescent. The National Immunization Survey–Child COVID Module (NIS-CCM) is a national telephone survey of households with children or adolescents aged 6 months to 17 years used to measure parent-reported COVID-19 vaccination coverage and intent to vaccinate their child.5 The NIS-CCM uses the NIS-Child sampling frame; for adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, it follows the NIS-Teen interview, allowing for analysis of both routine (HPV, MenACWY, and Tdap) and COVID-19 vaccination coverage.5 NIS-CCM interviews from July 22, 2021, through February 26, 2022, were analyzed. Survey respondents were those self-reporting being most knowledgeable about the child’s vaccinations (hereafter, parent). Vaccination status was based on parental report. Data were weighted to represent the noninstitutionalized population of US adolescents and calibrated to administered vaccinations data.3 Analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.4

Knowledge, attitudes, and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines among secondary school pupils in Zambia: implications for future educational and sensitisation programmes

Steward Mudenda; Moses Mukosha; Brian Godman (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in the closure of schools to slow the spread of the virus across populations, and the administration of vaccines to protect people from severe disease, including school children and adolescents. In Zambia, there is currently little information on the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines among school-going children and adolescents despite their inclusion in the vaccination programme. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines among secondary school pupils in Lusaka, Zambia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2022 to October 2022.
Parents' level of COVID-19 fear, anxiety and their attitudes and behaviors toward vaccination of their children

Kazım Baş; Nazan Gürarslan Baş

Published: December 2022   Journal: Omega : Journal of Death and Dying
The aims of this study were to investigate parents’ COVID-19 fear and anxiety levels and determine the relationship between parents’ COVID-19 fear and anxiety levels and their attitudes and behaviors toward having themselves and their children vaccinated. This descriptive and cross-sectional type of research was conducted with 950 parents with 12–18 years old children.
Chinese parents' willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Yundi Ma; Jingjing Ren; Yang Zheng (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

To evaluate Chinese parents' willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, identify its predictors, and provide a reference for raising the COVID-19 vaccination rate for children. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the databases in Chinese, including CNKI, WanFang, VIP, CBM, were searched from December 2019 to June 2022, and citation tracking was used to identify relevant studies. To calculate the rate with 95% confidence intervals (CI), a random-effects model was used. To explore sources of heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were conducted. This analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022346866) and reported in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines.

Mothers' impressions and beliefs about taking a booster dose for COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy and lactation

Esra' O. Taybeh; Rawan Alsharedeh; Shereen Hamadneh

Published: December 2022   Journal: Cureus

This study aimed to explore perceptions and willingness to get coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination among pregnant and lactating women in Jordan. A cross-sectional study using a 29-item web-based questionnaire was conducted. Sociodemographic characteristics, vaccine acceptance, confidence in the booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine, perception of risk for COVID-19, and acceptance to participate in COVID-19 booster vaccine clinical trials were prospectively evaluated. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that might affect the participants’ acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and their willingness to enroll in clinical trials of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine.

Assessing parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward vaccinating children (five to 15 years old) against COVID-19 in the United Arab Emirates

Aicha Bourguiba; Shahd AbuHijleh; Yasmin Nached

Published: December 2022   Journal: Cureus
Since the approval of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine for children in 2021, there had been ongoing debates about the necessity of vaccinating children, owing to the seemingly mild nature of the infection in children, despite causing significant morbidity and mortality in the 5-11 age group in 2020-2021, and its association with complications such as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). This sparked the need to evaluate parents’ perceptions, knowledge, and the effect of information sources on their decision-making. It is important to understand the various drivers and concerns expressed by parents locally, to shape vaccination campaigns to address such issues. While numerous studies across the world have extensively investigated parental willingness and intention to vaccinate children against COVID-19, it is important to acknowledge that these studies have been conducted before COVID-19 vaccines became approved for children in the respective countries. There is an obvious scarcity of data on the parental knowledge, attitudes, and acceptance of the vaccine for children after the respective countries have approved and provided the vaccine. The present study aims to provide data that could reveal possible barriers to vaccine uptake such as deficits in knowledge, negative attitudes, and poor practices towards the COVID-19 pandemic, and hence address these factors to make the ongoing COVID-19 vaccination campaign, as well as future childhood vaccination campaigns, more successful.
COVID-19: impact of original, gamma, delta, and omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant and postpartum women

Fabiano Elisei Serra; Elias Ribeiro Rosa Junior; Patricia de Rossi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccines
This study compares the clinical characteristics and disease progression among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant and postpartum women who tested positive for different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using the Brazilian epidemiological data. Data of pregnant or postpartum patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and presenting with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from February 2020 to July 2022 were extracted from Brazilian national database. The patients were grouped based on vaccination status and viral variant (original, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants), and their demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, symptoms, and outcomes were compared retrospectively. Data of 10,003 pregnant and 2361 postpartum women were extracted from the database. For unvaccinated postpartum women, intensive care unit (ICU) admission was more likely; invasive ventilation need was more probable if they tested positive for the original, Gamma, and Omicron variants; and chances of death were higher when infected with the original and Gamma variants than when infected with other variants. Vaccinated patients had reduced adverse outcome probability, including ICU admission, invasive ventilation requirement, and death. Postpartum women showed worse outcomes, particularly when unvaccinated, than pregnant women. Hence, vaccination of pregnant and postpartum women should be given top priority.
COVID-19 impact on disparity in childhood immunization in low- and middle-income countries through the lens of historical pandemics

Harriet Itiakorit; Abhilash Sathyamoorthi; Brigid E. O’Brien (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
This review provides an overview of childhood immunizations and discusses past pandemics particularly in LMIC, factors contributing to disparities in childhood immunizations, and reviews potential lessons to be learned from past pandemics. Vaccine hesitancy, social determinants of health, and best practices to help lessen the pandemic’s influence are also further elaborated. To address current challenges that hindered the progress made in prevention of childhood illnesses through vaccination campaigns and increased vaccine availability, lessons learned through best practices explored from past pandemics must be examined to mitigate impact of COVID-19 on childhood immunization and in turn conserve health and improve economic well-being of children especially in LMIC.
Worries, beliefs and factors influencing perinatal COVID-19 vaccination: a cross-sectional survey of preconception, pregnant and lactating individuals

Serine Ramlawi; Katherine A. Muldoon; Sandra I. Dunn (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

COVID-19 vaccines are recommended for pregnant and lactating individuals, and there is substantial evidence for their safety and effectiveness. As the pandemic continues, information on worries and beliefs surrounding perinatal COVID-19 vaccination remains important to inform efforts aimed at improving vaccine uptake. Our objectives were to assess factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination among perinatal individuals; and to explore motivational factors associated with willingness to be vaccinated among unvaccinated perinatal individuals. This was a cross-sectional web-based survey of preconception, pregnant, and lactating individuals in Canada. The outcomes of interest were vaccination with at least one dose of any COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to be vaccinated among unvaccinated individuals. Sample characteristics were summarized using frequencies and percentages. The association between eight prespecified risk factors and two outcomes (vaccination status and willingness to be vaccinated) was assessed by logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the total sample, and across perinatal sub-groups.

Parental perceptions related to co-administration of adolescent COVID-19 and routine vaccines

Courtney A. Gidengil; Andrew M. Parker; Amber M. Gedlinske (et al.)

Published: December 2022
Vaccinating adolescents against COVID-19 while avoiding delays in other routine vaccination is paramount to protecting their health. Our objective was to assess parental preferences to have their adolescents aged 12–17 years receive COVID-19 and other routine vaccines at the same time. An online survey with a national, quota-based cross-sectional sample of United States parents of youth aged 12–17 years was fielded in April 2021 ahead of FDA's Emergency Use Authorization of COVID-19 vaccine for age 12–15 years. Parents were asked about their willingness to have their adolescents aged 12–17 years receive both COVID-19 and routine vaccines at the same visit and/or to follow their provider's recommendation. Predictors included demographic characteristics, being behind on routine vaccines, and perceived risks and benefits.
Inequalities in infant vaccination coverage during the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study in Peru

Ali Al-kassab-Córdova; Claudia Silva-Perez; Carolina Mendez-Guerra (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccine

To identify the associated factors and assess the inequalities of full vaccination coverage (FVC) among Peruvian infants aged 12–23 months during the COVID-19 pandemic in a nationally representative sample. This study carried out a population-based cross-sectional study based on a secondary data analysis using the 2021 Peruvian Demographic Health Survey (DHS) in infants aged 12 to 23 months. The sampling design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified, and independent at both departmental and area of residence levels. FVC was defined according to the WHO definition. It performed generalized linear models (GLM) Poisson family log link function to estimate crude (aPR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR). Also, for inequality assessment, we calculated the concentration curve (CC), concentration index (CI), and Erreygers normalized concentration index (ECI).

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 41 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 564-572 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, lockdown, social distance, social inequality, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Peru
Education level modifies parental hesitancy about COVID-19 vaccinations for their children

Shuning Tang; Xin Liu; Yingnan Jia (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccine
It is important to encourage parental acceptance of children’s vaccination against COVID-19 to ensure population immunity and mitigate morbidity and mortality. This study drew upon protection motivation theory (PMT) to explore the factors of parental hesitancy about vaccinating their children. A national online survey was performed in China. A total of 2054 Chinese parents of children aged 6–12 years were included in this study. They reported on measures that assessed hesitancy about children’s vaccination against COVID-19, PMT constructs (susceptibility, severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and response costs) and sociodemographic characteristics. Chinese parents reported a hesitancy rate of 29.4% for children’s vaccination. Parents with higher level education were more likely to hesitate to vaccinate their children against COVID-19.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 41 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 496-503 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, parents, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: China
Safety and tolerability of COVID-19 vaccine in children with epilepsy: a prospective, multicenter study

Zhihao Wang; Xiqin Fang; Tao Han (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Pediatric Neurology

This study aimed to investigate the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 4 (COVID-19) vaccine on epileptic seizures, as well as its adverse effects, in children with epilepsy (< 18 years). This anonymous questionnaire study involved a multicenter prospective survey of outpatients and inpatients with epilepsy (<18 years) registered in epilepsy clinics in 8 hospitals in six cities of Shandong Province.

Parents' intentions and perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination for their children: results from a national survey

P. G. Szilagyi; M. D. Shah; J. R. Delgado (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Pediatrics

This study aimed to assess the likelihood of US parents to have their children receive a pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and to understand parental concerns about the vaccines. Study participants were selected from The Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally-representative online panel who were surveyed between February 17, 2021 and March 30, 2021. This was a survey-based study. Parents were asked about intent to have their child vaccinated against COVID-19, their perceptions about the vaccine, their own likelihood of getting a COVID-19 vaccine, whether their child previously received the flu vaccine, their trust in sources of information about a COVID-19 vaccine, and their trust in the vaccine development and approval process. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to assess likelihood of vaccination and to understand the association between likelihood of child vaccination and parent demographics, child age, and parental perceptions about COVID-19 vaccines.

16 - 30 of 468

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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