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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The COVID-19 pandemic threatens the Expanded Program on Immunization: recommendations for sustaining vaccination goals

AUTHOR(S)
Husnain Hamid; Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi; Muhammad Saad Naseer (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Drugs & Therapy Perspectives
The immunization of children is stalling, and maintaining coverage is becoming challenging, with almost 20 million children being unvaccinated or under-vaccinated in 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted immunization coverage, yielding a stagnant coverage rate. Currently, there is a dire need for a collaborative approach between global and national organizations to revive disrupted vaccination rates.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 1 | No. of pages: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child diseases, vaccination policies, multi-country
Polio in Afghanistan: the current situation amid COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Attaullah Ahmadi; Mohammad Yasir Essar; Xu Lin (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Polio is a deadly viral disease that has been paralyzing many children in Afghanistan. Despite fundamental efforts, primarily vaccination, to reduce the number of cases in Afghanistan, there are still many children who are deprived of the vaccine every year. Afghanistan is one of the two remaining countries endemic for polio, and the country has undergone various challenges that have hampered the eradication of this disease. The underlying challenges include inaccessibility of unsecured areas, illiteracy, refusal, and, most recently, COVID-19. The country is in the midst of a battle against COVID-19, and polio has almost entirely been neglected.
Children, HIV and AIDS, how will progress be impacted by COVID-19?
Institution: UNICEF Data & Analytics
Published: July 2020 UNICEF Publication

Coronavirus-related service disruptions threaten to reverse the decade-long progress made for children and pregnant women in the fight against HIV.

Immunization coverage: are we losing ground?
Institution: World Health Organisation, *UNICEF
Published: July 2020 UNICEF Publication
Immunization is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to date, saving an estimated 2 to 3 million lives each year. As a direct result of immunization, the world is closer than ever to eradicating polio, and deaths from measles – a major child killer – have declined by 73 per cent worldwide between 2000 and 2018, saving an estimated 23.2 million children’s lives. The emergence of COVID-19, however, threatens to reverse this progress by severely limiting access to life-saving vaccines.
COVID-19 vaccine: vaccinate the young to protect the old?

AUTHOR(S)
Alberto Giubilini; Julian Savulescu; Dominic Wilkinson

Published: June 2020   Journal: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
When we have a vaccine against COVID-19, who should be vaccinated first? The question is relevant because, initially, vaccine availability will likely be limited. After healthcare and some other essential workers, it might seem the most obvious candidates are the elderly and other groups that are more vulnerable to the virus. However, we argue that this is not necessarily the case. Protecting the most vulnerable might require prioritizing vaccinating children in order to maximize the benefits of indirect immunity for the elderly and the other vulnerable groups. Whether this will be the best strategy from a public health perspective will depend on characteristics of the vaccine and of the virus, which are currently unknown. Here, we assess this possibility from an ethical point of view, by drawing comparisons and analogies with the case of the flu vaccination and with other examples of health policies and practices. We conclude that there are strong ethical reasons to vaccinate the young to protect the old, provided that the risks imposed on children are reasonable, even if that implies using children as a means to protect the elderly and the vulnerable
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 7 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 13 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disease transmission, immunization programmes, vaccination policies, COVID-19
Considerations in mandating a new Covid-19 vaccine in the USA for children and adults

AUTHOR(S)
Dorit R. Reiss; Arthur L. Caplan

Published: May 2020   Journal: Journal of Law and the Biosciences,
As cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread globally and across the USA, reaching over 140,000 US cases by March 30, 2020 (a number that is almost certainly an under estimate, given the lack of testing across states), scientists and companies throughout the world are searching for a response, a treatment or vaccine. Multiple companies are currently working on developing vaccines for the disease. A vaccine will, by the most optimistic estimates, not be available for at least 12–18 months; but while there is no certainty, there are good chances one or more of variable efficacy will, eventually, be available. When it is, one potential question states will have to address is whether the vaccine should be mandated for school children and anyone else. This article examines this question; the answer, naturally, is ‘it depends’, but this article offers guidance about the ethical and legal considerations for making the decision. The article will address this in three parts: the ethical considerations that affect whether a COVID-19 vaccine mandate is appropriate, potential legal constraints, and practical and political considerations.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.