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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 84
Using social media data for assessing children’s exposure to violence during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Pouria Babvey; Fernanda Capela; Claudia Cappa (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
There are concerns that the COVID-19 crisis and the measures adopted by countries in response to  the  pandemic may have led  to  an  upsurge in  violence against children. Added stressors placed on caregivers, economic uncertainty, job loss or disruption to livelihoods and social isolation may have led to a rise in children’s experience of violence in the home. Extended online presence by children may have resulted in increased exposure to abusive content and cyberbullying.
Calculating the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on child abuse and neglect in the U. S.

AUTHOR(S)
Loc H. Nguyen

Published: June 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

COVID-19 has had a major impact on child abuse and neglect (CAN) in the U.S. leading to a change in the number of reported screened-in CAN investigations, missed prevention cases, and missed CAN cases. This paper aims to estimate the deficit number of CAN investigations and resultant estimated number of missed prevention and CAN cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. from March 2020 to December 2020.

Assessing child abuse hotline inquiries in the wake of COVID-19: answering the call

AUTHOR(S)
Robin Ortiz; Rachel Kishton; Laura Sinko

Published: May 2021   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Experts are concerned about increasing child distress and maltreatment alongside decreasing exposure to mandated child abuse reporters, such as teachers, during the COVID-19 pandemic.1 Hotlines may serve as alternate means to identify family violence and support at-risk children. This study assessed the volume of calls and texts to a national child abuse hotline during the pandemic compared with the prior year. This cross-sectional study was conducted using restricted-access data from Childhelp, the only national hotline with a primary focus on child abuse and neglect. Childhelp has offered 24-hour multilingual counseling across all US states via phone call inquiries from youth and concerned adults since 1982 and via text message since 2019.2,3 Users anonymously provide optional demographic information, including their relationship to the youth (eg, themselves, parent, neighbor, or teacher). Users are then connected to a crisis counselor. Study data included the number of inquiries, modality (call or text), and demographic characteristics (inquirer’s age category, sex, and identifier type). The University of Pennsylvania Institutional Review Board deemed this study nonhuman subjects research.

COVID-19 feminist framework to address public health impact of violence, abuse, and trauma in children, women, BIPOC, and LGBTQIA+ community: a preliminary observation

AUTHOR(S)
Sonia Mukhtar; Shamim Mukhta; Waleed Rana

Published: May 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
This article explores the development and implementation of inclusive COVID-19 (corona disease 2019) Feminist Framework (CFF) on the equitability of response for researchers, health care advocates, and public health policymakers at international platforms. Mechanism of CFF entails the process to address and mitigate the institutional inequities, violation of human rights, public health, and race/sex/gender-based violence amid COVID-19. This framework is about institutional building, raising consciousness, ensuring freedom, collective liberation, bodily autonomy, equality, and giving women, children, BIPOC, LGBTQIA+, and racial- and gender-diverse people the freedom to make choices to promote a sense of greater control over their own lives.
Impacts of health-related school closures on child protection outcomes: a review of evidence from past pandemics and epidemics and lessons learned for COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Cirenia Chavez Villegas; Silvia Peirolo; Matilde Rocca (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Educational Development
Through a rapid review drawing on pandemics and epidemics with associated school closures, this article aims to understand first, the state of the evidence on impacts of school closures on select child protection outcomes and second, how governments have responded to school closures to protect the most vulnerable children. Only 21 studies out of 6433 reviewed met the inclusion criteria, with most studies exploring the effects of Ebola. While few studies were identified on harmful practices, a more robust evidence base was identified in regards to adolescent pregnancy, with studies pointing to its increase due to the epidemic or infection control measures, including school closures. The evidence base for studies exploring the impact on violence outcomes was limited, with sexual violence and exploitation located in a few studies on Ebola. Important lessons from this exercise can be applied to the COVID-19 response, particularly the inclusion of the most vulnerable children in programming, policy and further research.
A gendered analysis of child protection systems responses in Covid-19 programming in South Asia

AUTHOR(S)
Deborah Fry; Karina Padilla; Lakshmi Neelakantan (et al.)

Institution: University of Edinburgh, *UNICEF
Published: May 2021
Across South Asia child protection actors have been critical in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic by ensuring children have continued access to services, mitigating new and increased risks and promoting mental health and wellbeing. This study explores the changes which took place in child protection systems across South Asia in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and documents promising practices, programmatic innovations, challenges and lessons learnt from UNICEF’s programming with partners. The study found that key elements of complex adaptive systems are present within the child protection system responses to COVID-19 in the South Asia region. Importantly, there were three common factors across all case study examples that contributed to the success of the interventions and were highlighted as lessons learned: multi-level strategies, strong partnerships and building on existing initiatives and systems.
What happened to the prevention of child maltreatment during COVID-19? A yearlong into the pandemic reflection

AUTHOR(S)
Carmit Katz

Published: April 2021   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice

In March 2020, when COVID-19 was acknowledged as a worldwide pandemic, many countries dedicated their efforts to mitigate the virus and its negative health outcomes. One of the most frequent solutions was forced lockdowns, which was found to be beneficial in decreasing the spread of the virus. Today, after a year of international efforts to diminish the virus, we are at a stage where we can see the impact of these measures on children during COVID-19. Specifically, we now need to reflect on what happened to the prevention of child maltreatment (CM) during this time.There is an accumulation of knowledge with respect to the dramatic decrease of CM reports to formal systems worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, researchers have been stressing that this decrease should not be attributed to an increase in the safety of children but rather due to the adverse impact of the lockdown on the system’s ability to see and protect children (e.g., Baron et al., 2020; Katz & Cohen, 2020). In addition, there is growing evidence that during COVID-19, various CM risk factors significantly increased (Conrad-Hiebner & Byram, 2020; Proulx et al., 2021; Rodriguez et al., 2020; Wu & Xu, 2020), such as parental job loss (Lawson et al., 2020), parental social isolation (Lee et al., 2021), and mental health issues (Russell et al., 2020). Adding to this, parental stress was found to be a major CM risk factor that increased during COVID-19 and an increase in self-reported child abuse was found for parents experiencing heightened stressors (Lawson et al., 2020).

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic and related isolation measures on violence against children in Egypt

AUTHOR(S)
Seham Ahmed AboKresha; Elsayed Abdelkreem; Rasha Abd Elhameed Ali

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related isolation measures have substantial adverse economic, social, and psychological consequences and expose children to increased risk of violence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on violence against children in Egypt.
Stress, alcohol use, and punitive parenting during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer Price Wolf; Bridget Freisthler; Caileigh Chadwick

Published: April 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Emerging research suggests that parents are experiencing heightened stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental stress is a risk factor for harsh or punitive parenting, and this association may be exacerbated by the use of alcohol. We examine whether parental stress is associated with use of punitive parenting, as well as whether this association is modified by drinking pattern.

Emerging responses implemented to prevent and respond to violence against women and children in WHO European member states during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review of online media reports

AUTHOR(S)
Isabelle Pearson; Nadia Butler; Zhamin Yelgezekova (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aims to explore the strategies that governments and civil society organisations implemented to prevent and respond to the anticipated rise in violence against women and/or children (VAWC) during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. A scoping review and content analysis of online media reports.

Norwegian shelters for victims of domestic violence in the COVID-19 pandemic: navigating the new normal

AUTHOR(S)
Solveig Bergman; Margunn Bjørnholt; Hannah Helseth

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
This study elucidates the responses of shelters and their adaptations to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the effects on their services to victims of violence, as well as how shelter managers assess the situation for victims, including changes in the rates and character of the violence observed by the shelters. A web-based survey was distributed twice to all Norwegian shelters (N = 46): first during the lockdown in spring 2020 and second during the relaxation of infection control measures in summer 2020. The shelters in Norway remained open during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority saw a reduction in the number of requests during the lockdown, while the rates returned to normal when the strictest infection control measures were lifted. They expressed concern about the decline in requests during the lockdown as well as the well-being of some groups, such as victims from ethnic minority backgrounds, children, and victims with additional challenges.
The co-occurrence of intimate partner violence exposure with other victimizations: A nationally representative survey of Chilean adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Jenniffer K. Miranda; Marcelo A. Crockett; Juan Ignacio Vera-Pavez (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Previous studies have found a high co-occurrence between Intimate Partner Violence exposure (IPVe) and other forms of victimization, such as physical and sexual abuse, yet little is known about this issue from community samples in Latin America or –in particular– Chile. To examine the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates and co-occurrence of IPVe with other youth victimizations in Chile. A secondary data analysis of the First Poly-victimization Survey in Children and Adolescents in Chile was conducted, which had 19,684 responses from 7th to 11th grade students attending publicly-funded, subsidized and independent schools in urban areas across the country.

COVID-19 and violence against children: A review of early studies

AUTHOR(S)
Claudia Cappa; Isabel Jijon

Published: April 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers across the globe have attempted to understand how the health and socioeconomic crisis brought about by the coronavirus is affecting children’s exposure to violence. Since containment measures have disrupted many data collection and research efforts, studies have had to rely on existing data or design new approaches to gathering relevant information. This paper reviews the literature that has been produced on children’s exposure to violence during the pandemic, to understand emerging patterns and critically appraise methodologies to help inform the design of future studies. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research.

Violence against women and children during COVID-19—One year on and 100 papers in: a fourth research round up

AUTHOR(S)
Shelby Bourgault; Amber Peterman; Megan O'Donnell

Institution: Center for Global Development
Published: April 2021
A year after the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic, this research takes stock of an increasingly diverse set of new studies linking violence against women and children (VAW/C) to COVID-19 and associated pandemic response measures. This fourth round up focuses exclusively on research in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs) published since December 2020 to highlight dynamics in settings that previously had fewer studies. As in previous round ups, this research only include studies that have sufficient information on indicator definition and analysis methods. In total, 26 new studies from LICs and MICs are summarized, with the majority focused on identifying trends (15 studies), while others present analysis of risk factors or dynamics (an additional ten studies), and one represents an impact analysis of prevention programming.
COVID-19 impact on intimate partner violence and child maltreatment. Version 2.0

AUTHOR(S)
Holly Gunn; Suzanne McCormack

Published: March 2021
This report provides an overview of the evidence regarding the impact of COVID-19 and related restrictions on intimate partner violence and child maltreatment. The report also includes information on risk factors for violence, access to support for those at risk, and measures to mitigate the risk of intimate partner violence and child maltreatment during this period. The findings of this report are based on a focused literature review.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.