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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Covid-19: experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Qudsia Kalsoom

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Gender Studies
Disasters are experienced by, and responded to, differently based on the gender of those experiencing these. The responsibilities of women, particularly mothers, are amplified during times of pressure. This study investigated the experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan during the Covid-19 pandemic to understand the challenges they faced as professionals and as mothers. The data were collected through in-depth interviews of 24 teaching-mothers. The study participants were identified through the snowball sampling technique. The data were collected until the point of data saturation and analysed through. The analysis indicates that teaching-mothers in Pakistan faced issues in terms of maintaining their work-life balance, managing space and resources for online teaching, and learning a new set of skills in order to teach online. These multiple challenges affected their mental health. The findings indicate a sharp division of gendered roles in Pakistan and their negative impact on the mental health of women during Covid-19. The study suggests devising organizational policies to support teaching-mothers generally and especially during crises.
The gendered politics of pandemic relief: labor and family policies in Denmark, Germany, and the United States during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nino Bariola; Caitlyn Collins

Published: March 2021   Journal: American Behavioral Scientist
The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified families’ struggles to reconcile caregiving and employment, especially for working mothers. How have different countries reacted to these troubling circumstances? What policies have been implemented to alleviate the pernicious effects of the pandemic on gender and labor inequalities? This research examined the policies offered in Denmark, Germany, and the United States, three countries that represent distinct welfare regimes. It found important differences among the policy solutions provided, but also in the “cultural infrastructures” that allow policies to work as intended, or not.
Estimating the immediate impact of the COVID-19 shock on parental attachment to the labor market and the double bind of mothers

AUTHOR(S)
Misty L. Heggeness

Published: October 2020   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 shock on parents’ labor supply during the initial stages of the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference estimation and monthly panel data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), I compare labor market attachment, non-work activity, hours worked, and earnings and wages of those in areas with early school closures and stay-in-place orders with those in areas with delayed or no pandemic closures. While there was no immediate impact on detachment or unemployment, mothers with jobs in early closure states were 68.8 percent more likely than mothers in late closure states to have a job but not be working as a result of early shutdowns. There was no effect on working fathers or working women without school age children. Mothers who continued working increased their work hours relative to comparable fathers; this effect, however, appears entirely driven by a reduction in fathers’ hours worked. Overall, the pandemic appears to have induced a unique immediate juggling act for working parents of school age children. Mothers took a week of leave from formal work; fathers working full time, for example, reduced their hours worked by 0.53 hours over the week. While experiences were different for mothers and fathers, each are vulnerable to scarring and stunted opportunities for career growth and advancement due to the pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.