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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Job satisfaction as a mediator between family-to-work conflict and satisfaction with family life: a dyadic analysis in dual-earner parents

Ligia Orellana; Berta Schnettler; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Applied Research in Quality of Life
Family-to-work conflict has received less attention in the literature compared to work-to-family conflict. This gap in knowledge is more pronounced during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite the documented increase in family responsibilities in detriment of work performance, particularly for women. Job satisfaction has been identified as a mediator between the family and work domains for the individual, but these family-to-work dynamics remain unexplored at a dyadic level during the pandemic. Therefore, this study tested the relationship between family-to-work conflict and job and family satisfaction, and the mediating role of job satisfaction between family-to-work conflict and family satisfaction, in dual-earner parents. A non-probability sample of 430 dual-earner parents with adolescent children were recruited in Rancagua, Chile. Mothers and fathers answered an online questionnaire with a measure of family-to-work conflict, the Job Satisfaction Scale and Satisfaction with Family Life Scale. Data was analysed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model with structural equation modelling.
Job motivation, work-family conflict and job satisfaction of formal working mothers during COVID-19 pandemic

Meida Eka Sovya Melati; Risda Rizkillah

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Child, Family, and Consumer Studies
Work from home (WFH) policies can fade the boundaries between family and work matters, reduce work motivation, and create uncertainty that impacts job satisfaction. This study aims to analyze the effect of work motivation and work-family conflict on job satisfaction of formal working mothers during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study used a cross-sectional research design. The selection of research locations was chosen purposively, namely DKI Jakarta and West Java, because these two provinces were the two provinces that contributed the most Covid-19 cases in Indonesia.
COVID-19's silver linings: exploring the impacts of work-family enrichment for married working mothers during and after the COVID-19 partial lockdown in Ghana

Kwaku Abrefa Busia; Francis Arthur-Holmes; Annie Hau Nung Chan

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Studies
Recent scholarship suggests that women have disproportionately been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic amidst lockdowns and school closures which have altogether increased women’s caregiving burden, unpaid housework and stress levels. Notwithstanding its negative impacts, this article argues that the lockdowns and school closures related to COVID-19 also had beneficial outcomes for some working mothers who had to combine work and family roles. Drawing from qualitative interviews with 39 married working mothers in both formal and informal employment, this study finds that these women during and after the partial lockdowns in urban Ghana, experienced various outcomes of work-to-family enrichment (increased time spent with family, self-rated improved sleep health, financial security), family-to-work enrichment (reduced family demands, improved work performance and output) and a mix of both (cultivation of life skills, greater personal satisfaction and happiness). Applying a role expansionist framework, the study shows the ‘positive side’ of the pandemic for married working mothers who had to juggle work and family demands.
Socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on new mothers and associations with psychosocial wellbeing: Findings from the UK COVID-19 New Mum online observational study (May 2020-June 2021)

Emeline Rougeaux; Sarah Dib; Adriana Vázquez-Vázquez (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: PLOS Global Public Health
Studies have reported unequal socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions in the UK, despite support packages. It is unclear how women with young children, a vulnerable group economically and psychosocially, havebeen impacted by income and employment pandemic changes, and how this is associated with psychosocial wellbeing. Using the UK COVID-19 New Mum online survey of women with children <12 months (28th May 2020-26th June 2021; N = 3430), which asked about pandemic impact on their i.ability to pay for rent, food, and essentials expenses separately, ii. employment (and/or partner’s), and iii.past week mood, feelings and activities, we explored associations of i. & maternal age, household structure and income, i. & ii., and i. & iii. using logistic (odd ratios), multivariate (relative risk ratios/RRR), and linear (coefficients) regression respectively, and associated p-values.
Gender differences in housework and childcare among Japanese workers during the COVID‐19 pandemic

Toshihide Sakuragi; Rie Tanaka; Mayumi Tsuji (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Occupational Health

Although gender stereotypes regarding paid work and unpaid work are changing, most wives are responsible for taking care of the family and home in Japan. It is unclear how time spent on housework and childcare has changed between working men and women during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The purpose of this study is to investigate how working men and women’s responsibilities for housework and childcare changed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan depending on work hours, job type, the number of employees in the workplace, and frequency of telecommuting. A cross-sectional analysis (N = 14,454) was conducted using data from an Internet monitoring study (CORoNa Work Project), which was conducted in December 2020. A multilevel logistic model with nested prefectures of residence was conducted to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for change in time devoted to housework and childcare among men and women adjusting for age, household income, presence of spouse who work, work hours, job type, the number of employees in the workplace, frequency of telecommuting, and the incidence rate of COVID-19 by prefecture.

Challenges faced by working mothers and housewives during online education of their children

Qudsia Umaira Khan; Amna Nadeem; Muallah (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences

WHO  recognized COVID-19 a pandemic on March 12, 2020 and National Health Commission officially declared it as a Class-B infectious disease. The technological advancements enabled the teaching staffs to keep their students involved during this period of COVID-19 pandemic. Online classes become the efficient medium to learn by staying at home. To find out the challenges faced by mothers during online learning in order to devise a systematic plan for smooth and effective learning in case of another crises like COVID-19. It was a cross sectional study carried out at CMH LMC&IOD ,  in which a user-defined questionnaire was introduced to the participants which were mothers of school going children from all over the city. The questionnaire got 161 responses in total, but two were incomplete so 159 were considered while doing the analysis. The results were analyzed using SPSS25.

"The workload is staggering": Changing working conditions of stay‐at‐home mothers under COVID‐19 lockdowns

Awish Aslam; Tracey L. Adams

Published: May 2022   Journal: Gender, Work & Organization
The COVID-19 pandemic has drawn attention to the home as a work environment, but the focus has centered on the experiences of paid workers. Stay-at-home mothers (SAHMs), for whom the home was already a workplace, have received little attention. This article explores how pandemic-induced lockdowns impacted SAHMs' working conditions and their experiences of childrearing. Combining a Marxist-feminist conceptualization of domestic labor with a labor process framework, this study performed a qualitative content analysis of vignettes SAHMs shared about their day-to-day domestic labor in an online mothering community.
Work-to-family conflict and parenting practices: examining the role of working from home among lone and partnered working mothers

Janine Bernhardt; Claudia Recksiedler

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Research

This study investigates associations between work-to-family conflict and parenting practices among lone and partnered working mothers and the role of working from home as a potential resource gain or drain for acting empathetically and supportively towards their children. Emerging evidence suggests that work-to-family conflict reduces responsive parenting practices, yet prior studies have rarely examined disparities by family structure. Although working from home has recently gained in importance in the workforce, there is still little research on its implications for the relationship between work-to-family conflict and the quality of parenting practices. If working from home is not used to do supplemental work during overtime hours, it may free up mothers’ time and emotional resources. In turn, this may either buffer the harmful impact of work-to-family conflict on parenting practices or indirectly enhance the quality of parenting practices by reducing work-to-family conflict. This could be particularly beneficial for lone mothers, who experience more role and time strain.

When home becomes classroom: The shifting roles of Korean immigrant mothers in the management of children's education during COVID-19 in the US

Gowoon Jung; Sejung Sage Yim; Sou Hyun Jang (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Women's Studies International Forum
COVID-19 has disrupted women's lives by increasing their childcare and household labor responsibilities. This has detrimentally affected immigrant women with limited resources, who invest in their children's education for upward mobility. Based on a content analysis of 478 posts on the MissyUSA website, this study explores the ways in which Korean immigrant mothers in the U.S. navigate the management of middle and high school children's online education during lockdown.
Academic women and their children: parenting during COVID-19 and the impact on scholarly productivity

Sara Bender; Kristina S. Brown; Deanna L. Hensley Kasitz (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Family Relations

This study explored the experiences of academic mothers traversing the simultaneous demands of parenting and their professional roles throughout the pandemic to better understand the impact of COVID-19 on engagement in scholarship. In response to reports of reduced scholarship by women across academic disciplines, the goal of this study was to understand the lived experiences of women scholars who identify as mothers. Academic women, including faculty and students, completed an online survey with demographic items and open-ended questions. From the collected data, responses from participants who identified as mothers (n = 51) were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Covid-19: experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan

Qudsia Kalsoom

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Gender Studies
Disasters are experienced by, and responded to, differently based on the gender of those experiencing these. The responsibilities of women, particularly mothers, are amplified during times of pressure. This study investigated the experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan during the Covid-19 pandemic to understand the challenges they faced as professionals and as mothers. The data were collected through in-depth interviews of 24 teaching-mothers. The study participants were identified through the snowball sampling technique. The data were collected until the point of data saturation and analysed through. The analysis indicates that teaching-mothers in Pakistan faced issues in terms of maintaining their work-life balance, managing space and resources for online teaching, and learning a new set of skills in order to teach online. These multiple challenges affected their mental health. The findings indicate a sharp division of gendered roles in Pakistan and their negative impact on the mental health of women during Covid-19. The study suggests devising organizational policies to support teaching-mothers generally and especially during crises.
The gendered politics of pandemic relief: labor and family policies in Denmark, Germany, and the United States during COVID-19

Nino Bariola; Caitlyn Collins

Published: March 2021   Journal: American Behavioral Scientist
The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified families’ struggles to reconcile caregiving and employment, especially for working mothers. How have different countries reacted to these troubling circumstances? What policies have been implemented to alleviate the pernicious effects of the pandemic on gender and labor inequalities? This research examined the policies offered in Denmark, Germany, and the United States, three countries that represent distinct welfare regimes. It found important differences among the policy solutions provided, but also in the “cultural infrastructures” that allow policies to work as intended, or not.
Estimating the immediate impact of the COVID-19 shock on parental attachment to the labor market and the double bind of mothers

Misty L. Heggeness

Published: October 2020   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 shock on parents’ labor supply during the initial stages of the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference estimation and monthly panel data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), I compare labor market attachment, non-work activity, hours worked, and earnings and wages of those in areas with early school closures and stay-in-place orders with those in areas with delayed or no pandemic closures. While there was no immediate impact on detachment or unemployment, mothers with jobs in early closure states were 68.8 percent more likely than mothers in late closure states to have a job but not be working as a result of early shutdowns. There was no effect on working fathers or working women without school age children. Mothers who continued working increased their work hours relative to comparable fathers; this effect, however, appears entirely driven by a reduction in fathers’ hours worked. Overall, the pandemic appears to have induced a unique immediate juggling act for working parents of school age children. Mothers took a week of leave from formal work; fathers working full time, for example, reduced their hours worked by 0.53 hours over the week. While experiences were different for mothers and fathers, each are vulnerable to scarring and stunted opportunities for career growth and advancement due to the pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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