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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 436
The relationships of parent- and child-related psychiatric conditions with oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms in children with ADHD

Ayhan Bilgiç; Necati Uzun; Ümit Işık (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Children's Health Care
This cross-sectional study evaluated the impacts of maternal and paternal affective temperament traits, maternal and paternal ADHD, depression and anxiety symptoms, parenting styles, child’s depression and anxiety disorder symptoms, and child’s autistic traits on the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Analysis showed a positive relation of maternal anxious and irritable temperament and child inattention, hyperactivity–impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) scores on ODD scores.
The effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic on children's lifestyles and anxiety levels

Mürşide Zengin; Emriye Hilal Yayan; Elanur Vicnelioğlu (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

This study was conducted to determine the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic on children's lifestyles and anxiety levels. This study was designed as a descriptive, cross‐sectional online questionnaire survey.

Perceived family adaptability and cohesion and depressive symptoms: a comparison of adolescents and parents during COVID-19 pandemic

Mengxue Li; Lili Li; Feng Wu (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

This study aimed to compare the differences of depressive symptoms and perceived family cohesion and adaptability between adolescents and parents during the pandemic; to explore the association between depressive symptoms and family cohesion and adaptability. A total of 8,940 adolescents (45.77% males; Mean age=15.31±0.018 years old) and their parents (24.34% males; Mean age=40.78±0.60 years old) from Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China, participated in the survey and completed several questionnaires online.

Addressing the clinical impact of COVID-19 on pediatric mental health

Nicole Bartek; Jessica L. Peck; Dawn Garzon (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacts the daily lives of families around the world. Sequelae are not limited to physical consequences of medical complications, but extend into social, emotional, spiritual, and psychological health. Interventions including mask wearing and physical distancing are intended to prevent viral spread but have an unintended negative effect on mental health and child development because of social isolation. Though it is too early to know the full impact of the pandemic on this generation of children, practicing pediatric clinicians are well positioned to help young people recover and thrive despite the challenges presented by the pandemic. The purpose of this article is to review emerging evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in children, and to discuss practical steps and interventions that can be used in primary care to foster resilience in youth and their families.
School personnel and parents’ concerns related to COVID-19 pandemic’s impact related to schools

Jacqueline R. Anderson; Jennifer L Hughes; Madhukar H. Trivedi

Published: March 2021   Journal: School Psychology Review
In March 2020, the majority of schools in the United States transitioned to distance learning in order to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Little data is available on the impact of this abrupt transition on youth, but many experts have expressed concerns about the implications of this major change in schooling on mental health and academic outcomes. The current study sought to gain insight on parent and school personnel (n = 515, n = 193) concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic related schools and the return to school within two cohorts (summer 2020, fall 2020). Primary concerns were student health, student academic development, personal health, and student mental health. These findings may assist schools in their preparation for the transitions related to COVID-19 and changes in the school year to provide resources for their families to promote their students’ development and support their school personnel’s health.
Understanding the perceived psychological distress and health outcomes of children during COVID-19 pandemic

Gyanesh Kumar Tiwari; Ajit Kumar Singh; Priyanka Parihar

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Educational and Developmental Psychologist

The study explored the impacts of restrictions on the perceived psychological distress and health outcomes in children by their mothers who acted as their full-time caregivers during the pan-India lockdown after the outbreak of COVID-19. A narrative qualitative research design was used and a purposive heterogeneous sample of 20 mothers of children aged 9–11 years were chosen, who were in a full-time caregiving role. Data obtained through a telephonic semi-structured interview were analysed using Narrative Thematic Method.

COVID-related fear maintains controlling parenting behaviors during the pandemic

Karl Wissemann; Brittany Mathes; Alexandria Meyer (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
The direct threat posed by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), uncertainty surrounding best safety practices, and secondary consequences of the virus have led to widespread stress and declining mental health across communities and individuals. These stresses may impact parenting behaviors, potentially leading to negative consequences for children. Controlling parenting behaviors increase in the face of perceived environmental threat and are associated with adverse mental health outcomes for children; however, determinants of parenting behaviors have not been investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study prospectively evaluated parenting behaviors during the pandemic (N=87).
COVID-19 and student well-being: stress and mental health during return-to-school

Kelly Dean Schwartz; Deinera Exner-Cortens; Carly A. McMorris (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Canadian Journal of School Psychology
Students have been multiply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic: threats to their own and their family’s health, the closure of schools, and pivoting to online learning in March 2020, a long summer of physical distancing, and then the challenge of returning to school in fall 2020. As damaging as the physical health effects of a global pandemic are, much has been speculated about the “second wave” of mental health crises, particularly for school-aged children and adolescents. Yet, few studies have asked students about their experiences during the pandemic. The present study engaged with over two thousand (N = 2,310; 1,288 female; Mage = 14.5) 12- to 18-year-old Alberta students during their first few weeks of return-to-school in fall 2020.
Adding salt to wounds”: parentification among children living with parents with mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of social workers

Ebenezer Cudjoe; Debora Daisy Kwabia; Marcus Yu Lung Chiu (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Developmental Child Welfare
Children living with a parent with mental illness experience challenges as some may take on the roles of their parents. Physical distancing restrictions introduced because of the COVID-19 pandemic means that many children will spend more time at home which could heighten the impact of parental mental illness. For many of these children, engaging in activities with peers provides them a sort of normal life outside their family environment. However, face-to-face interactions with others outside the family may be limited under existing public health protocols. Moreover, services for children in families where there is parental mental illness may also be limited considering limitations placed on people’s movements to reduce the rate of COVID-19 infections.
Experiences with COVID-19 stressors and parents’ use of neglectful, harsh, and positive parenting practices in the Northeastern United States

Christian M. Connell; Michael J. Strambler

Published: March 2021   Journal: Child Maltreatment

This study aims to estimate household exposure to COVID-19 related stress and the association with parent report of neglectful, harsh, and positive discipline practices. Cross sectional survey data was collected from 2,068 parents in the Northeastern US. Parents reported personal and household experiences of COVID-19 stressors, their level of distress, and use of neglectful parenting and discipline practices for a randomly selected child in their home. Analyses estimated rates of COVID-19 related stress and parenting practices. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of COVID-19 stress to parenting behaviors.

BMI status and associations between affect, physical activity and anxiety among U.S. children during COVID‐19

Jasmin M. Alves; Alexandra G. Yunker; Alexis DeFendis (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Pediatric Obesity

There is concern regarding how the COVID‐19 pandemic may impact the psychological and physical health of children, but to date, studies on mental health during the pandemic in children are limited. Furthermore, unprecedented lifestyle stressors associated with the pandemic may aggravate the childhood obesity epidemic, but the role of BMI on child activity levels and psychological outcomes during COVID‐19 is unknown. This study investigated how emotional responses (positive/negative affect), physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours related to anxiety among U.S. children with healthy weight and overweight/obesity during the pandemic.

Well‐being and COVID‐19‐related worries of German children and adolescents: a longitudinal study from pre‐COVID to the end of lockdown in Spring 2020

Mandy Vogel; Christof Meigen; Carolin Sobek (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: JCPP Advances

There is concern that pandemic measures put a strain on the health and well‐being of children. We investigated the effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic, the lockdown, and social distancing on the well‐being, media use, and emotions of children and adolescents between 9 and 18 years. This paper used linear and proportional odds logistic regression correcting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES) and to compare media use, peers/social support, physical, and psychological well‐being between 2019 (pre‐COVID baseline) and two time points shortly after the start of the lockdown (last week of March and April 2020, respectively) in 391 9–19‐year‐old healthy children and adolescents of the LIFE Child cohort. COVID‐19‐related feelings and their relationship to age, sex, and SES were assessed at two time points during lockdown.

Effect of the COVID‐19 pandemic on behavioral and psychosocial factors related to oral health in adolescents: a cohort study

Bruna Brondani; Jessica Klöckner Knorst; Fernanda Tomazoni (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

The impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on behavioral and psychosocial aspects related to oral health are still unknown. This study evaluated the psychosocial and behavioral changes related to oral health in adolescents immediately before and during the pandemic period of COVID‐19, enabling a longitudinal assessment of the perceived changes.

Review: the mental health implications for children and adolescents impacted by infectious outbreaks – a systematic review

Emily Berger; Negar Jamshidi; Andrea Reupert (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Child and Adolescent Mental Health

This systematic review synthesized available research on the psychological implications for children and adolescents who either were directly or indirectly exposed to an infectious outbreak. On this basis, the current paper aims to provide recommendations for future research, practice and policy regarding children during pandemics. A total of 2195 records were retrieved from the PsycINFO, SCOPUS and MEDLINE databases, and three from Google Scholar.

Left‐behind children's social adjustment and relationship with parental coping with children's negative emotions during the COVID‐19 pandemic in China

Yining Wang; Wen Liu; Weiwei Wang (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: International Journal of Psychology
Using data collected from two provinces in China through an online survey, the current study aimed to investigate left‐behind children's emotional and academic adjustment during the COVID‐19 pandemic in China. The participants included 1780 left‐behind (960 boys) and 1500 non‐left‐behind (811 boys) children in elementary and junior high school with a mean age of 11.23. Self‐reported questionnaires concerning children's depression, loneliness, anxiety, and academic adjustment, and parents' coping with children's negative emotions were completed.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.