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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 1861
"Will my young adult years be spent socially distancing?": a qualitative exploration of adolescents' experiences during the COVID-19 UK lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Ola Demkowicz; Emma Ashworth; Alisha O’Neill (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Research
For older adolescents, the COVID-19 pandemic and UK restrictions arrived during a critical period in the transition to adulthood. Early research exploring impact of the pandemic paints a picture of worsened adolescent wellbeing and mental health. This study explores the subjective experiences of 16- to 19-year-olds during the first UK lockdown, with an emphasis on wellbeing and coping, to complement quantitative evidence and inform strategies and provision for support. In May 2020, UK-based 16- to 19-year-olds were invited to share written accounts of their experiences of the initial UK lockdown for The TELL Study. A total of 109 participants engaged, submitting anonymous written accounts via an online survey portal. We used inductive reflexive thematic analysis to develop rich experiential themes.
Physical activity and anxiety with complaints of PMS in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ni Ketut Alit Armini; Arinda Naimatuz Zahriya; Laily Hidayati (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Public Health Science
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a menstrual cycle disorder that frequently appears in women. As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus pandemic, the school from home program was implemented, which could affect physical activity and anxiety and therefore increase the incidence of PMS. This cross-sectional research analyzed the relationship between physical activity and anxiety with PMS in adolescents. The population was 221 adolescent girls in Surabaya, Indonesia. A consecutive sampling technique was used to select the 143 respondents. The independent variables were physical activity and anxiety while the dependent variable was PMS. The data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed by the Spearman Rho test with a level of significance α<0.05. The results showed no significant correlation between physical activity and PMS among adolescents, however there was a significant correlation between anxiety and PMS in adolescents (p=0.000; r=0.463). Adolescents with anxiety have higher risk of PMS. The higher level of anxiety will be the more severe the symptoms of PMS.

Identifying concern and stress of parents, students and teachers with the social distance planning process and reopening of schools during Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Saeed Bashirian; Majid Barati; Maryam Afshari (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Social Behavior and Community Health(
With the closure of schools as a result of the social distancing plan, the negative emotions that individuals experience became complicated. Therefore, the present study provided a deep understanding of the concerns and stresses of parents, students, and teachers about the process of social distance planning and reopening of schools during COVID-19 pandemic. This directed qualitative content analysis was conducted in 2020. The data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews with teachers (n=28), students (n=20), and their parents (n=32) in Tuiserkan County. Sampling was performed by purposeful sampling method with the maximum variation. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data, collected by content analysis method.
Impacts of the psychological stress response on aggression in adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic in China

AUTHOR(S)
Zhen Wei; Yan Hu; Jiayi Xiao

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology
The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 has exerted a tremendous impact on the psyche of people around the world, especially adolescents. In order to provide a valuable theoretical basis for effective measures to prevent psychological problems in adolescents during public health emergencies in the future, this study examined the mediating effect of coping style (CS, including positive coping style (PCS) and negative coping style (NCS)) and the moderating effect of emotional management ability (EMA) on the relationship between the psychological stress response (PSR) and aggression (AGG) in adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. The Buss–Warren Aggression Questionnaire, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Emotion Management Questionnaire were employed to investigate the mental health of Chinese adolescents from April 10–20 (Time point 1, T1) and May 20–30 (Time point 2, T2), 2020. A total of 1,931 adolescents (aged 10–25 years, M = 19.18 years, 51.4% male) were examined at T1 and 334 adolescents (aged 11–25 years, M = 19.97 years, 48.7% male) were reinvestigated at T2.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and family situation of clinically referred children and adolescents in Switzerland: results of a survey among mental health care professionals after 1 year of COVID-19.

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Maria Werling; Susanne Walitza; Stephan Eliez (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Neural Transmission
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental well-being of clinically referred children and adolescents and on their families from the perspective of mental health care professionals in Switzerland during the first year of the pandemic. Psychiatrists and psychologists for children and adolescents participated in an anonymous survey conducted online in April/May 2021. The survey was completed by 454 mental health care professionals, most of them working in outpatient clinics for child and adolescent psychiatry or in independent practices.
Mental health conditions among children and adolescents with a COVID-19 diagnosis.

AUTHOR(S)
Mir M. Ali; Alayna Schreier; Kristina D. West

Published: June 2022   Journal: Psychiatric Services
The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a surge in mental health needs among children. However, few analyses of these needs have included children and youths of all ages, and although studies have found a heightened risk for new onset of mental health conditions after a COVID-19 diagnosis among adults, none has investigated the potential risk among youths. Utilizing a large nationwide claims database, this study estimated the rate of new onset of mental health conditions among children and adolescents who had received a COVID-19 diagnosis but had no recent history of mental health problems.
Children's mental health during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic: burden, risk factors and posttraumatic growth: a mixed-methods parents' perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Wenter; Maximilian Schickl; Kathrin Sevecke (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic and the accompanying containment measures such as physical distancing and school closures led to major changes in children’s everyday lives. By means of a mixed-methods study, the “Tyrolean COVID-19 Children’s Study” investigated the effects of the pandemic and factors influencing mental health and health-related quality of life of North Tyrolean (Austria) and South Tyrolean (Italy) children aged 3–13 years. Parents filled out N = 2,691 online questionnaires (951 preschool children: 3–6 years; 1,740 schoolchildren: 7–13 years) at four measurement time points (March 2020, December 2020, June 2021, December 2021). For both age groups, children’s mental health outcomes (internalising problems, posttraumatic stress symptoms) were worse in December 2021 (t4) than children’s mental health outcomes in March 2020 (t1). With regard to aggressive behaviour, this difference was only found among schoolchildren. Thematic analysis of an open ended, written question revealed the following positive changes in children during the Corona crisis: (1) the importance of intra- and extra-familial relationships, (2) new competences and experiences, (3) values and virtues, (4) use of time, and (5) family strength. Using multilevel modelling, threat experience, economic disruption, and perceived posttraumatic growth were shown to be the strongest predictors of all outcomes. Additionally, male gender was shown to be a predictor of aggressive behaviour. In terms of age, schoolchildren showed more internalising problems, aggressive behaviour, and threat experience than preschool children.
Examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on service providers working with children and youth with neuro-developmental disabilities and their families: results of a focus group study.

AUTHOR(S)
David B. Nicholas; Wendy Mitchell; Jill Ciesielski (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities
The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed unprecedented service interruptions in many sectors including services for children and youth with neuro-developmental disabilities (NDD). This study examined the experiences of service providers as they supported this population during the pandemic. Five focus groups were convened with 24 service providers offering support to children/youth with NDD and their families.
Zoom-delivered physical activities can increase perceived physical activity level in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

AUTHOR(S)
Erkan Yarımkaya; Oğuz Kaan Esentürk; Ekrem Levent İlhan (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
Although the benefits of regular physical activity are clearly expressed, children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are less physically active than their typically developing peers. Recent empirical studies have revealed that the level of physical activity of children with ASD has further decreased during the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, which has adversely affected the whole world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of a Zoom-delivered physical activities for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Twenty-two families (parent and child dyads) participated in the study. Families were assigned randomly to an experimental group (n = 11) and a control group (n = 11). Families in the experimental group were engaged in 10 weeks of the Zoom-delivered physical activities. Data were collected using multiple data collection strategies (Personal Information Form- Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire–Semi-Structured Interview). After the Zoom-delivered physical activities, a significant increase was observed in the physical activity level of children with ASD in the experimental group (F = 95.396, p = 0.000, Ƞ2 = 0.834). Parents reported that Zoom-delivered physical activities are a viable and useful intervention to increase the level of physical activity of children with ASD.
Perceived stress, family impact, and changes in physical and social daily life activities of children with chronic somatic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic.

AUTHOR(S)
Anne Krijger; Karolijn Dulfer; Hedy van Oers (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has inevitably affected children and their families. This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 measures in children with chronic somatic conditions (CSC) and their parents and compares them with a Dutch general population sample. We included a sample of children with CSC (0–18 years, n = 326) and compared them with children (8–18 years, n = 1,287) from the Dutch general population. Perceived stress, coping, social interaction with friends and family, physical activity, eating behavior, family support, parenting perception, and financial situation were assessed once with the self-reported and parent-reported COVID-19 child check questionnaire, between November 2020 and May 2021. Comparisons between the two samples were made by using t-tests and chi square tests.

Lockdown due to COVID-19 in Spanish children up to 6 years: consequences on diet, lifestyle, screen viewing, and sleep

AUTHOR(S)
Mercedes Díaz-Rodríguez; Jesús Carretero-Bravo; Celia Pérez-Muñoz (et al.)

Published: June 2022

This study aimed to record how the habits of children under 6 years of age in Cadiz have changed during lockdown, in order to identify those that could be a handicap for the problem of overweight and obesity. It developed a new questionnaire to analyse family living habits. The questionnaire was administered online to parents of children aged zero-six years. Eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, screen viewing, and sleep changes were evaluated.

Effect of COVID-19 infection on psychological aspects of pre-schooler children: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Gellan K. Ahmed; Sayed Mostafa; Khaled Elbeh (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Middle East Current Psychiatry
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had a tremendous effect on individual’s lives worldwide. The pandemic’s significant socioecological impact is one of the many burdens children confront in the current crises. As a result, this study was designed to determine the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on preschoolers, particularly the consequences of COVID-19 infection. This study involved 138 children aged 2–5.11 years old who were classified into two groups based on their COVID-19 infection history, which was documented via a PCR test. All participants were assessed by the Socioeconomic Scale and The Children’s Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
Returning to normal in an abnormal environment: mothers' COVID-19 uncertainties and uncertainty management strategies

AUTHOR(S)
Kimberly K. Walker; Gregory D. Zimet

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Communication
This study used uncertainty management theory to assess mothers’ COVID-19-related uncertainty sources and management strategies during the Delta variant outbreak as the fall 2021 school year approached. Twenty-five mothers living in Indiana were interviewed between July-August 2021. Data indicated four uncertainty sources: COVID-19 illness risk, children’s psychological health, reintegration, and COVID-19 vaccine/prevention rights. COVID-19 illness risk was the most prominent uncertainty theme, and mothers attempted to adapt to it when they could via strategies of strategic decision making, engaging in protective behaviors, and seeking information to guide decisions about their children’s safety. The start of school presented uncertainties about young children’s COVID-19 risk they deemed out of their control, and thus mothers reframed illness uncertainty as the responsibility of others to protect their children.
Perspectives of socioeconomically disadvantaged parents on their children's coping during COVID‐19: implications for practice

AUTHOR(S)
Ami N. Seivwright; Zoe Callis; Paul R. Flatau

Published: June 2022   Journal: Children & Society
Disruptions caused by COVID-19 have the potential to create long-term negative impacts on children's well-being and development, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged children. However, we know little about how socioeconomically disadvantaged families are coping with the pandemic, nor the types of support needed. This study presents qualitative analysis of responses to an open-ended question asking parents how children are coping with the restrictions associated with COVID-19, to identify areas in which these cohorts can be supported. Four main themes were identified: health concerns, schooling difficulties, social isolation and adjustment to restrictions. Health concerns included exacerbation of pre-existing health conditions, fear about the virus, difficulty getting children to understand the pandemic and increased sedentary behaviour. Schooling difficulties referred to the challenges of home schooling, which were behavioural (e.g. difficulty concentrating) and logistical (e.g. technology). Social isolation, expressed as missing friends, family and/or institutions was common. Finally, parents expressed that children experienced both positive adjustments to restrictions, such as spending more time with family, and negative adjustments such as increased screen time.
A longitudinal study of the mental health of autistic children and adolescents and their parents during COVID-19: Part 2, qualitative findings.

AUTHOR(S)
Kathryn Asbury; Umar Toseeb

Published: June 2022   Journal: Autism
Part 1 of this UK-based study, across four timepoints between March and October 2020, autistic children and young people showed higher levels of parent-reported depression and anxiety symptoms than those with other special educational needs and disabilities. This study draws on qualitative data from 478 parents/carers of autistic pupils and those with other special educational needs and disabilities to conduct a longitudinal qualitative content analysis examining stability and change in the mental health of these young people, and their parents/carers, during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worry and psychological distress were dominant categories at all timepoints and it was noted that, in line with quantitative findings, worry in autistic pupils stayed stable over time but decreased for those with other special educational needs and disabilities. The third dominant category was wellbeing and there was evidence that removing demands, especially the demand to attend school, was a driver of wellbeing for a significant minority of pupils, particularly autistic pupils, and their parents/carers.
1 - 15 of 1861

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.