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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 1098
Psychological well-being of ruminative adolescents during the transition to COVID-19 school closures: An EMA study

AUTHOR(S)
Caroline M. Swords; Emma K. Lecarie; Leah D. Doane (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescence

Adolescents with moderate-to-severe levels of trait rumination are at heightened risk for psychopathology and may be particularly vulnerable to disruptions caused by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. As most past research documenting the impact of COVID-19 on adolescent well-being has been cross-sectional, it is unclear exactly how ruminative adolescents responded to the onset of the pandemic as it unfolded. This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to explore changes in rumination among adolescents during the initial transition to distance learning in the United States. A subsample of 22 ruminative youth (Mage = 13.58; SD = 0.96; 54.5% male; 86.4% White) from a larger study provided EMA data throughout January–April 2020 (M responses per participant = 105.09, SD = 65.59). Following school closures, the study hypothesized that adolescents would report greater rumination (i.e., focusing on emotions and problems) and depressive symptom level would moderate this effect.

Anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms among high school students in China in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Chengqi Cao; Li Wang; Ruojiao Fang (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms, and associated risk factors among a large-scale sample of adolescents from China after the pandemic and lockdown. A total of 57,948 high school students took part in an online survey from July 13 to 29, 2020. The mental health outcomes included anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms. Risk factors included negative family relationships, COVID-19 related exposure, and a lack of social support.

Mental health and social support of caregivers of children and adolescents with ASD and other developmental disorders during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Chongying Wang

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports

Previous studies showed that caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders had higher levels of parenting stress, anxiety and depression. In the present study, the author examined the caregivers’ mental health and investigated the mediating role of social support between symptoms severity and parenting stress during COVID-19. During 20 March to 8 April 2020, 1932 caregivers of children and adolescents with ASD and other developmental disorders from China were enrolled to fill in a sociodemographic questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and Social Support Rating Scale. The author also collected children's disability severity symptoms and behavioral problems.

Innovative methods for remote assessment of neurobehavioral development

AUTHOR(S)
Hanna C. Gustafsson; Anna S. Young; Gayle Stamos (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, research institutions across the globe have modified their operations in ways that have limited or eliminated the amount of permissible in-person research interaction. In order to prevent the loss of important developmentally-timed data during the pandemic, researchers have quickly pivoted and developed innovative methods for remote assessment of research participants. This manuscript describes methods developed for remote assessment of a parent child cohort with a focus on examining the perinatal environment, behavioral and biological indicators of child neurobehavioral development, parent-child interaction, as well as parent and child mental and physical health.
Using fake news as means of cyber-bullying: The link with compulsive internet use and online moral disengagement

AUTHOR(S)
Alexandra Maftei; Andrei-Corneliu Holman; Ioan-Alex Merlici

Published: October 2021   Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Online moral disengagement and cyberbullying can enhance fake news spreading. We explored the links between these variables and compulsive Internet use in a sample of 509 teenagers and adults aged 11 to 67. We investigated the effect of compulsive Internet use on cyberbullying through fake news creation and/or distribution, both direct and via moral disengagement, and the related differences between adults and teenagers. The indirect effect of compulsive Internet use on cyberbullying through moral disengagement was significant in adolescents, but not in adults. As assumed, teenagers scored significantly higher than adults on all the primary variables. Contrary to our expectations, no significant gender differences emerged, regardless of participants' age, in terms of compulsive Internet use, moral disengagement, nor cyberbullying. The results emphasize the importance of relevant online education programs designed to engage both teenagers and adults in critical thinking that might help in the fake news detection process, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Physically distant, virtually close: Adolescents’ sexting behaviors during a strict lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Chelly Maes; Laura Vandenbosch

Published: October 2021   Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
This study contextualizes Belgian adolescents' (12–18 years old) sexting behaviors between romantic and non-romantic partners during a strict lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey among 543 Belgian respondents (Mage = 15.29, 68% girls) showed that 40.9% of the adolescents engaged in at least one type of sexting (i.e., type one = textual, type two = visual content with underwear/swimwear, type three = visual depiction of private parts, type four = visual depiction of sexual acts). Arousal needs were the most common reasons to sext (M = 3.33, SD = 1.89). Generalized ordered logit analyses show that higher arousal needs were linked to higher frequencies of the first three sexting types. Relational affirmation needs were related to the engagement in sexting type two, whereas partner pressure was related to sexting type three and four. Regarding the latter, a significant link was also found with stress regulation. Conditional relations emerged according to adolescents' sex, developmental status, and relationship status. The current study's findings not only help to inform practitioners in terms of behavioral advice for future pandemics or periods after social isolation, but can also offer explanations for (changes in) adolescents' sexting behaviors after the pandemic and the possible dual nature of its effects.
Internet use during COVID-19 lockdown among young people in low- and middle-income countries: Role of psychological wellbeing

AUTHOR(S)
Blossom Fernandes; Bilge Uzun; Caner Aydin (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Problematic internet use in adolescents has been shown to significantly increase over the past few years, with COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns reinforcing this phenomena globally. This study sought to explore whether problematic internet use in specific countries was related to emotional well-being and importantly whether this is predicted by psychological distress. There is a growing number of studies showing that problematic internet use is increasingly prevalent in countries with emerging economies, however we have yet to find out to what extent other factors are influencing this behaviour in adolescents and young people. This study invited young people from countries such India, Mexico, Philippines and Turkey to complete a set of self-reports on their daily internet habits, social media use, alongside questions on psychological distress, self-esteem, loneliness and escapism.
Cybervictimization and well-being among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: The mediating roles of emotional self-efficacy and emotion regulation

AUTHOR(S)
Fabian Schunk; Franziska Zeh; Gisela Trommsdorff

Published: October 2021   Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
Cybervictimization has been linked to adverse psychological consequences but little is known about the mechanisms linking cybervictimization to lower well-being. Two studies examined emotional self-efficacy and distinct emotion regulation strategies as potential mediators in the relationship between cybervictimization and lower well-being among German adolescents during the school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020. In Study 1, 107 adolescents (Mage = 15.76) reported their cybervictimization frequency, emotional self-efficacy beliefs, and aspects of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, perceived social support, and subjective well-being during the COVID-19 related school closures). Emotional self-efficacy mediated the link between cybervictimization and all well-being measures. Specifically, cybervictimization was related to lower well-being through lower self-efficacy for managing negative emotions. For further examination, in Study 2, 205 adolescents (Mage = 15.45) were asked to report their cybervictimization experiences, use of specific emotion regulation strategies (rumination, reappraisal, and suppression), and well-being (i.e., self-esteem and life satisfaction).
Mental health trajectories of individuals and families following the COVID-19 pandemic: Study protocol of a longitudinal investigation and prevention program

AUTHOR(S)
Till Langhammer; Kevin Hilbert; Berit Praxl (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Mental Health & Prevention

Many adults, adolescents and children are suffering from persistent stress symptoms in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to characterize long-term trajectories of mental health and to reduce the transition to manifest mental disorders by means of a stepped care program for indicated prevention. Using a prospective-longitudinal design, we will assess the mental strain of the pandemic using the Patient Health QuestionnaireStrength and Difficulties Questionnaire and Spence Child Anxiety Scale.

The State of the World's Children 2021: on my mind: promoting, protecting and caring for children’s mental health

AUTHOR(S)
Brian Keeley; Juliano Diniz de Oliveira; Tara Dooley

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about the mental health of a generation of children. But the pandemic may represent the tip of a mental health iceberg – an iceberg we have ignored for far too long. The State of the World’s Children 2021 examines child, adolescent and caregiver mental health. It focuses on risks and protective factors at critical moments in the life course and delves into the social determinants that shape mental health and well-being. It calls for commitment, communication and action as part of a comprehensive approach to promote good mental health for every child, protect vulnerable children and care for children facing the greatest challenges.

Psychological distress, optimism and emotion regulation among Israeli Jewish and Arab pregnant women during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Miriam Chasson; Taubman Ben-Ari; Salam Abu-Sharkia (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology

Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for women, and it is especially so under the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas there is some evidence for distress among pregnant women during the outspread of COVID-19, little is known about the second wave of the pandemic. This study therefore sought to examine the contribution of background variables, ethnicity (Jewish, Arab), personal resources (optimism, emotion regulation), and COVID-19-related anxieties to pregnant Israeli women’s psychological distress. A convenience sample of 1127 Israeli women was recruited from 5 July to 7 October 2020.

Stress level and general mental state in Polish pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Agata Mikolajkow; Krzysztof Małyszczak

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology

COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to mental state worsening. Mental health disorders in pregnancy are known to have adverse outcomes both for mothers and their children. It is the first study in Poland to investigate the impact of the pandemic on stress level and general mental state in pregnant women. Three hundred sixteen pregnant women completed an online survey containing four instruments. The main research questions were investigated with Bayesian regression analyses.

Challenges of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Canan Kuygun Karci; Asiye Arici Gurbuz

Published: September 2021   Journal: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

This study aimed to understand the challenging effect of the pandemic on children and adolescents with ADHD.100 children and adolescents with ADHD aged 7–18 years were included in the study. They were evaluated in terms of internet addiction diagnostic criteria. Symptom severity was assessed using the CBCL, CPRS, and SNAP-IV.

Health anxiety symptoms in Danish children during the first lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic: an Odense Child Cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Ditte Hulgaard; Charlotte Ulrikka Raskc; Henriette Boye (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a severe impact on the general population. During the pandemic, children may develop emotional and psychological symptoms, including increased worries about health and illness, known as health anxiety symptoms (HASs). This study aimed to explore HAS in 7–9-year-old children from the Danish Odense Child Cohort (OCC) during the first COVID-19 lockdown period in Denmark, and to examine associations with potential risk factors. OCC is a cohort of children born between 2010 and 2012, which originally recruited 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%). Among the current OCC population of 2430 singleton children, 994 participated in this study (response rate 40%). Children and their parents filled out questionnaires about child HAS, family exposure to COVID-19 infection and parental HAS. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated between high score child HAS (≥90th percentile) and covariates by use of logistic regression.

Loneliness and depressive symptoms among pregnant black women during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Carmen Giurgescu; Ana Carolina Wong; Brooke Rengers (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Western Journal of Nursing Research
This study explored the associations among perceived stress, depressive symptoms, loneliness, and social support during the COVID-19 pandemic; and differences in perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and social support prior to the pandemic and during the pandemic among pregnant Black women. A sample of 33 pregnant Black women who participated in the Biosocial Impact on Black Births (BIBB) and were still pregnant in May–June 2020 were invited to complete an online survey about their experiences during the pandemic. Fifteen women responded very much or somewhat to experiencing stress and anxiety because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Eight women had CES-D scores ≥23, which have been correlated with depression diagnosis. Women who reported higher levels of loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic also reported higher levels of perceived stress and depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support during the pandemic. Women who reported lower levels of social support during the pandemic also reported higher levels of perceived stress and depressive symptoms during the pandemic. There were no changes in perceived stress, depressive symptoms, or social support prior to the pandemic and during the pandemic.
1 - 15 of 1098

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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