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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 3324
Family relationship quality during the COVID-19 pandemic: the value of adolescent perceptions of change

Alexa Martin-Storey; Melanie Dirks; Brett Holfeld (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescence

Adolescents typically spend decreasing amounts of time with family members, but the COVID-19 pandemic changed this pattern for many youth. The objective of the current study was to better understand adolescents' perceived change in family relationship quality, and how these perceptions were related to psychosocial functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic, accounting for more traditional measures of family relationship quality. Understanding how adolescents perceived change in relationship quality with family members during the pandemic offers novel insight into adolescents’ relationships with their families and psychosocial functioning during this period. A sample of Canadian adolescents (N = 605, ages 14 to 18, 53% girls), was employed to examine patterns of adolescents’ perceived change in relationship quality with parents and siblings since the start of the pandemic, accounting for relationship quality, pandemic-related characteristics, and demographic variables.

The prevalence and correlates of depression before and after the COVID-19 pandemic declaration among urban refugee adolescents and youth in informal settlements in Kampala, Uganda: a longitudinal cohort study

Carmen H. Logie; Isha Berry; Moses Okumu (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Annals of Epidemiology

There is scant research examining urban refugee youth mental health outcomes, including potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined prevalence and ecosocial risk factors of depression in the periods before and after the COVID-19 pandemic declaration among urban refugee youth in Kampala, Uganda. Data from a cohort of refugee youth (n=367) aged 16-24 years were collected in periods before (February 2020) and after (December 2020) the WHO COVID-19 pandemic declaration. This research developed crude and adjusted generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to examine demographic and ecosocial factors (food insecurity, social support, intimate partner violence) associated with depression, and include time-ecosocial interactions to examine if associations differed before and after the pandemic declaration.

Family stress during the pandemic worsens the effect of adverse parenting on adolescent sleep quality

Linhao Zhang; Zehua Cui; Jeri Sasser (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Adverse parenting is consistently associated with increased sleep problems among adolescents. Shelter-in-Place restrictions and the uncertainty linked to the Covid-19 pandemic have introduced new stressors on parents and families, adding to the risk for youth's sleep problems. Using multidimensional assessments of child maltreatment (CM; threat vs. deprivation), the present study examined whether parent-report and child-report of Covid-19 related stress potentiated the effect of CM on sleep problems among boys and girls. The study focused on a sample of 124 dyads of adolescents (Mage = 12.89, SD = 0.79; 52% female) and their primary caregivers (93% mothers) assessed before and during the pandemic (May to October 2020).

Sleep disturbances in school-aged children 6–12 years during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey

Fadime Ustuner Top; Hasan Huseyin Cam

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Sleep disturbances in childhood are an important pediatrics problem because of their influence on children's health and their strong correlation with behavior problems. The aim of the present study was to explore sleep disturbances during the COVID-19 pandemic in school-age children. A cross-sectional survey design was used for data collection. From 1 to 15 February 2021, the study utilized snowball sampling techniques to gather data through an online survey. Parents of 1040 6–12-year-old schoolchildren completed the Socio-demographic Information Questionnaire and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to pinpoint factors connected to sleep disturbances.

The acute and persisting impact of COVID-19 on trajectories of adolescent depression: sex differences and social connectedness

Sabrina R. Liu; Elysia Poggi Davis; Anton M. Palma (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders
The COVID-19 era is a time of unprecedented stress, and there is widespread concern regarding its short- and long-term mental health impact. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the emergence of latent psychopathology vulnerabilities, often activated by environmental stressors. The present study examined COVID-19’s impact on adolescent depression and possible influences of different domains of social connectedness (loneliness, social media use, social video game time, degree of social activity participation).
Changes to child snacking and parent feeding practices around snacking during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative exploration

Amanda Trofholz; Derek Hersch; Kristin Norderud (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Appetite
The COVID-19 pandemic brought about many changes that potentially altered the home food environment, which has been associated with child eating patterns and dietary intake. There is also some evidence that changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with health behaviors in children, such as an increased intake of high-calorie snack food. The current study aimed to more deeply understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the home food environment of meal and snack time routines and parent feeding practices within families of young children. Data for this study are taken from the Kids EAT! Study, a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of families with 2–5 year old children.
Strengthening mental health responses to COVID-19 in the Americas: a health policy analysis and recommendations

Amy Tausch; Renato Oliveira e Souza; Carmen Martinez Viciana (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas
The COVID-19 pandemic is having a major impact on the mental health of populations in the Americas. Studies show high rates of depression and anxiety, among other psychological symptoms, particularly among women, young people, those with pre-existing mental health conditions, health workers, and persons living in vulnerable conditions. Mental health systems and services have also been severely disrupted. A lack of financial and human resource investments in mental health services, limited implementation of the decentralized community-based care approach and policies to address the mental health gap prior to the pandemic, have all contributed to the current crisis. Countries must urgently strengthen their mental health responses to COVID-19 by taking actions to scale up mental health and psychosocial support services for all, reach marginalized and at-risk populations, and build back better mental health systems and services for the future.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric health service use within one year after the first pandemic outbreak in New South Wales Australia – a time series analysis

Nan Hu; Natasha Nassar; Jane Shrapnel (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic hit New South Wales (NSW) Australia in early 2020, followed by a sharp state-wide lockdown from mid-March to mid-May. After the lockdown, there had been a low level of community transmission of COVID-19 over a year. Such pandemic experiences provide unique opportunity to understand the impact of the pandemic on paediatric health service use as countries emerge from the pandemic. This study examined the difference between the observed and the predicted numbers of inpatient admissions and emergency department (ED) attendances, respectively, related to chronic, acute infectious and injury conditions, for each month during the COVID-19 period (January 2020-February 2021), based on the numbers from 2016 to 2019, using records from two major paediatric hospitals in NSW. All analyses were conducted using autoregressive error models and were stratified by patient age, sex and socioeconomic status.
The outbreak of COVID-19: Resilience and its predictors among parents of schoolchildren carrying out online learning in Indonesia

Abd Nasir; Susilo Harianto; Cucuk Rahmadi Purwanto (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health
Online learning during the COVID-19 outbreak, puts mental stress on parents and their children so that this requires extraordinary resilience when parents get additional tasks to accompany children in online learning that is done at home. The current study seeks to evaluate the resilience of parents accompanying schoolchildren in online learning. Besides, this study also examines independent socio-demographic predictors of parental resilience. This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on 392 parents of children participating in online learning at home. Data were collected through an online questionnaire survey in the provinces of Java and Bali. Demographic questionnaires and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis with p < 0.05.
Remote learning, COVID-19, and children with disabilities

Kate Henley Averett

Published: November 2021   Journal: AERA Open
While the COVID-19 pandemic affected the education of nearly all schoolchildren worldwide, pandemic-related school closures did not affect all children in equal ways. Between March and August, 2020, 31 parents of children with disabilities were interviewed as part of a larger interview study of U.S. parents of children in grades K–12. This article analyzes these parents’ narratives about their families’ experiences of pandemic-related remote learning to identify the particular challenges children with disabilities and their families faced with remote learning. It finds that most, but not all, families struggled with remote learning, both when children’s specific needs while learning at home differed from their needs at school, and when schools failed to provide adequate accommodations and services remotely.
Care, coping, and connection under COVID-19: insights on couple relationships from a follow-up to the Bandebereho randomized controlled trial in Rwanda

Kate Doyle; Deboleena Rakshit; Ruti Levtov (et al.)

Institution: Promundo
Published: November 2021
The Care, Coping and Connection under COVID-19 report presents findings from a phone survey with 500 couples in Rwanda, examining the impact of the pandemic on stress, caregiving, and family relationships. The study builds on a randomized controlled trial of the Bandebereho intervention to examine the longer-term (five-year) impact of the intervention on participating families. The data suggest that while the pandemic has been hard on many families, Bandebereho participants have tended to fare better than those in the control group, suggesting long-lasting impacts of the intervention on key outcomes related to men’s engagement in care work and on couple and family relations.
Advancing girls’ education in light of COVID-19 in East Africa: a synthesis report
Institution: Population Council
Published: November 2021
Over a billion students around the world have been affected by school closures in the past year and a half (March 2020 to August 2021) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The persistence of the pandemic and the severity of the risks posed by the disruption of education necessitate a strong understanding of the present state of girls’ education in East Africa. This study aimed to understand the current problems posed by COVID-19 for girls’ education in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda; identify the gaps in understanding with regard to these problems; and illuminate solutions. The study is based on a rapid desk review of peer-review and grey literature, coupled with nearly 30 key informant interviews with a range of East African organizations working on education and/or gender issues. These methods were complemented by an interactive, participatory workshop during which interviewees and other education stakeholders validated and supplemented the initial study results. Key findings from the study are summarized below
Adolescent girls and COVID-19: Mapping the evidence on interventions

Sarah Blake; Miriam Temin; Tara Abularrage (et al.)

Institution: Population Council
Published: November 2021
With the COVID-19 crisis continuing to evolve, evidence on the effectiveness of short-term emergency-oriented responses and long-term mitigation strategies is expanding but still limited. There are, and will continue to be, substantial evidence gaps on programming to address risk across outcomes of importance to adolescent girls. More evidence is needed to slow the risks posed by the pandemic for this sub-population, which can help guide gender- and age-responsive prevention and impact mitigation investments. Evidence from approaches delivered in other unstable contexts may offer important lessons for decision-making in the current context. Recognizing this, the Population Council conducted a structured review of existing evidence collected prior to the pandemic, across low- and middle-income country contexts (under the auspices of the Adolescent Girls Investment Plan, AGIP1 ).
Learning loss among adolescent girls during the COVID-19 pandemic in rural Bangladesh

S. Amin; I. M.I. Hossain; S. Ainul (et al.)

Institution: Population Council, *UNICEF
Published: November 2021

Poor learning remains a central challenge in Bangladesh despite considerable progress in advancing schooling access and reducing gender gaps in education. The learning crisis is feared to have been exacerbated during extended school closures and limited alternative opportunities for schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic. This brief summarizes findings on learning loss among adolescent girls during the pandemic in rural Bangladesh.

Evaluation of adolescent girls and Young Women’s Access to Education During COVID-19
Institution: Plan International
Published: November 2021

Covid-19 has had an enormous impact on education at every level all over the world. In many East and Southern African countries, the experience of the pandemic followed the effects of measures to slow the spread of Covid-19 severely effecting Africa’s education system. African countries dealt with the pandemic and are working to mitigate its effect on their education systems. This report, and the study findings behind it, provides a unique insight into the perspectives of girls, education actors and experts regarding the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on education in five countries of Egypt, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Uganda and Rwanda. It recognizes that the continued closure of schools has exposed millions of young women and adolescent girls to increasing protection risks and severely threatens their futures are girls out of schools are less likely to resume.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.