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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 166
Preschool education optimization based on mobile edge computing under COVID-19

Hongzhi Wei; Yuqian Yang; Zhijian Liu

Published: January 2022   Journal: Expert Systems
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought profound changes in people's live and work. It has also accelerated the development of education from traditional model to online model, which is particularly important in preschool education. Preschoolers communicate with teachers through online video, so how to provide high quality and low latency online teaching has become a new challenge. In cloud computing, users offload computing tasks to the cloud to meet the high computing demands of their devices, but cloud-based solutions have led to huge bandwidth usage and unpredictable latency. In order to solve this problem, mobile edge computing (MEC) deploys the server at the edge of the network to provide the service with close range and low latency. In task scheduling, edge computing (EC) devices have rational thinking, and they are unwilling to collaborate with MEC server to perform tasks due to their selfishness. Therefore, it is necessary to design an effective incentive mechanism to encourage the collaboration of EC devices.
Association between mask wearing and anxiety symptoms during the outbreak of COVID 19: a large survey among 386,432 junior and senior high school students in China

Qingqing Xu; Zhenxing Mao; Dandan Wei (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Psychosomatic Research

This study aims to evaluate the association between mask wearing practice and the risk of anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic among Chinese students aged 12–18 years old. Totally, 386,432 junior and senior high school students were recruited using a cluster sampling method across three cities of Henan Province in China during February 4–12, 2020. Mask wearing practice was defined according to its type and the behavior exhibited in relation to wearing a mask. Presence of anxiety symptoms was determined by Generalized Anxiety Disorder tool (GAD-7). Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the association between mask wearing and anxiety symptoms.

Longitudinal trajectories of depression and anxiety among adolescents during COVID-19 lockdown in China

Dongfang Wang; Jingbo Zhao; Brendan Ross (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

This study examines the patterns and predictors of depression and anxiety trajectories among adolescents during COVID-19 lockdown in China. A total of 35,516 college students were followed from the pandemic outbreak period, initial remission period, and control period. Participants completed the Patient Heath Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and APGAR-family scale. Distinct patterns of depression and anxiety trajectories were established through grouping participants based on time-varying changes of the cut-off score. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine predictors for trajectory membership.

Changes in obesity and lifestyle behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese adolescents: a longitudinal analysis from 2019 to 2020

Dongling Yang; Chunyan Luo; Xiaogang Feng (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Pediatric Obesity

Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing. What changes have taken place in the obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours of adolescents during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic? This study aims at analysing the changes in obesity and lifestyle behaviours of Chinese adolescents before and 1 year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, providing evidence for the global strategies to respond to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent obesity.

Chinese parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children against SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine preferences

Yulan Lin; Zhijian Hu; Qinjian Zhao (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
This study aims to determine the intention of Chinese parents to vaccinate their children against SARS-CoV-2. Secondly, preferences for foreign- or domestically made COVID-19 vaccines were also explored. A nationwide, cross-sectional, self-administered online survey based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and new vaccine concerns was used. Participants were eligible if they were residents of China with children aged 12 years old or younger. A total of 2,026 parents responded to the survey. Half reported a probable intent (50.7%) and 26.9% reported a definite intent. The results of the data analysis of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) found that perceived cost barriers (B = −0.210, p < .001) and new vaccine concerns (B = −0.201, p < .001) had major effects in vaccination intent. Important constructs of vaccine concerns that predict vaccination intent were efficacy (B = 0.898, p < .001), followed by safety (B = 0.861, p < .001), side-effect (B = 0.806, p < .001) and faulty/fake vaccine (B = 0.579, p < .001).
Family resilience, media exposure, and children's mental health in China during COVID-19

Yaliu He; Xiaohui Sophie Li; Jiaqi Zhao (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: The Family Journal
This study aims to describe children's mental health conditions in the time of COVID-19 and its associations with the risk factor (media exposure) and the protective factor (family resilience) during COVID-19. The study took place from February 13th to February 29th, 2020, at the peak of the outbreak all across China. In total 441 children (M  =  11.83 years old, SD  =  0.79) from Jiangxi province, China, filled out online surveys. The results showed that children's rates of depression were relatively high and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates were low. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analyses, family resilience was negatively associated with children's mental health issues including depression, anxiety, PTSD, and poor sleep quality counting the effects of children's age, gender, and media exposure. Children's media exposure to COVID-related news reports did not significantly contribute to the total variance of children's mental health symptoms.
COVID-19 related fear and depression of pregnant women and new mothers

Heidi Sze Lok Fan; Edmond Pui Hang Choi; Rachel Wai Tung Ko (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Public Health Nursing

This paper aimed to explore factors associated with depression and COVID-19 related fear among pregnant women and new mothers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in China from July 2020 to July 2021. A total of 3027 pregnant and new mothers were recruited. Sociodemographic characteristics and the perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic were collected. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Fear Scale was used to assess the depressive and fear level towards the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively.

Guardians’ willingness to vaccinate their teenagers against COVID-19 in China: a national cross-sectional survey

Jian Wu; Lipei Zhao; Meiyun Wang (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

To investigate Chinese guardians’ willingness to vaccinate teenagers (WVT) against COVID-19, this study conducted a national wide survey in 31 provinces in mainland China. It involved 16133 guardians from 31 provinces in Chinese Mainland from August 6th to 9th, 2021. The question “Are you willing to vaccinate teenagers of COVID-19 vaccine?” was designed to capture WVT. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for potential factors of WVT were estimated using multiple logistic regression models.

Movement behaviors and mental health of caregivers of preschoolers in China during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jie Feng; Wendy Yajun Huang; Patrick Wing Chung Lau (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine
This study aimed to examine the associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), sleep, and the mental health of caregivers of preschool children following the COVID-19 outbreak. From 5 October to 16 December 2020, responses from 2476 respondents in China were collated through an online survey or a written questionnaire. Movement behaviors (PA, SB, screen time, and sleep), mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress), and demographic information were self-reported by the respondents. Linear mixed models were used for data analysis.
Associations between parent–child relationship, and children’s externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and lifestyle behaviors in China during the COVID-19 epidemic

Fanxing Du; Li He; Mark R. Francis (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
This study aimed to investigate associations between parent–child relationships, children’s externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and lifestyle responses to the COVID-19 epidemic, and it conducted an online survey of a random, representative sample of residents with children aged 3–17 years during mid-March 2020 in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. A total of 1655 parents and children were surveyed with a response rate of 80.1% in the survey.
The impact of COVID-19 on the dietary diversity of children and adolescents: evidence from a rural/urban panel study

Yi Cui; Wei Si; Qiran Zhao (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: China & World Economy
This paper offers the first empirical evidence of the impact of COVID-19 on dietary diversity among children and adolescents in urban and rural families by using panel data collected in 2019 (before COVID-19) and 2020 (during COVID-19) in northern China. This study uses panel data from 2,201 primary school students and 1,341 junior high-school students to apply the difference in differences (DID) method to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on dietary diversity among students in urban and rural families.
Factor structure and psychometric properties for the PTSD checklist of Chinese adolescents in the closed period after the COVID-19 outbreak

Wei Chen; Rongfen Gao; Tao Yang

Published: November 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
After COVID-19 appeared in China in December 2019, the mental health of adolescents, as a vulnerable group in public health emergencies, was negatively affected by the epidemic and the unprecedented prevention and control measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) among Chinese adolescents. A total of 915 participants completed the PTSD. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and multi-group CFAs were used to test the factor structure and psychometric properties of PTSD.
Caregivers’ intentions to COVID-19 vaccination for their children in China: a cross-sectional survey

Huangyufei Feng; He Zhu; Haijun Zhang (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Recently, COVID-19 infection in children has increased. Although most countries have not approved the COVID-19 vaccine for children, it is likely that they will do so. There is a clear need to explore caregivers’ intentions and to understand potential hesitancy as means to inform vaccination policies. This study found a relatively high caregivers’ intention rate to have their children vaccinated against COVID-19, and caregivers’ intentions to be vaccinated themselves was associated with their own decision to have their children vaccinated. In this study, older age, lower education level, belief that the COVID-19 vaccine was safe and effective, and residence in Hubei province were associated with increased odds of caregivers intending to have their children vaccinated. Policy makers should address caregivers’ concerns about vaccine safety and encourage caregivers themselves to get vaccinated before they decide to have their children vaccinated.
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 lockdown in China

Y. Q. Yuan; J. N. Ding; N. Bi (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, preliminary research has reported a significant decline in physical activity (PA) and an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) among typically developed children and adolescents. Limited research has looked at the current situation of PA and SB during this pandemic among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study investigated the situations about PA and SB among school-aged children and adolescents with ID on China's mainland during the COVID-19 outbreak. In total, 837 parents of children and adolescents (ages 6–18 years) with ID from 15 special education schools of Shandong Province in China were recruited through convenience sampling in the study. Parents reported PA and SB among children and adolescents with ID through the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey-Chinese version (CLASS-C) online questionnaires.

Micro classes as a primary school–level mathematics education response to COVID-19 pandemic in China: students’ degree of approval and perception of digital equity

Zhiyong Xie; Leifeng Xiao; Meiteng Hou (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Educational Studies in Mathematics
The article introduces a mathematics education measure in response to the COVID-19 epidemic in China and explores students’ degree of approval and perception of digital equity towards the response. After the outbreak of the COVID-19, the Chinese New Century Primary School Mathematics Textbook (NCPM) committee had developed a series of micro classes (abbreviated as NCPM micro classes), and more than 25 million teachers and students in China watched the NCPM micro classes during the 3 months social isolation. Then, students’ degree of approval towards the NCPM micro classes and perception of digital equity were examined after social isolation. A total of 132,740 pieces of data were collected from Chinese primary school students.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.