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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 135
Determinants of parental hesitancy to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in China

Mei-Xian Zhang; Xiao-Qing Lin; Yan Chen (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines

Vaccine hesitancy seriously hinders herd immunity. This study explored the determinants of parental hesitancy to vaccinate children against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. A population-based self-administered online questionnaire evaluating parental hesitancy in vaccinating their children against COVID-19 was conducted in Taizhou, China. Of the 2463 parents who received the invitation, 1788 (72.6%) responded to the survey.

Chinese adolescents’ rebellion during the COVID-19 pandemic: discipline and resistance in online compulsory education

Jindong Liu; Biying Wu; Jiayu Qu

Published: August 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
To tackle the debate surrounding the tension between knowledge and power in online education for adolescents and between freedom and control at large, this study examines how disciplinary power was exercised and resisted in a Chinese setting of online compulsory education during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. Overall, 60 participants, including students (from Grade 7 to 12), their parents, and teachers joined in our focus groups or individual interviews in a secondary school in Xi’an, China. By following Foucault’s concepts of three techniques of disciplinary power: hierarchical observation, normalizing judgement and examination, this study identified four themes based on the data: (1) diminished discipline with the dissolving boundary, (2) reconfigured disciplinary power by teachers, (3) self-discipline as a vital skill, and (4) online compulsory education as a future trend. Interpretations from the Foucauldian perspective were presented, suggesting that most adolescents depend upon more external disciplines from schools and teachers, while only a few may achieve autonomy through self-discipline.
Increased occurrence of PTSD symptoms in adolescents with major depressive disorder soon after the start of the COVID-19 outbreak in China: a cross-sectional survey

Hang Zhang; Hanmei Xu; Lijuan Huang (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Psychiatry

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to threaten the physical and mental health of people across the world. This study aimed to understand the psychological impact of this disease on adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) at 1 month after the start of the outbreak in China. Using the Children’s Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) questionnaire, it investigated the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in two groups of adolescents: MDD patients who were in continuous antidepressant therapy and healthy controls. Total scores and factor subscores were compared between the two groups and subgroups stratified by sex and school grade. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with high total CRIES-13 scores.

The effect of COVID-19 school closures on adolescent sleep duration: an uncontrolled before-after study

Qiguo Lian; Xiayun Zuo; Xiangyang Zhong (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected almost 1.6 billion students or more than 90% of learners globally. However, the effect of school closures during COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent sleep duration remains unclear. This study undertook a cross-sectional electronic survey in six junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China from late June to early July 2020. It evaluated the changes of sleep duration on weekdays by comparing sleep duration hours and insufficient sleep (< 9 h for children aged 6–13 years or < 8 h for teenagers aged 14–17 years) in COVID-19 school closures and after school reopening. It also investigated possible sex differences in the changes of sleep duration.

Children of parents with mental illness in the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional survey in China

Tianhang Zhoua; Weiran Chena; Xiujun Liu (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Asian Journal of Psychiatry

Children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) are vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to assess the psychosocial impacts of the pandemic and identify potential factors influencing their mental health. 665 COPMI from six sites including Wuhan in China were enrolled. COPMI's mental health and the impacts of COVID-19 were assessed by an online survey. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the association between impact factors and participants’ mental health.

Parents’ and adolescents’ perceptions of parental involvement and their relationships with depression among Chinese middle school students during the COVID-19 pandemic

Keqiao Liu; Yang Yang; Miao Li (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
Although psychological stress that adolescents may encounter during the COVID-19 pandemic has been of increasing interest to scholars, few studies have examined the profound impact that parents give to adolescents when staying indoors. This study surveyed 1,550 students and their parents from eight middle schools in eastern China. It employed multiple linear regressions with school fixed effects to examine the different perceptions of parental involvement between parents and children, and the relationships between these different types of parental involvement and depression in middle school students.
Are COVID-19 mitigation measures reducing preterm birth rate in China?
Published: August 2021   Journal: BMJ Global Health

Preterm birth is the leading cause of child morbidity and mortality globally. We aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in China on 23 January 2020 on the incidence of preterm birth in our institution. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the national COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in China and the incidence of preterm birth.

Latent patterns of posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Rui Zhen; Xiao Zhou

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Research has shown that posttraumatic reactions can co-occur in trauma-exposed individuals. Many studies have assessed the co-occurring patterns of two types of reactions, but few have assessed the patterns of multiple reactions. To build on existing knowledge, the present study examined co-occurring patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N = 683) were adolescents selected from an area in China severely affected by COVID-19 who completed the PTSD Checklist, a measure of depression, a PTG inventory, and a cognitive emotional regulation questionnaire. Latent profile analysis and multinomial logistic regression were used for the data analyses.
Parental social comparison related to tutoring anxiety, and guided approaches to assisting their children's home online learning during the COVID-19 lockdown

Qiuyue Yang; Jianjun Gu; Jon-Chao Hong

Published: July 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused great disruption in education systems around the world. Schools have in some cases ended or limited on-site teaching, and have shifted toward home online teaching. This situation is likely to cause increased uncertainty and anxiety for parents who on one hand may question the quality of home online learning yet, on the other, may not feel sufficiently confident or competent to guide their children's home online learning. Resulting anxiety is expected to be most evident in competitive educational contexts, such as those found throughout much of East Asia. Therefore, using China as the setting, and social comparison theory as the framework, this study examined how variation in parent social comparison relates to parent tutoring anxiety and, in turn, to the types of guided strategies parents use to promote their children's home online learning.
COVID-19 vaccination in Chinese children: a cross-sectional study on the cognition, psychological anxiety state and the willingness toward vaccination

Jin Yanga; Ting Zhanga; Weiran Qi (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
It is important to understand the cognition, willingness, and psychological anxiety state of Chinese guardians toward COVID-19 vaccination for their children to predict the future vaccination rate and to help the design of policies that aim to expand the population with immunity against COVID-19. This study collected data with a professional vaccination registration platform for children named “Xiao Dou Miao” in February 2021. The psychological anxiety state of the guardians was self-evaluated using the psychological anxiety scale. Factors that might influence the willingness of guardians to vaccinate their children were identified using logistic regression analysis. This study included 12,872 questionnaires with 70.9% of guardians showing willingness to vaccinate their children.
COVID-19 and mental health of young adult children in China: economic impact, family dynamics, and resilience

Ming Cui; Peipei Hong

Published: July 2021   Journal: Family Relations

The current study aimed to examine the economic impact of COVID-19 virus on family dynamics and college-age children's mental health in China and to identity personal and social or relational resilience factors that could buffer the negative consequences of COVID-19. Since an outbreak of COVID-19 was first reported in China in December 2019, it has profoundly changed the lives of families and children of all ages. In particular, it has created challenges among families with college-age young adult children. Using a sample of 484 college students from 21 universities in China, an online survey design was utilized to obtain information from these students on their family demographics and economic situation, parent–child interactions, and individual well-being during COVID-19.

The influencing factors of sleep quality among Chinese junior and senior high school adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Xiaobing Zhai; Yanan Zhang; Ehab S. Eshak (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, its terrible infectiousness has caused great panic, anxiety and poor sleep quality to the vulnerable adolescent populations. This cross-sectional online survey recruited 10,569 Chinese junior and senior high school adolescents during January 31 to February 9, 2020. Basic sociodemographic information, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Fear of negative evaluation (FNE) were included in the survey. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with poor sleep quality.

Psychological stress and perceived school success among parents of children with developmental disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sanyin Cheng; Yuqin Yang; Meng Deng

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
This study mainly explored psychological stress caused by the COVID-19 among parents in developmental disabilities and how it was related to parents’ views of school success in mainland China. The Psychological Stress Questionnaire and Views of Social and Academic Success were administered to 1919 parents of children with developmental disabilities.
Parental stress and home activities for young children during the stay-at-home quarantine time in China

Chenyi Zhang; Wei Qiu; Hongli Li (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Early Education and Development
Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations among the family pandemic experience, home activities during the stay-at-home quarantine, and level of parental stress. The results showed that, Chinese parents perceived only significantly higher stress related to children’s behavioral and emotional difficulties during the pandemic. Parents’ educational level and teacher remote support were significantly associated with the frequency of different home activities for young children. Although family direct exposure of COVID-19 was a critical risk factor predicting parent-perceived stress, parents’ education, family income, and teachers’ support were important protective factors for parents’ stress. Some learning-focused home activities showed an inverse association with parental stress.
Changes in weight and height among Chinese preschool children during COVID-19 school closures

Juan Wen; Lijun Zhu; Chenbo Ji

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Obesity

COVID-19-related school closures may increase the prevalence of childhood obesity, which has aroused public concerns. This study aimed to analyze the weight and height changes in Chinese preschool children during the COVID-19-related school closures period. A total of 124,603 children from multi-city kindergartens in China were included in this study. It evaluated the prevalence of overweight and obese in preschool children experienced school closures, and compared the changes in BMI, weight, and height of preschool children among COVID-19 school closures period, the same period last year and the same period the year before last.

16 - 30 of 135

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.