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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 32
Children’s well-being and intra-household family relationships during the first COVID-19 lockdown in France

Ariane Pailhé; Lidia Panico; Anne Solaz

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Research

This article explores the consequences of the first COVID-19 lockdown in the spring of 2020 in France on intra-family relationships and 9-year-old children's socio-emotional well-being. On 17th March 2020, France began a strict lockdown to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, with school closures and limited outings permitted until early June. All family routines and work-life arrangements were impacted. A major concern relates to how these measures impacted family and child well-being.

Child development and distance learning in the age of COVID-19

Hugues Champeaux; Lucia Mangiavacchi; Francesca Marchetta (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
School closures, forcibly brought about by the COVID-19 crisis in many countries, have impacted children’s lives and their learning processes. The heterogeneous implementation of distance learning solutions is likely to bring a substantial increase in education inequality, with long term consequences. The present study uses data from a survey collected during Spring 2020 lockdown in France and Italy to analyze parents’ evaluations of their children’s home schooling process and emotional well-being at time of school closure, and the role played by different distance learning methods in shaping these perceptions.
The effects of living and learning conditions on the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown in the French Grand Est region

Stéphanie Bourion-Bédès; Hélène Rousseau; Martine Batt (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

COVID-19 lockdown measures resulted in children and adolescents staying and learning at home. This study investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its associated factors among youth during the first lockdown. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8- to 18-year-olds from the French Grand Est region. Sociodemographic data and information on living and learning conditions were collected using an online survey. HRQoL was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-27. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore factors related to low HRQoL in each dimension.

Incidence of child abuse with subdural hemorrhage during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationwide study in France

Fiorella Caron; Pierre Tourneux; Hyppolite Tchidjou Kuekou (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
The global COVID-19 pandemic prompted governments to impose unprecedented sanitary measures, such as social distancing, curfews, and lockdowns. In France and other countries, the first COVID-19 lockdown raised concerns about an increased risk of child abuse. Abusive head trauma (AHT) is one of the most serious forms of child abuse in children aged 0–24 months and constitutes the leading cause of death in children under 2 years of age. Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is present in 89% of cases of AHT and constitutes one of the most specific, objective clinical presentations in the diagnosis of child abuse. This French nationwide study sought to evaluate the potential impact of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of hospital admissions for child abuse with SDH, relative to the two previous years. This study conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of data in the French national hospital discharge summary database by applying the International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision) codes for SDH and for child abuse.
Emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms of preterm vs. full-term children during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions

Marion Bailhache; Maeva Monnier; Flore Moulin (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Pediatric Research

Preterm children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than full-term children. Deterioration of children’s mental health was observed during COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures. This study compared emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during school closure between preterm and full-term children. Data from two French birth cohorts—ELFE and EPIPAGE-2—were used. In 2011, infants born ≥22 weeks’ gestation were recruited. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when the children were 9 years old and experiencing school closure. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used.

The psychological effects of COVID-19-related containment in children: the E-COCCON French study

I. Claudet; C. Marchand-Tonel; M. Kelly-Irving (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Archives de Pédiatrie

The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of PTS symptoms within 6 weeks of the end of lockdown, in children. This was a French prospective cross-sectional study between May 15 and July 2, 2020 conducted via telephone survey. Parents of children aged between 8 and 15 years were eligible. The invitation to participate was proposed through social networks (Instagram and Facebook), various local and national media, and by e-mail to the staff of our University Hospital Center. The PTS symptoms were assessed using the CRIES-13. A score of 30 and over has been confirmed as the cut-off for screening cases.

Perceived impact of lockdown on daily life in children with physical disabilities and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic

Roxane Varengue; Sylvain Brochard; Sandra Bouvier (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

The first lockdown during COVID-19 pandemic in France led to an abrupt change in children's daily lives. For children with physical disabilities and their families, activities were limited, access to healthcare and therapy was disrupted, and family organization was altered. The objective was to report the impact of the lockdown on daily life activities and well-being of children with physical disabilities as perceived by caregivers. Two online national surveys were addressed to the parents of children with physical disabilities (ECHO survey: 6 April to 11 May 2020) and without disabilities (E-COPAIN survey: 24 April to 11 May 2020), confined at home during the lockdown. A lockdown impact score was calculated from difficulties related to children's well-being (morale, behaviour and social interaction) and daily life activities (schooling and physical activity) and compared between groups. Data on family environment, parental stress and concerns were collected.

Acceptance of childhood and adolescent vaccination against COVID-19 in France: a national cross-sectional study in May 2021

Pierre Verger; Patrick Peretti-Watel; Amandine Gagneux-Brunon (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The French health authorities extended vaccination against COVID-19 to adolescents in June 2021, during the epidemic resurgence linked to the delta variant and because of insufficient vaccination coverage to ensure collective protection. In May 2021, a national online cross-sectional survey of 2533 adults was conducted in France to study their attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines and their acceptance of child/adolescent vaccination according to targeted age groups (<6 years; 6–11; 12–17) and its determinants. This study applied a multi-model averaged logistic regression for each of these age groups to study the determinants of favorability to vaccination. Among the respondents, 62.7% (1597) accepted COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents, 48.3% (1223) for children aged 6–11 years, and only 31% (783) for children under 6 years.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on child abuse and neglect: a cross-sectional study in a French child advocacy center

L. Massiot; E. Launay; J. Fleury (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

This study aimed to describe the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown in France on the activity of a Child Advocacy Center. This cross-sectional, observational study included all children involved in the activity of the CAC during the first lockdown, from March 16 to May 10, 2020 and the next 3 months and the corresponding periods in 2018 and 2019. Cases were considered severe when a hospitalization, social alert and/or judicial report to the prosecutor was decided.

The interaction between lockdown-specific conditions and family-specific variables explains the presence of child insomnia during COVID-19: a key response to the current debate

Royce Anders; Florian Lecuelle; Clément Perrin (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
It is still debated whether lockdown conditions in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) health crisis seriously affected children’s sleep. For young children, some studies identified more insomnia, while others only transient disturbances, or even no effect. Based on the premise of mother–child synchrony, a well-known dynamic established in child development research, this study hypothesized that principally, the children whose mothers perceived the lockdown as stressful and/or responded maladaptively, suffered sleep disturbances. The main objective of this study was to identify the family profiles, variables, and lockdown responses most linked to insomnia in young children. The sample consisted of 165 mothers, French vs. Swiss origin (accounting for different lockdown severities), of children 6 months to 5 years old. Validated sleep, stress, and behavior scales were used.
Identified motivation as a key factor for school engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic-related school closure

Léa Tân Combette; Etienne Camenen; Jean-Yves Rotge (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
On March 16, 2020, French schools suddenly closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and middle school students were asked to study from home with no direct interactions with teachers or classmates. However, school plays an important role in the development of social, intellectual, and mental competencies and can counteract the negative effects of adverse life events on learning and early school dropout. This study investigated how the unusual context of school closure during the COVID-19 pandemic affected school engagement. Specifically, it focused on inter-individual differences in the motivational determinants of school engagement. It thus performed an online survey of 170 students focusing on the time spent on mathematics assignments, motivation regulation, implicit theories of intelligence, such as adopting a growth or a fixed mindset about his/her intellectual abilities, and optimism. Importantly, the students participated in the online survey during the first lockdown period, with schools closed, and the second lockdown period, with schools remaining open.
Children's mental and behavioral health, schooling, and socioeconomic characteristics during school closure in France due to COVID-19: the SAPRIS project

Maëva Monnier; Flore Moulin; Xavier Thierry (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
COVID-19 limitation strategies have led to widespread school closures around the world. The present study reports children’s mental health and associated factors during the COVID-19 school closure in France in the spring of 2020. This study conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from the SAPRIS project set up during the COVID-19 pandemic in France. Using multinomial logistic regression models, we estimated associations between children’s mental health, children’s health behaviors, schooling, and socioeconomic characteristics of the children’s families. The sample consisted of 5702 children aged 8–9 years, including 50.2% girls. In multivariate logistic regression models, children’s sleeping difficulties were associated with children’s abnormal symptoms of both hyperactivity-inattention (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 2.05; 95% Confidence Interval 1.70–2.47) and emotional symptoms (aOR 5.34; 95% CI 4.16–6.86).
Anxiety and depression in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder during the first COVID-19 lockdown: report from the ELENA cohort

Ela Miniarikova; Christelle Vernheta; Marianne Peries (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychiatric Research

The Covid-19 pandemic had a strong impact on mental health in the general population. This study conducted during the first lockdown in France considered parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) prospectively followed in the ELENA Cohort. This study aimed to (1) compare the Anxiety and Depression (AaD) levels during the lockdown between mothers and fathers, (2) compare the parent's AaD between the lockdown and the last ELENA follow-up visit, and (3) identify risk factors for parental AaD during lockdown among socio-demographic and children's clinical characteristics.

Symptoms of emotional difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention among children during the COVID-19 epidemic and associated lockdown: data from the SAPRIS project

C. Galéra; F. Moulin; M. Melchior (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Public Health

COVID-19 limitation strategies led to widespread school closures around the world. The present study aims to provide a description of children's mental health and associated factors during the COVID-19 school closure in France. It conducted a cross-sectional analysis in the SAPRIS study during the COVID-19 pandemic in France, relying on 2 ongoing national birth cohorts, ELFE and EPIPAGE 2. Using weighted multinomial logistic regression models, it estimated associations between children's mental health (i.e., hyperactivity/inattention and emotional symptoms; assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), children's health behaviors, schooling, as well as sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of children family.

Temporal trends in suicide attempts among children in the decade before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Paris, France

Anthony Cousien; Eric Acquaviva; Solen Kernéis (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Recent studies have reported a deterioration in children’s mental health since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, with an increase in anxiety and mood disorders. Rates of suicide ideation and suicide attempts among children were also higher when COVID-19–related stressors were heightened in 2020. This study aimed to better assess temporal trends in suicide attempts among children while adjusting for annual and seasonal fluctuations. It conducted a cross-sectional study of surveillance data collected over the past 10 years at the Robert Debré Hospital in Paris, France, which is one of the largest pediatric centers in Europe.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.