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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Attitude of parents toward vaccination against COVID-19 for own children in Jordan: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Sawsan Abuhammad; Yousef Khader; Shaher Hamaideh

Published: July 2022   Journal: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked

This study aimed to evaluate parents' attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccination for their children and determine predictors of parents’ attitudes towards their children receiving the Vaccine against COVID-19. This study used a cross-sectional design. The subjects were Jordanian parents with a child less than 18 years old. The survey was made available on different social media platforms and other networks such as community organizations, academic posts, and private groups.

Youth economic security, skills and empowerment: Learning from positive outliers among youth affected by forced displacement in Jordan

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Jude Sajdi; Elizabeth Presler-Marshall (et al.)

Most of the research on refugee economic participation has focused on adult refugee populations, particularly men. Data on adolescents and youth, particularly girls and young women, is limited. This report aims to fill some of these research gaps and contribute to efforts to support refugee youth to realise their potential in line with the commitments enshrined in both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to ‘leave no one behind’, and in the Global Compact on Refugees, to ‘enhance refugee self-reliance’. Focusing on male and female youth aged 15–24 years from Syrian and Palestinian refugee communities in Jordan, as well as vulnerable Jordanians in host communities, the report captures their aspirations and experiences in building independent and sustainable livelihoods. It incorporates a gender lens to identify and analyse the factors that promote or hinder youth participation in the labour market, paying particular attention to gender norms and roles.

COVID-19 and social policy in contexts of existing inequality: experiences of youth with disabilities in Ethiopia and Jordan

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Pincock; Nicola Jonesa; Kifah Baniodeh (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Disability & Society
This article explores the social policy implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for adolescents and young people with disabilities in Ethiopia and Jordan. The article draws on qualitative research interviews carried out in person between November and December 2019 and by phone between April and June 2020 with 65 young people with hearing, visual and physical impairments in urban settings in both countries, complemented by interviews with key informants in government and civil society organisations working with young people. Whilst in Jordan social policy on disability is more developed, and in Ethiopia, systems are still embryonic, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the marginalisation of adolescents and young people with disabilities in both contexts as health, education and social protection systems have been slow to mobilise targeted support and address social exclusion. This article identifies social policy gaps in Ethiopia and Jordan that must be addressed in order to support young people with disabilities during crises.
Barriers to refugee adolescents’ educational access during COVID-19: exploring the roles of gender, displacement, and social inequalities

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Kate Pincock; Silvia Guglielmi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Journal on Education in Emergencies
As of 2021, more than 80 million people worldwide have been displaced by war, violence, and poverty. An estimated 30 to 34 million of these are under age 18, and many are at risk of interrupting their education permanently—a situation aggravated in recent years by the global COVID-19 pandemic. This article adopts an intersectional conceptual framework to explore the roles gender and other social inequalities have played in shaping adolescents’ access to education during the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines two refugee populations: the Rohingya, who have been excluded from formal education opportunities in Bangladesh, and Syrian refugees in Jordan, who have access to formal education in their host country. It provides novel empirical data, as well as insights into the adolescent refugee experience and the short-term consequences for education resulting from the pandemic. The article draws from quantitative survey data on 3,030 adolescents, and from in-depth qualitative interviews conducted in the spring of 2020 with a subset of 91 adolescents who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study. A 40 key informant interviews with community leaders and service providers was also conducted.
Study of the physical aggressive behaviors due to violent video games among early adolescents in Al-Mazar Al-Janobe District in the south of Jordan

AUTHOR(S)
Heba Adnan Althnaibat; Waqar Al-kubaisy; Faris Alsaraireh

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Sciences
Violent video games (VVGs) that have clearly emerged during the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic are the reason why early adolescents are exposed to physical aggression and physical violence. This is a problem and has consequences and damages to society as a whole. Therefore, parents and teachers should pay attention to solving this problem and addressing it, so we discussed this problem in our study. This research aims to study of the physical aggressive behaviors due to violent video games among early adolescents in Al-Mazar Al-Janobe district in the South of Jordan. The method that was followed in this study is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Al-Mazar Al-janobe district during the period from first May up to 1st August 2020 using a web-based questionnaire. The study sample consisted of (462) early adolescent pupils aged 10-13 years (boys and girls) from 61 primary schools (private and government). The results obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 21, descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-tests, chi-square, correlation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed and α < 0.05 level of significance was considered.
Parents’ attitudes, knowledge and practice towards vaccinating their children against COVID-19: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Walid Al-Qerem; Abdel Qader Al Bawab; Alaa Hammad (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The question of whether children should be vaccinated against COVID-19 is currently being argued. The risk-benefit analysis of the vaccine in children has been more challenging because of the low prevalence of acute COVID-19 in children and the lack of confidence in the relative effects of the vaccine and the disease. One of the most convincing arguments for vaccinating healthy children is to protect them from long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to assess Jordanian parents’ intention to vaccinate their children. This is an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. The researchers prepared a Google Forms survey and shared the link with a number of Jordanian Facebook generic groups. Data were gathered between September and November 2021. In this study, convenience sampling was used. Knowledge about COVID-19 and preventive practices against COVID-19 were calculated for each participant. A total of 819 participants completed the survey (female = 70.9%).
Adolescent lives in Jordan: what are we learning from longitudinal evidence? Lessons from longitudinal research with adolescents
Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: March 2022

Jordan is a small, highly resource-constrained country situated in the heart of the Middle East. Long a haven for refugees fleeing regional conflict, over one-third of Jordan’s 10 million residents are not Jordanian. Jordan is home to approximately 1.5 million Syrians, half of whom are registered as refugees with UNHCR. Jordan is also hosting 2.5 million registered Palestine refugees. In Jordan, GAGE has collected mixed-methods baseline data (between mid-2018 and early 2019) with approximately 4,000 Syrian, Palestinian, Jordanian and Dom adolescents living in host communities, formal refugee camps and informal tented settlements; fielded three rounds of covid-19 phone surveys; and is running ongoing participatory research groups with older married girls, out-of-school boys and adolescent girls and boys with disabilities (15–19 years). GAGE is also evaluating a variety of UNICEF Jordan’s programming. This brief highlights headline emerging findings and provides links to fuller publications.

Intersecting disadvantages for married adolescents: life after marriage pre- and post-COVID-19 in contexts of displacement

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Baird; Maureen Murphy; Jennifer Seager (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Although there is a growing evidence base on the drivers of child marriage, comparatively little is known about the experiences of married girls in refugee settings and how their development trajectories diverge from those of their nonmarried peers, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on cross-national panel data from Bangladesh and Jordan, this article explores diversity in child marriage experiences in contexts affected by forced displacement, highlighting how married girls’ well-being differs from that of their unmarried peers, and how COVID-19 has reinforced these differences.
The Syrian refugee life study: first glance

AUTHOR(S)
Edward A. Miguel; Bailey Palmer; Sandra Rozo Villarraga (et al.)

Published: February 2022
This paper presents descriptive statistics from the first wave of the Syrian Refugee Life Study (S-RLS), which was launched in 2020. S-RLS is a longitudinal study that tracks a representative sample of 2,500 registered Syrian refugee households in Jordan. It collects comprehensive data on socio-demographic variables as well as information on health and well-being, preferences, social capital, attitudes, and safety and crime perceptions. This study uses these novel data to document the socio-demographic characteristics of Syrian refugees in Jordan, and compare them to those of the representative Jordanian and non-Jordanian populations interviewed in the 2016 Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey. The findings point to lags in basic service access, housing quality, and educational attainment for the Syrian refugee population, relative to the non-refugee population. The impacts of the pandemic may serve to partially explain these documented disparities. The data also illustrate that most Syrian refugees have not recovered economically from the shock of COVID-19 and that this population has larger gender disparities in terms of income, employment, prevalence of child marriage, and gender attitudes than their non-refugee counterparts. Finally, mental health problems are common for Syrian refugees in 2020, with depression indicated among over 61 percent of the population.
Compounding inequalities: Adolescent psychosocial wellbeing and resilience among refugee and host communities in Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Sarah Baird; Bassam Abu Hamad (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Plos One
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated risk-mitigation strategies have altered the social contexts in which adolescents in low- and middle-income countries live. Little is known, however, about the impacts of the pandemic on displaced populations, and how those impacts differ by gender and life stage. This study investigates the extent to which the pandemic has compounded pre-existing social inequalities among adolescents in Jordan, and the role support structures play in promoting resilience.
Tackling digital exclusion among disadvantaged adolescents in Jordan: what difference does access to devices and online platforms make?

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Taghreed Alabadi; Sarah Alheiwidi (et al.)

Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: January 2022

Recognition that access to digital connectivity, tools and services is fundamental to inclusion and participation in society has grown exponentially over the last five years, including for persons affected by forced displacement and socially disadvantaged young people. This report presents findings from a rapid qualitative research assessment of UNICEF Jordan’s digital inclusion programme for vulnerable Jordanians, Palestinian and Syrian refugees attending Makani centres undertaken in July and August 2021. The programme distributed tablets and 10GB of monthly data to 10,000 vulnerable households in order to help address the digital divide and support access to online education and learning as well to life skills and other non-formal education programming. Drawing on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with adolescents and their parents, this report explores the effects that the tablet distribution initiative has had in terms of education and learning, access to information and services, as well as to peers and mentors.

Scaling the children immunization app (CIMA) to support child refugees and parents in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic: a social capital approach to scale a smartphone application in Zaatari Camp, Jordan

AUTHOR(S)
Yousef S. Khader; Wadih Maalouf; Mohammad Abu Khdair (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Children vaccination is a key intervention for their survival, especially among refugees. Yet, children vaccination registration is done manually in refugees camps and there is no possibility to send reminders to parents to come back on time. This study aimed to boost the parental registration of children’s vaccination records on a Children Immunization app (CIMA) while also availing the parents with useful parenting skills under COVID-19-related stress. It incorporated United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Parenting Skills under COVID-19 information material, through CIMA in Arabic and English languages. 1100 children were recruited in February–March 2021, through a community health promotion dissemination approach. A team of two nurses from the local population and two volunteers (one trained nurse and one trained social worker), from the camp, was formed. They promoted the CIMA app at two clinics and through households visits in Zaatari refugee camp. Qualitative data on impressions and observations of the interactions with the Zaatari camp community were also collected.

Adrenocortical and psychosocial responses of families in Jordan to the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Paul D. Hastings; Lindsey C. Partington; Rana Dajani (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Development
This study of 52 predominantly lower income Jordanian and Syrian families with young children (31 girls; Mage = 53.37 months, SD = 3.53) in Jordan began in 2019, before the pandemic. Families were followed to explore stress physiology, family functioning, and mental health over the first 9 months of the pandemic. Mothers reported less adaptive coping and more negative changes to family life in June 2020 when their children had poorer behavioral self-regulation and more behavior problems, and when families had lower income, in 2019. More negative changes to family life predicted greater hair cortisol concentrations in children in June 2020, and more negative changes and less adaptive coping predicted worse child and mother psychosocial adjustment in December 2020.
HBCC (Hygiene and Behavior Change Coalition) project: inclusive communities – Changing behaviors to respond to COVID-19
Institution: CARE
Published: August 2021
The “Promoting safer hygiene practices for women and girls to remain safe and live better lives project has been implemented between the 23rd of July 2020 and the 31st of August 2021 through CARE International in Jordan and funded by Unilever-UKAID HBCC (Hygiene Behaviour Change Coalition). The project’s overall objective was to support the most vulnerable women and girls in conflict communities, refugee, asylum and host populations within the Syrian crisis region to improve their key hygiene behaviours and be better equipped to protect themselves from COVID-19 transmission through mass awareness, interpersonal communication and digital media communication.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan: the caregiver perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Miral Al Momani; Basima A. Almomani; Aladdin Al-Qudah (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Seizure

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted care systems around the world. This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the care of pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan. Potential predictors for seizure control during COVID-19 outbreaks were investigated. A cross- sectional survey was conducted on pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan, between January and February 2021, via online questionnaires. The collected data included demographic information, epilepsy-related characteristics, views of caregivers and changes in seizure control during COVID-19 outbreak.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.