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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Multidimensional impacts of coronavirus pandemic in adolescents in Pakistan: a cross sectional research

AUTHOR(S)
Nazish Imran; Fauzia Naz; Muhammad Imran Sharif (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Plos One

COVID-19 has posed unique challenges for adolescents in different dimensions of their life including education, home and social life, mental and physical health. Whether the impact is positive or negative, its significance on the overall shaping of adolescents’ lives cannot be overlooked. The aim of the present study was to explore impacts of the pandemic on the adolescents’ everyday lives in Pakistan. Following ethical approval, this cross-sectional study was conducted through September to December, 2020 via an online survey on 842 adolescents with the mean age of 17.14 ± SD 1.48. Socio-demographic data and Epidemic Pandemic Impact Inventory-Adolescent Adaptation (EPII-A) was used to assess the multi-dimensional effects of the pandemic.

Inter-parental conflict’s persistent effects on adolescent psychological distress, adjustment issues, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Iqra Mushtaque; Muhammad Rizwan; Mazhar Abbas (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying
The current study sought to ascertain the impact of inter-parent conflicts on teenage psychological distress, social and academic adjustment and examine the suicide ideation during the COVID-19. The results found to be alarming as 22% of the individuals displayed suicidal tendencies, with 9% having attempted suicide once, 4.6% having tried suicide twice, and 11% stating that they were likely to do so again. Therefore, the media and the government might host awareness programs and counseling initiatives to promote mental health and prevent suicidal behavior. Moreover, parents may be educated on community level, about the effect of inter-parental arguments on the mental health of their children.
Parenting practices, stressors and parental concerns during COVID-19 in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Naeem Zafar; Mehek Naeem; Andleeb Zehra (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

COVID-19 is a global crisis that has added fear, uncertainty, and stress to parents. Parents are going through several challenges related to school closure, financial insecurity and working remotely. These stressors are affecting the mental health of parents. This study aimed to observe major stressors along with the impact of COVID-19 on parental concerns and practices during lockdown.

HIV/AIDS among children in Ratodero, Pakistan amidst the COVID-19 pandemic: challenges, efforts, and recommendations

AUTHOR(S)
Anmol Mohan; Muhammad Taha Arshad Shaikh; Um-Ul Wara (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health
In Pakistan, HIV has increased at an alarming rate in recent decades, and the death toll has risen. It is a public health challenge amidst the COVID-19 pandemic that is not being given due importance. The present article looks at the challenges and efforts being made to deal with HIV among children in Ratodero, Pakistan, and addresses measures that can be taken to control the disease in the child population epidemiologically.
Community attachments are associated with COVID-19 public health behaviors among adolescents in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Faiza Nisar; Sadaf Zeb; Benjamin Oosterhoff (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Child & Youth Care Forum

Community attachments are thought to promote adolescents’ engagement in public health behaviors. To date, past research has exclusively examined the social benefits of community attachments among adolescents in the United States and less is known about these benefits among youth in low-income adolescent-dense countries such as Pakistan. The present study examined associations between Pakistani adolescents’ community attachments and COVID-19 public health behaviors, including social distancing, disinfecting, hoarding, news monitoring. Adolescents living in Pakistan (N = 1,110; 13–18 years; M = 16.70) reported on their COVID-19 public health behavior (social distancing, disinfecting behaviors, hoarding behaviors, news monitoring) and community attachments (social responsibility values, social trust, self-interest values).

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on delayed/missed routine immunization in children (0-24 months) in Islamabad, Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Sabeen Abid Khan; Muhammad Imran; Rabia Tabassum (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
It is very important to understand the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunization uptake in children in Islamabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study was done from November 2020 to January 2021. Children aged 0 to 24 months were enrolled from vaccination centers in public and private sector hospitals. In the private center vaccination services were suspended from March 20 2020 till August 2020. The public center continued to provide vaccination service during the lockdown. Delayed vaccination was defined as a lapse of 4 weeks from the due date. Children who had missed vaccination due to health issue or on doctors' recommendations were excluded.
Perturbed nuptiality, delayed fertility: childbirth effects of Covid19

AUTHOR(S)
Mazhar Mughal; Rashid Javed

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Population Research
An aspect of the Covid-19 pandemic that merits attention is its effects on marriage and childbirth. Although the direct fertility effects of people getting the virus may be minor, the impact of delayed marriages due to the first preventive lockdown, such as that imposed in Pakistan from March 14 to May 8 2020, and the closure of marriage halls that lasted till September 14 may be non-negligible. These demographic consequences are of particular import to developing countries such as Pakistan where birth rates remain high, marriage is nearly universal, and almost all child-bearing takes place within marriage. Based on historic marriage patterns, this study estimates that the delay in nuptiality during the first wave of the coronavirus outbreak may affect about half of the marriages that were to take place during the year. In Pakistan, childbearing begins soon after marriage, and about 37% of Pakistani married women give birth to their first child within twelve months of marriage. A sizeable number out of these, around 400,000 annual births that occur within twelve months of the marriage, may consequently be delayed. Postponement of marriages due to the accompanying difficult economic situation and employment precariousness will accentuate this fertility effect. The net fertility impact of the Covid-19 outbreak will ultimately depend not only on the delay in marriages but also on the reproductive behavior of existing couples.
Migrant workers in Malaysia: Covid-19’s impact on the rights of their children and siblings in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Abdullah Khoso; Ahmad Hilmi Mohamad Noor

Published: June 2021   Journal: The International Journal of Children's Rights
With the help of narratives of migrant workers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, this article seeks to understands the impacts of the covid-19 (known as the 2019 novel coronavirus) pandemic on the rights of their children and children’s siblings in Pakistan. The pandemic impacted the flow of remittances to their families, which further impacted children’s right to education, livelihoods and food. They also revealed that the pandemic had impacted their children’s right to protection, play and development. Children had lost the freedom to play and go outside, socialise and learn. Migrant workers’ children and siblings with limited financial support should have been provided with adequate financial and social security support by Pakistan, but they were not. They also revealed that during the pandemic, children were also regular victims of harsh treatment and physical abuse by adult family members, reflecting the exacerbation of issues of breaches of their fundamental right to protection and emotional integrity.
Child education in the time of pandemic: learning loss and dropout

AUTHOR(S)
Muhammad Jehangir Khan; Junaid Ahmed

Published: June 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The disruptive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic had affected the education sector at an unprecedented scale. In order to contain the spread of the virus, a large number of countries across the globe have shut their schools to handle the pandemic. However, it has adversely affected students' learning and school attendance. In this regard, we assess the impact of COVID-19 on the learning loss, school dropout, and the economic costs in term of foregone earnings for children in Pakistan. The study finds a substantial decrease in Learning Adjusted Years of Schooling (LAYS) with worsening consequences for girls than boys. Likewise, the aggregate economic cost amounts to 107 billion dollars when adjusted for human capital utilisation. Besides, our simulation results suggest that about 7.2 million children dropout due to a reduction in household expenditure by 50 percent. In comparison, the dropout is more pronounced at the primary level of schooling. The results recommend that the government design robust social protection and remote education strategies to mitigate school closure’s adverse effect on children's learning. The emphasis should be rather on the long run strategies to cope with a resilient education system of futuristic orientation.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the schooling of public and private school students in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Hazir Ullah; Johar Ali

Published: May 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
More than 200 countries across the globe, including Pakistan, have closed educational institutions (schools, colleges, universities and madrassas) to contain the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19 pandemic). These closures have disrupted the learning of more than 1.7 billion learners (representing 91 per cent of the total enrolled students) across the world. It attempts to critically examine how schools’ closures in Pakistan perpetuate and reproduce inequalities in education. We have attempted to explore and explain inequalities in education during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and bring the issue of public school students’ learning loss into public debate. The paper is based on qualitative primary data and is analysed and interpreted vis-à-vis the social reproduction theories. We deduce that unequal schools, unequal parenting and geographical location have further inflamed education inequalities in Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic.
Covid-19: experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Qudsia Kalsoom

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Gender Studies
Disasters are experienced by, and responded to, differently based on the gender of those experiencing these. The responsibilities of women, particularly mothers, are amplified during times of pressure. This study investigated the experiences of teaching-mothers in Pakistan during the Covid-19 pandemic to understand the challenges they faced as professionals and as mothers. The data were collected through in-depth interviews of 24 teaching-mothers. The study participants were identified through the snowball sampling technique. The data were collected until the point of data saturation and analysed through. The analysis indicates that teaching-mothers in Pakistan faced issues in terms of maintaining their work-life balance, managing space and resources for online teaching, and learning a new set of skills in order to teach online. These multiple challenges affected their mental health. The findings indicate a sharp division of gendered roles in Pakistan and their negative impact on the mental health of women during Covid-19. The study suggests devising organizational policies to support teaching-mothers generally and especially during crises.
Factors affecting delivery health service satisfaction of women and fear of COVID− 19: implications for maternal and child health in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Rizvi Jafree; Ainul Momina; Amina Muazzam (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Maternal and Child Health Journal
High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in developing regions like Pakistan are linked to low rates of institutional deliveries. One way to improve rates of institutional deliveries is through improving institutional delivery service satisfaction in women. The aim of this research is to identify which factors influence delivery service satisfaction during the period of COVID-19 and which socio-demographic characteristics of women are associated with greater fear of catching COVID-19 during institutional deliveries.
Digital health literacy intervention to support maternal, child and family health in primary healthcare settings of Pakistan during the age of coronavirus: study protocol for a randomised controlled trialhttps://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/3/e045163

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Rizvi Jafree; Nadia Bukhari; Anam Muzamill (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMJ Open
There is a need to continue primary healthcare services through digital communication for disadvantaged women living in underdeveloped areas of Pakistan, especially in the age of the coronavirus pandemic, social distancing and lockdown of communities. This project will be the first of its kind in aiming to implement a digital health literacy intervention, using smartphone and internet, to disadvantaged women through female community healthcare workers. Improved health literacy in women of reproductive years is known to promote maternal, child and family health overall. Methods and analysis The study will include a baseline survey, a pre- and post-test survey and a 3-month lasting intervention on (1) hygiene and prevention and (2) coronavirus awareness and prevention.
Exploring the need for a responsive school curriculum to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Rani Gul; Gulab Khilji

Published: March 2021   Journal: Prospects
The article investigates the response of the Pakistani curriculum to the Covid19 outbreak. It also looks into the development of a curriculum that addresses the specifcities of students’ situations, while reminding them of global connectedness. The article is based on semi-structured interviews with 10 curriculum experts, 20 principals, and 35 teachers, as well as content analysis of the 2018 National Curriculum Framework of Pakistan.
Effects of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on lifestyle and mental health of students: a retrospective study from Karachi, Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Abraish Ali; Asad Ali Siddiqui; Muhammad Sameer Arshad (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Annales médico-psychologiques
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries imposed lockdowns on their citizens in an attempt to contain the disease. Pakistan is one of these countries. A government mandated lockdown can have mitigating psychological effects on young adults, out of which a large fraction is made up of students. This study aims to investigate the correlations between changes in sleep pattern, perception of time, and digital media usage. Furthermore, it explores the impact of these changes on the mental health of students of different educational levels.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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