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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 75
A cross-sectional study examining self-reported anthropometric measurements with adolescents' nutrition attitudes, obesity awareness and diet quality indices during the pandemic

Adem Sümen; Derya Evgin

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between adolescents' nutritional attitudes, obesity awareness, and diet quality with their self-reported anthropometric measurements taken during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional type of study was conducted in a district in the south of Turkey. The research was carried out online with 907 adolescents who agreed to participate voluntarily.

Effects of occupational therapy via telerehabilitation on occupational balance, well-being, intrinsic motivation and quality of life in Syrian refugee children in COVID-19 lockdown: a randomized controlled trial

Sümeyye Belhan Çelik; Esma Özkan; Gonca Bumin

Published: April 2022   Journal: Children
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an occupational training program via telerehabilitation on well-being (WB), occupational balance (OB), intrinsic motivation (IM), and quality of life (QoL) in Syrian refugee children resettled in Turkey during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, non-blinded trial in which children aged 13–15 years and attending a secondary school were recruited. OB, WB, IM, and QoL were evaluated via the OB Questionnaire (OBQ11), the Well-Star Scale (WSS), the IM Scale (IMS), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The intervention group attended online occupational therapy classes. Online classes were carried out as five sessions per week, each session lasting 1 h, for 3 weeks. Questionnaires were performed at the outset of the study and following the training program. Overall, 52 refugee children were randomized into the intervention and control groups, each including 26 children. The mean OBQ11, WSS, IMS, and PedsQL scores significantly improved more in the intervention group than in the control group. This was the first study investigating the effects of a customized online training course on OB, WB, IM, and QoL in Syrian refugee children, also affected unfavorably by the COVID-19 lockdown.
Examination of PTSD and depression levels and demographic data of Syrian refugee children during the pandemic

Elif Erol; Dilara Demirpençe Seçinti

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psych
Background: The worldwide population of child refugees is estimated to be over 10 million. Refugee children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups in the world, and the pandemic created new challenges for them. Objective: This study aimed to examine the PTSD and depression levels of Syrian refugee children and adolescents, the difficulties they experienced in access to food and education, and the changes in their family income, and evaluate the effects of these factors on symptom severities of depression and PTSD. It used data obtained from 631 Syrian refugee children between the ages of 7 and 15. Assessment measures for exposure to PTSD and depression included a socio-demographic form, stressors related to COVID-19, the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), and the patient-rated Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). ANCOVA is conducted to evaluate the differences between the symptoms of PTSD and depression. The regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the scales and the demographic data.
Early childhood education during the COVID-19 outbreak: the perceived changing roles of preschool administrators, teachers, and parents

Süleyman Yildiz; Gulenay Nagihan Kilic; Ibrahim H. Acar (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
Stakeholders (teachers, preschool administrators, and parents) in early childhood education have struggled due to the COVID-19 outbreak. The present study explores the experiences and perceptions reflecting the perceived changes in the roles of stakeholders in early childhood education as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. A criterion sample of two administrators, nine teachers, and seven parents in early childhood education institutions was interviewed.
Relationship between adolescents’ perceptions of social support and their psychological well-being during COVID-19 pandemic: a case study from Turkey

Fatma Kurudirek; Duygu Arıkan; Sümeyye Ekici

Published: March 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The aim of this research was to establish the relationship between the perceptions of social support and the psychological well-being among adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This research, which includes descriptive and relative features, was conducted from December 15, 2020 to January 31, 2021. There were 378 participants, all of whom were adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years who were living in Turkey. Either the adolescents themselves or their parents used social media tools or sites such as Facebook, Whatsapp, Instagram, etc., and they had all agreed to participate voluntarily.
Anxiety in paediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and the affecting factors

Abdullah Solmaz; Hülya Karataş; Tuğba Meliha Fatma Ercan (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Children may be greatly affected by events that increase stress in individuals in general and are reported as the vulnerable groups during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. But most of the studies in the literature investigating the mental effects of the pandemic on children were conducted with healthy children and limited study has evaluated the effect on children diagnosed with COVID-19. The aim of this study is to determine the anxiety level in paediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and the affecting factors. This descriptive study was conducted with 292 children aged 8–18 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19. Data were collected using the Descriptive Characteristics Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Interviews were held by phone.

Effect of the Covid 19 pandemic on depression and mother-infant bonding in uninfected postpartum women in a rural region

Özlem Erten; İsmail Biyik; Cenk Soysal (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Postpartum depression and maternal-infant attachment scores were examined in uninfected women during the COVID 19 pandemic in Kutahya, a rural province in Turkey's North Aegean region. This cohort study was conducted in the Kutahya Health Sciences University Hospital obstetrics unit between April 2021 and August 2021. 178 low-risk term pregnant women who gave birth were given the surveys Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBQ) 6 weeks after birth. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale was used to determine postpartum depression and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale was used to determine maternal attachment.

Exploring the attitudes, concerns, and knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccine by the parents of children with rheumatic disease: cross-sectional online survey

Özlem Akgün; Gülşah Kavrul Kayaalp; Fatma Gül Demirkan (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Vaccine
Vaccination programs are effective strategies in preventing infectious diseases and controlling epidemics. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in children has not yet been approved globally, and it is unclear what attitude families will take when it is approved in children. This study aimed to investigate the underlying causes of vaccine acceptance, hesitation, and refusal, as well as concerns about the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine by parents of children with rheumatic diseases.
Social connectedness matters: depression and anxiety in transgender youth during the COVID-19 pandemic

Zeynep Tüzün; Koray Başar; Sinem Akgül (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: The Journal of Sexual Medicine

Gender-affirming and supportive relations for transgender youth are considered protective in terms of mental health. This study aims to describe how transgender youth perceived changes in their gender expression, in the course of the gender-affirming path, and the effect of social connectedness and social support on depression and anxiety during the pandemic. In this cross-sectional study, transgender youth completed an online survey developed to evaluate the perceived changes in gender expression and affirmation path that occurred during COVID-19 and the age-stratified lockdown.

How parents of children with autism spectrum disorder experience the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives and insights on the new normal

Gulden Bozkus-Genc; Sunagul Sani-Bozkurt

Published: February 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Considering the fact that family members necessarily spend more time together during the pandemic, this study aims to reveal the perceptions of parents with children who have autism spectrum disorder of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey and their experiences of the difficulties during the pandemic. A qualitative phenomenology design was used in the study. Seven mothers and one father gave their consent and participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis.

Parent observations about the impact of COVID-19 on children with ASD in Turkey

Sedat Yazıcı; Birgül Koçak Oksev; Pınar Çelebi Demirarslan (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities

The Covid-19 pandemic has shown that people with disabilities are the most vulnerable, neglected and discriminated individuals at times of emergency. National and international studies are needed to understand the extent to which the general well-being, quality of life, and positive and negative behaviors of children with ASD are affected during the pandemic.  This study explores the impact of Covid-19 on the typical behaviors of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by focusing on quantitative observation findings obtained from their parents and caregivers. In order to explore the effects of three months of pandemic restrictions during the initial period, 103 parents and caregivers were asked to describe significant behavior changes in their children with ASD comparing before and during the pandemic period.

The relationship of COVID-19 student stress with school burnout, depression and subjective well-being: adaptation of the COVID-19 student stress scale into Turkish

Selim Gundogan

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
COVID-19 has caused psychological problems in all age groups since it emerged from the first day. One of the most important groups has been affected negatively during the COVID-19 pandemic process are university students. One of the negative situations caused by the pandemic process in university students is student stress caused by COVID-19. To assess stress situations in Italian culture, the COVID-19 student stress scale (CSS-S) has been developed. In this context, the aim of this study was to adapt the CSS-S into Turkish. Another aim of the study was to investigate the direct and indirect relationships of COVID-19 student stress with school burnout, depression and subjective well-being. The participants of the study were 485 Turkish university students.
Levels of uncertainty, fear and satisfaction with health professionals: experiences of parents whose children are hospitalized for COVID-19

Meryem Türkan Isik; Rana Can Özdemır; Elif Karadeniz (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
This study tried to determine the fear and tolerance of uncertainty levels of the parents of children hospitalized with COVID-19, and their satisfaction with the health care received during this time. Data were collected from 130 literate parents. A significant difference was found between the mean scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12) and the age of the parents and the presence of COVID-19 in other family members and the IUS-12. Also, a significant correlation was found between parents’ fear of COVID-19 and IUS-12 scores. Parents had good levels of satisfaction with health care received and moderate fear of COVID-19 and intolerance of uncertainty levels. As parents’ fear of COVID-19 increased, intolerance of uncertainty increased. The demographic characteristics, levels of fear of COVID-19, and intolerance of uncertainty did not affect the satisfaction levels.
COVID-19–related stigma and mental health of children and adolescents during pandemic

Burcu Ozbaran; Furkan Turer; Hazal Y. Yilancioglu (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate depression and anxiety symptoms of the children/grandchildren of COVID-19 patients, children/grandchildren of healthcare workers who have not infected COVID-19, and children/grandchildren of the control group. Parent and children’s perception about COVID-19–related stigma is also investigated and compared between groups. The perception about COVID-19–related stigma between different age and gender groups among children also investigated and compared. The mental health of the 71 participants aged 6–18 years was evaluated via a telemedicine-based semi-structured interview between March and April 2020. Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), and COVID-19–Related Stigma Form were administered to the participants.
An investigation of changing attitudes and behaviors and problematic internet use in children aged 8 to 17 years during the COVID-19 pandemic

Tülay Kamaşak; Murat Topbaş; Nalan Ozen

Published: December 2021   Journal: Clinical Pediatrics

This study aimed to examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lifestyle, habits, and behavioral differences in children, and their changing internet use habits. The research was planned as a cross-sectional study involving 4892 children aged 8 to 17 years attending schools in the city center of Trabzon, Turkey. Children’s daily living activities, social habits, mood and temperament changes, and internet use were investigated before and during the pandemic. In terms of problematic internet use, internet addiction rates were evaluated using the validated Turkish-language version of the Parent-Child Internet Addiction Scale (PCIAT-20).

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.