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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 556
Lessons from United States school district policies and approaches to special education during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Melissa E. Mendoza; Timothy F. Brewer; Matthew S. Smith (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Inclusive Education
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many school districts in countries around the world transitioning rapidly to partial or complete remote learning. These disruptions affected all children’s education, but students with disabilities (SWDs) were particularly at-risk because of the challenges of providing accessible support and services through remote teaching programmes. This study examines the experience of SWDs in 24 United States school districts of instructional and adaptation models between August 2020 and February 2021. Districts varied in their approaches to remote instruction, compensatory services and prioritising SWDs for returning to the classroom before other students. Districts also varied substantially in the information provided regarding Distance Learning Plans, changes to Individualised Education Programmes and related service delivery.
Changes in breastfeeding exclusivity and satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Megan K. Oggero; Diane W. Wardell

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Human Lactation

Because of its many benefits, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is a common public health goal. However, only 44% of infants aged 0–6 months are exclusively breastfed worldwide and, in the United States, only 26% of infants are exclusively breastfed for 6 months. The restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic may have reduced these rates even further. This study aims to examine the differences in breastfeeding exclusivity and satisfaction before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Food insecurity and mental well-being among low-income families during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jiying Ling; Paige Duren; Lorraine B. Robbins (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: U.S. flagAn official website of the United States government Here's how you know NIH NLM LogoLog in Access keysNCBI HomepageMyNCBI HomepageMain ContentMain Navigation NLM Catalog Search database NLM Catalog Search term "Am J Health Promot"[Title Abbrevia

This paper aimed to examine the interaction effects of adult and child food insecurity on parents’ and children’s mental well-being. An online survey study was conducted. Four hundred and eight parents under poverty level and having a child aged 3–5 years participated. Food insecurity was assessed by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Parents’ stress, anxiety and depression; and children’s sadness, fear, anger, and positive affect were measured using instruments from HealthMeasures.


COVID-19 pandemic impact on US childhood caries and potential mitigation

AUTHOR(S)
C. Scherrer; S. Naavaal; M. Lin (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of dental research
Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic and low-income US children have a higher prevalence of untreated caries than their higher-income and non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many dental offices and school sealant programs closed beginning March 2020. This study examines the effect of reduced access to restorative care and sealants on the oral health of children from low-income households overall and by race/ethnicity and how increased sealant delivery in September 2022 could mitigate these effects.
The impact of death and dying education for undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Robert S. Weisskirch; Kimberly A. Crossman

Published: April 2022   Journal: OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying
Fear of COVID-19 may make the imminence of death prescient for undergraduate students, increasing death anxiety and worsening mental health. Formal death education may provide benefits such as reduced fear of COVID-19 and death anxiety, and improved mental health. In this study, 86 undergraduate students completed a pre- and post-semester online questionnaire on fear of COVID-19, death anxiety, and mental health outcomes. Findings indicate indirect effects of death anxiety on fear of COVID-19 to anxiety. Moreover, fear of COVID-19, individual concerns about death, and death anxiety were reduced over the semester for undergraduate students in formal death education.
Black women, black girls, and the Covid-19 pandemic: an autoethnography of a health disparity

AUTHOR(S)
Renata Ferdinand; Rajah Emahn Ferdinand

Published: April 2022   Journal: Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies
This is an autoethnographic essay that explores how the Covid-19 pandemic affect(ed) Black women and girls. Through storytelling and narrative and performative writing, it paints a clearer picture of the lives lost due to the coronavirus by highlighting specific tragedies that occurred, and by examining the larger societal context that allowed such tragedies to unfold. In addition, it offers an intimate look at the emotional processes that occur when one is diagnosed with the virus.
Adapting parent-focused interventions for diverse caregivers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: Lessons learned during global crises

AUTHOR(S)
Sandra B. Vanegas; Ana D. Dueñas; Megan Kunze (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities
Parent-focused interventions have been designed to provide training and support to caregivers who are essential in achieving positive outcomes for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). In 2020, significant crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic and continued racial tensions, profoundly impacted the livelihood of children with IDD and their families. Many ongoing efforts to address disparities among this population were halted temporarily and required further adaptations. Researchers adapted interventions and support to address the disparities impacting children with IDD and their families with limited guidance. This study provides a descriptive case analysis of four parent-focused interventions that responded to the global crises to continue serving children with IDD and their families.
Change in weight category among youth early in the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ihuoma Eneli; Jinyu Xu; Keeley Pratt

Published: April 2022   Journal: Clinical Obesity
Remote learning and shelter-in-place orders during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with obesity risk factors such as decreased physical activity, altered routines and sleep schedules, increased screen time, and non-nutritious food choices. The objective of this brief report is to describe change in weight category 3–6 months after the onset of the pandemic in a cohort of 4509 low-income youth. Inclusion criteria were youth aged 2–17 years with weight and height measure in a large primary care network between 1 January and 30 March 2020 (Q1), designated as pre-COVID period; and 1 June–30 September 2020, (Q3), as early-COVID period. Change in weight category was assessed between Q1 and Q3. Adjusting for visit type and time lapse, logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between weight category change and age, sex, and race/ethnicity.
Effects of remote education during the COVID-19 pandemic on young children's learning and academic behavior in Georgia: perceptions of parents and school administrators

AUTHOR(S)
Jill V. Klosky; Julie A. Gazmararian; Olivia Casimir (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

In Spring 2020, Georgia public schools implemented remote learning to manage the spread of COVID-19. This study explores the effects of remote schooling on the learning of young children in Georgia during the early COVID-19 pandemic from the perspectives of school administrators and essential working parents. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted with eight school administrators and 26 essential working parents of children in kindergarten through third grades of two rural and two urban schools in Georgia. Data collection included online surveys, virtual interviews and focus groups. Descriptive analyses of the demographics provided context to emerging themes from qualitative data.

Changes in type 2 diabetes trends in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jessica A. Schmitt; Ambika P. Ashraf; David J. Becker (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

There is concern that the growing incidence of pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) may have been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. To examine whether trends in new-onset pediatric T2D—inclusive of patients requiring hospitalization and patients managed as outpatients—were impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to compare patient characteristics prior to and during COVID-19. A retrospective single-center medical record review was conducted in a hospital which cares for 90% of Alabama’s pediatric T2D patients. Patients with new-onset T2D referred from March 2017 to March 2021 were included. Counts of patients presenting per month (“monthly rates”) were computed. Linear regression models were estimated for the full sample and stratified by Medicaid and non-Medicaid insurance status. Patient characteristics prior to vs during COVID-19 were compared.

Role of maternal emotion in child maltreatment risk during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Christina M. Rodriguez; Shawna J. Lee

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Violence

Preliminary research early in the COVID-19 pandemic suggested children appeared to be at increased risk for child maltreatment, particularly as parents struggled with mental health and economic strains. Such strains were likely to influence parental emotions about their children, affecting their parent-child interactions to contribute to elevated maltreatment risk. To identify the potential affective elements that may contribute to such increased maltreatment risk, the current study focused on whether maternal worry about children’s behavior specifically as well as maternal anger were related to increased risk for neglect or physical or psychological aggression six months into the pandemic. The racially diverse sample included 193 mothers who completed an online survey during the COVID-19 pandemic in late September-early October 2020.

COVID-19 infection in children: diagnosis and management

AUTHOR(S)
Frank Zhu; Jocelyn Y. Ang

Published: April 2022   Journal: Current Infectious Disease Reports

Due to the rapidly changing landscape of COVID-19, the purpose of this review is to provide a concise and updated summary of pediatric COVID-19 diagnosis and management. The relative proportion of pediatric cases have significantly increased following the emergence of the Omicron variant (from < 2% in the early pandemic to 25% from 1/27 to 2/3/22). While children present with milder symptoms than adults, severe disease can still occur, particularly in children with comorbidities. There is a relative paucity of pediatric data in the management of COVID-19 and the majority of recommendations remain based on adult data.

Family systems cultural and resilience dimensions to consider in nutrition interventions: exploring preschoolers’ eating and physical activity routines during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia; Erika Ryan; Veronica M. Jones (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior

This study aims to describe the weight-related family functioning of racial minority families with low income using family systems theory as an interpretive framework. Primarily a qualitative study with interviews plus; descriptive demographics, anthropometrics, a family functioning measure, and food insecurity screening.

Food and beverage offerings by parents of preschoolers: a daily survey study of dinner offerings during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer M. Barton

Published: April 2022   Journal: Appetite
The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have altered parents' daily feeding practices, including what and how much they feed their children, which may have negative implications for children's weight. The primary aim of this study was to examine patterns of and variation in parents' daily food and beverage offerings at dinner across 10 days during the COVID-19 pandemic using descriptive analysis and non-parametric tests. Ninety-nine parents (Mage = 32.90, SDage = 5.60) of children ages 2–4 years (M = 2.82, SD = 0.78) completed an online baseline survey and 10 daily surveys (929 completed surveys) assessing their daily food and beverage offerings at dinner. On average, parents did not offer recommended foods and beverages on a daily basis; parents offered vegetables and protein most often across the 10 days, however, less than 50% of parents offered the recommended serving size for each group.
Mobilizing and delivering essential meals to children and families affected by school closures during COVID-19 and beyond

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin J. Ryan; Victoria Telford; Mark Brickhouse (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

The closure of schools in response to COVID-19 compromised access to essential meals for many students. The Emergency Meals-to-You program, a public/private partnership, was set up to address this challenge. More than 38.7 million meals were delivered between April and August 2020. This study explores lessons learned and identifies strategies for strengthening food access and security at schools and beyond. Qualitative research methods were used. This included interviews and focus groups with participants involved in setting up and delivering the Emergency Meals-to-You program. Data were thematically analyzed using key phrases, ideas, and concepts, and interpreted.

1 - 15 of 556

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

LEARN MORE ABOUT THE DATABASE

Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.

The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.