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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 222
Early influenza vaccination rates decline in children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin Fogel; Eric W. Schaefer; Steven D. Hicks

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine

This investigation sought to determine whether early season rates of pediatric influenza vaccination changed in a season when there was a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. This study used cohort and cross sectional data from an academic primary care division in Southcentral Pennsylvania that serves approximately 17,500 patients across 4 practice sites. Early season (prior to November 1) vaccination rates in 2018, 2019 and 2020 were recorded for children, age 6 months to 17 years.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4291-4295 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child immunization, COVID-19, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Adolescent drug use before and during U.S. national COVID-19 social distancing policies

AUTHOR(S)
Richard Miech; Megan E. Patrick; Katherine Keyes (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Drug and Alcohol Dependence

How adolescent substance use and perceived availability of substances have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic remain largely unknown. Substantial reduction in availability of substances would present a unique opportunity to consider the supply-side hypothesis that reductions in drug availability will lead to reductions in drug prevalence. Longitudinal data come from Monitoring the Future and are based on responses from 582 adolescents who were originally surveyed as part of a national sample of 12th grade students in early 2020, one month before social distancing policies began. They were surveyed again after social distancing policies were implemented, in the summer of 2020.

Toward quality online physical education: research questions and future directions

AUTHOR(S)
David N. Daum; Tyler Goad; Brian Mosier (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education
Before the COVID-19 pandemic, online education had grown steadily over the past decade as more K-12 schools and districts expanded their educational options. This included the use of virtual school days, hybrid learning, and fully online courses. Enrollments in K-12 Online Physical Education (OLPE) had also increased steadily over the past decade, representing almost ten percent of total online course completions (Distance Learning Collaborative (DLC), (2019). The purpose of this article is to present a coherent agenda for future research related to K-12 OLPE using current research as a foundation. The Society of Health and Physical Education (SHAPE) America’s Essential Components of Physical Education served as the framework for this article. Overall, limited research has been conducted regarding the policies and decisions that drive the development and implementation of OLPE. Current research does, however, provide some clarity related to OLPE curriculum, instructional practices, and student assessment. K-12 OLPE is not an abstract idea that might come about in the future. It is part of the here and now, especially considering the shift toward distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Scholars must cultivate a coherent research agenda and move beyond the current exploratory studies to answer some of the most poignant questions surrounding OLPE.
A qualitative study exploring the relationship between mothers’ vaccine hesitancy and health beliefs with COVID-19 vaccination intention and prevention during the early pandemic months

AUTHOR(S)
Kimberly K. Walker; Katharine J. Head; Heather Owens (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vaccine hesitancy is a top ten global health threat that can negatively impact COVID-19 vaccine uptake. It is assumed that vaccine refusers hold deep, negative beliefs, while acceptors hold strong, positive beliefs. However, vaccine hesitancy exists along a continuum and is multidimensional, varying by time, place, vaccine, subgroup, and person. Guided by the Health Belief Model and vaccine hesitancy frameworks, the study purpose was to qualitatively explore maternal COVID-19 threat perceptions and willingness to accept a COVID-19 vaccine in light of their expressed vaccine hesitancy toward past school required and routinely recommended vaccines and the HPV vaccine for their children. Researchers conducted twenty-five interviews with US Midwestern mothers during the early COVID-19 pandemic months. Mothers were grouped by vaccine hesitancy categories and thematic analysis was used to analyze the data within and across categories.
Child welfare services response to COVID-19: addressing face-to-face contacts

AUTHOR(S)
Kristen D. Seay; Amanda Stafford McRell

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies volume
During the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, child welfare case managers faced contradictions in their responsibility to make regular in-person contact with children and families to promote safety, permanency, and well-being while following public health directives to avoid social contact in order to curb COVID-19 infections. In response, federal guidance was issued regarding the use of technology to maintain mandated contacts with children in foster care. States had to make decisions about how to handle other contact types. This study reviewed documentation of state child welfare agency practices regarding face-to-face contact between case managers and child-welfare involved families between March 2020 and May 2020.
Examining K-12 teachers’ feelings, experiences, and perspectives regarding online teaching during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Yunjo An; Regina Kaplan-Rakowski; Junhe Yang (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Educational Technology Research and Development
This mixed-methods study explored K-12 teachers’ feelings, experiences, and perspectives regarding online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also examined teachers’ perspectives of the “new normal” after COVID-19 and of what should be done to better prepare teachers for future emergencies. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from an online survey and follow-up interviews. A total of 107 teachers from 25 different states in the United States completed the online survey, and 13 teachers from 10 different states participated in the follow-up interviews.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

AUTHOR(S)
Austin R. Waters; Deanna Kepka; Joemy M. Ramsay (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: JNCI Cancer Spectrum
The study objective was to identify sociodemographic and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) factors that are associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors. Eligible participants were 18 years or older and were diagnosed with cancer as an AYA (ages 15-39 years) and received services through an AYA cancer program. A total of 342 participants completed a cross-sectional survey.
Race, ethnicity, poverty and the social determinants of the coronavirus divide: U.S. county-level disparities and risk factors

AUTHOR(S)
Laura J. Samuel; Darrell J. Gaskin; Antonio, J. Trujillo (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

Communities with more Black or Hispanic residents have higher coronavirus rates than communities with more White residents, but relevant community characteristics are underexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate poverty-, race- and ethnic-based disparities and associated economic, housing, transit, population health and health care characteristics. Six-month cumulative coronavirus incidence and mortality were examined using adjusted negative binomial models among all U.S. counties (n = 3142). County-level independent variables included percentages in poverty and within racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian), and rates of unemployment, lacking a high school diploma, housing cost burden, single parent households, limited English proficiency, diabetes, obesity, smoking, uninsured, preventable hospitalizations, primary care physicians, hospitals, ICU beds and households that were crowded, in multi-unit buildings or without a vehicle.

COVID-19 vaccines for children younger than 12 years: are we ready?

AUTHOR(S)
Xiaohui Zou; Bin Cao

Published: June 2021
On May 5, 2021, Canada became the first country in the world to approve COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use in children aged 12–15 years; later the same month, the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency also gave the green light to the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents. Children younger than 12 years are the next population who need a safe and efficient COVID-19 vaccine. In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Bihua Han and colleagues reported the results of a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial, which showed that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (CoronaVac) had good safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity in youths aged 3–17 years. This promising result should inspire the ongoing trial of other COVID-19 vaccines in children younger than 12 years.
The gendered path for girls in rural communities: the impact of COVID-19 on youth presenting at juvenile detention facilities

AUTHOR(S)
April N. Terry; Ashley Lockwood; Morgan Steele (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Crime & Delinquency
Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, girls and women represented one of the fastest growing populations within the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Since the spread of COVID-19, suggestions were provided to juvenile justice bodies, encouraging a reduction of youth arrests, detainments, and quicker court processing. Yet, the research comparing peri-COVID-19 changes for girls and boys is lacking, with an oversight to gender trends and rural and urban differences. This study used Juvenile Intake and Assessment Center (JIAC) data from a rural Midwestern state to look at rural and urban location trends for both boys and girls. Results suggest rural communities are responding differently to girls’ behaviors, revealing a slower decline in intakes compared to boys and youth in urban areas.
Telehealth delivery of a behavioral parent training program to Spanish-speaking Latinx parents of young children with developmental delay: applying an implementation framework approach

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Lee McIntyre; Cameron L. Neece; Catherine M. Sanner (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: School Psychology Review
Families play an important role in supporting children’s learning and behavioral health. School psychologists are ideally situated to promote family–school partnerships, home–school collaboration, and enhance positive parenting practices on behalf of students. When American schools closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, many families experienced increased stress and caregiving burden associated with supporting their children at home. A behavioral parent training program via telehealth was delivered to 42 Spanish-speaking Latinx parents of preschool children with developmental delay (DD) and elevated behavior problems during the pandemic. An implementation framework was used to examine acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, and implementation cost of the telehealth approach for this sample.
Structural racism and risk of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Rachel Pope; Prakash Ganesh; Jill Miracle (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Structural racism leads to adverse health outcomes, as highlighted by inequities in COVID-19 infections. We characterized Black/White disparities among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 in Cuyahoga County which has some of the most extreme health disparities in the U.S., such as a rate of Black infant mortality that is three times that of White counterparts. This was a retrospective cohort study using data collected as part of public health surveillance between March 16, 2020 until October 1, 2020. This study aimed to compare Black and Non-Black pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 to understand how the distribution of risk factors may differ by race. Outcomes included age, gestational age at infection, medical co-morbidities, exposure history, socio-economic status, occupation, symptom severity and pregnancy complications.
Shifting to remote learning during COVID-19: differences for early childhood and early childhood special education teachers

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth A. Steed; Nancy Leech

Published: June 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
This study explored similarities and differences in how early childhood education (ECE) teachers (n = 947) and early childhood special education (ECSE) teachers (n = 160) provided remote learning to young children and their families following COVID-19 shelter in place orders in the spring of 2020. The most utilized remote learning activities for both ECE and ECSE teachers were the provision of activities for families to use at home, communication with families, online lessons, and singing songs and reading books. Both types of professionals spent more time planning and communicating with families than providing instruction to children.
Rethinking home-school partnerships: lessons learned from latinx parents of young children during the COVID-19 era

AUTHOR(S)
Lucinda Soltero-González; Cristina Gillanders

Published: June 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted families from low-income backgrounds. The shift to remote learning has required parents with preschool-age children to adapt to new ways of collaborating with teachers. Given the longstanding inequities in the education of children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, exacerbated by the pandemic, it is critical to learn about the challenges that parents encountered and how they supported their children’s learning. This knowledge will help to identify ways to better serve these communities during times of crisis and beyond. This study examined how Latinx parents from low-income backgrounds engaged in their children’s early education during the COVID-19 crisis. The term Latinx is used in an effort to be gender inclusive when referring to people of Latin American descent.

Predictors of medical mistrust among urban youth of color during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Marcia J. Ash; Jannette Berkley-Patton; Kelsey Christensen (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Translational Behavioral Medicine
The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted communities of color and highlighted longstanding racial health inequities. Communities of color also report higher rates of medical mistrust driven by histories of medical mistreatment and continued experiences of discrimination and systemic racism. Medical mistrust may exacerbate COVID-19 disparities. This study utilizes the Behavior Model for Vulnerable Populations to investigate predictors of medical mistrust during the COVID-19 pandemic among urban youth of color. Minority youth (N = 105) were recruited from community organizations in Kansas City, Missouri to complete an online survey between May and June 2020. Multiple linear regressions were performed to estimate the effect of personal characteristics, family and community resources, and COVID-19 need-based factors on medical mistrust.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.