search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   648     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 648
Associations between parenting stress, parent feeding practices, and perceptions of child eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic

Lupita Maria González; Amy Lammert; Suzanne Phelan (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Appetite
The aim of this study was to explore associations between parenting stress, feeding practices, and perceptions of children's eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents (n = 284) of children ages 4–6 years completed a cross-sectional online survey during the onset of pandemic-related stay-at-home mandates in the U.S. Parents reported current levels of parenting stress, feeding practices, and child eating behaviors. Parents also reported whether parenting stress had increased, stayed the same, or decreased since prior to the onset of pandemic-related stay-at-home mandates.
Parent–teacher interactions during COVID-19: experiences of U.S. teachers of students with severe disabilities

Grace L. Francis; Alexandra R. Raines; Alexandra S. Reed (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Education Sciences
In 2020, COVID-19 disrupted all aspects of society across the globe including healthcare, employment, social interactions, and education. In many parts of the world, abrupt school closures caught teachers off guard, as they were forced to immediately shift their practices from in-person to online instruction with little-to-no preparation. Furthermore, during this time, many parents of school-aged children vacillated between multiple roles associated with their employment, household caregiving activities, and supporting their children at home. These challenges were especially challenging for teachers and parents of students with severe disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of U.S. teachers of students with severe disabilities regarding interacting with parents during the COVID-19 pandemic, including when schools initially closed in March 2020 and then reopened in September of 2020. This manuscript outlines six key themes highlighting parent–teacher interactions: (a) parents directing school decisions, (b) teacher inability to meet parent expectations, (c) parent–teacher communication, (d) parents as teachers, (e) parent exhaustion, and (f) teacher helplessness.
Gender disparities in increased parenting time during the COVID-19 pandemic: a research note

Jennifer March Augustine; Kate Prickett

Published: July 2022   Journal: Demography
Public health measures aimed at curbing the transmission of COVID-19 increased parenting responsibilities during the early stages of the pandemic. This research note examines time-use data from the American Time Use Surveys to provide several fresh insights as to how mothers took on a disproportionate share of this responsibility compared to fathers during this period. First, the gender gap in total parenting time narrowed by 18%. Meanwhile, the gender disparity in time in educational activities increased by 113% and was not explained by changes in mothers’ labor force participation. Mothers also took on 20% more time in secondary caregiving compared to fathers. Estimates among working parents indicated that the amount of time in which mothers coupled paid work with caregiving increased by 346% compared to fathers. These results highlight how fathers marginally increased their caregiving responsibilities compared to mothers, but not in activities that parents tend to rate as more stressful or intensive, such as supervising children's schooling and multitasking at work. The estimates provide clear evidence of the unequal caregiving burden placed on mothers during the pandemic.
Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on stress and access to services for licensed and kinship caregivers and youth in foster care

Sarah J. Beal; Katie Nause; Mary V. Greiner

Published: July 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal
Children in foster care in the United States face unique challenges related to access to health and education services. With the COVID-19 pandemic, many of those services were temporarily disrupted, adding burden to an already strained system. This observational study describes the experiences of licensed and kinship caregivers (N = 186) during the peak of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders and as restrictions to services were lifted, to understand the overall impact of COVID-19 on this already vulnerable population. Purposive sampling methods were used, where caregivers known to have received placement of children prior to, during, and following COVID-19 stay-at-home orders were identified and recruited to complete a 45-minute phone-administered survey assessing stress, risks for contracting COVID-19, strain resulting from COVID-19, and access to services for children in foster care in their care across five domains: healthcare, mental health, education, child welfare, and family visitation. Differences by caregiver type (licensed, kinship) and timing in the pandemic were examined.
Working and caring for a disabled adopted child during a pandemic

Claudia Sellmaier; JaeRan Kim

Published: July 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
Integrating work and family demands can be challenging for families caring for a child with one or more disabilities. The pandemic and its changes to work, schooling and service delivery potentially added to these challenges. This exploratory mixed methods study sought to understand how the pandemic affected adoptive parents' work–life fit and service use. A total of 200 participants responded to survey questions about parenting an adopted child with a disability prior to, and after, the onset of Covid-19. More than half of the parents (59.2%) reported that it was somewhat to very difficult to integrate both work and family demands. Parents with greater access to workplace flexibility and supportive supervisors had significantly less difficulties combining work and family. Families who reported more problems with accessing mental health services, special education and respite care reported significantly more challenges with work–family fit. Parents reported increased stress due to the pandemic changes, but many also shared positive changes such as more time for family. Online services were experienced as effective for some children and reduced time spent driving to appointments. Recommendations for workplace and social service practice and policy supporting adoptive parents of children with disabilities are discussed.
"Wearing a mask won't protect us from our history": the impact of COVID‐19 on black children and families

Erin Bogan; Valerie N. Adams-Bass; Lori A. Francis (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Social Policy Report
The data on COVID-19 show an irrefutable and disturbing pattern: Black Americans are contracting and dying from COVID-19 at rates that far exceed other racial and ethnic groups. Due to historical and current iterations of racism, Black Americans have been forced into conditions that elevate their risk for COVID-19 and consequently place Black children at the epicenter of loss across multiple domains of life. The current paper highlights the impact of the pandemic on Black children at the individual, family, and school levels. Based on an understanding of the influence of structural racism on COVID-19 disparities, policy recommendations are provided that focus on equitable access to quality education, home ownership, and employment to fully address the needs of Black children and families during and after the pandemic. Research, practice, and policy recommendations are made to journal editors, funding agencies, grant review panels, and researchers regarding how research on COVID-19 should be framed to inform intervention efforts aimed at improving the situation of Black children and families.
Effectiveness of the PlayStrong Neuro-Filial Parenting Program: a program evaluation of an online pilot during COVID-19

Georgie Wisen-Vincent; Rebecca Bokoch

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Play Therapy
This study piloted an online play-based parenting program informed by filial therapy, child–parent relationship therapy, and interpersonal neurobiology during COVID-19. The purpose of this program evaluation was to explore its potential effectiveness in improving child behaviors, mindful parenting, parent–child relationship quality, and protective factors. This study used a mixed method design to gather quantitative data from standardized measures and qualitative data from surveys. Parents of children 4–10 years old (N = 11) participated in 6 weekly 1.5-hr sessions which included teaching a new skill, asking questions, offering support, and sharing video or descriptions about using play-based parenting skills at home.
Mothers with justice‐involved sons: Socioeconomic impacts of COVID‐19 by neighborhood disorder in the United States

Alyssa LaBerge; Amanda Isabel Osuna; Caitlin Cavanagh (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Social Issues
Women, particularly mothers, have faced disparate socioeconomic consequences throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Research has yet to examine whether the consequences of the pandemic vary based on the level of neighborhood disorder, which is associated with various health conditions, including COVID-19 complications. The present study utilizes data from a diverse sample of 221 women with justice-involved sons interviewed during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Negative binominal and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived neighborhood social disorder is related to socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the relation varies for mothers with and without children in their home during the pandemic.
Caregiver perspective on the impact of COVID-19 on the psychosocial and behavioral health of children with ASD in the United States: a questionnaire-based survey

Dominique Schwartz; Prageet K. Sachdev; Laura Hewitson (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: COVID
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were particularly vulnerable to disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study we conducted an anonymous caregiver survey to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychosocial and behavioral health of children with ASD. Data from 700 responses identified several significant factors predicting greater difficulties for the child including pre-existing behavioral challenges (OR = 5.179; 95% CI: 2.696, 9.951), disrupted sleep (OR = 2.618; 95% CI 1.341, 5.112), and a diagnosis of depression (OR = 3.425; 95% CI: 1.1621, 4.116). Greater difficulties for caregivers in managing their child’s behaviors were associated with sleep disturbances (OR = 1.926; 95% CI: 1.170, 3.170), self-injurious behavior (OR = 3.587; 95% CI: 1.767, 7.281), and managing the child’s school activities (OR = 3.107; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.257) and free time (OR = 3.758; 95% CI: 2.217, 6.369). However, being under the care of a neuropsychiatrist was associated with less difficulty in managing the child’s behaviors (OR = 2.516; 95% CI: −1.046, −5.382). Finally, the presence of comorbidities (OR = 2.599; 95% CI: 1.053, 4.067) and a greater difficulty in managing the child’s school activities (OR = 2.531; 95% CI: 1.655, 3.868) and free time (OR = 1.651; 95% CI: 1.101, 2.478) were associated with an increased likelihood of caregiver desire for their child to return to in-person school in the fall. The COVID-19 pandemic had a wide-ranging impact on the behaviors of children with ASD and challenges for their caregivers.
A synergistic mindsets intervention protects adolescents from stress

David S. Yeager; Christopher J. Bryan; James J. Gross (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Nature
Social-evaluative stressors—experiences in which people feel they could be judged negatively—pose a major threat to adolescent mental health1,2,3 and can cause young people to disengage from stressful pursuits, resulting in missed opportunities to acquire valuable skills. Here we show that replicable benefits for the stress responses of adolescents can be achieved with a short (around 30-min), scalable 'synergistic mindsets' intervention. This intervention, which is a self-administered online training module, synergistically targets both growth mindsets4 (the idea that intelligence can be developed) and stress-can-be-enhancing mindsets5 (the idea that one’s physiological stress response can fuel optimal performance). In six double-blind, randomized, controlled experiments that were conducted with secondary and post-secondary students in the United States, the synergistic mindsets intervention improved stress-related cognitions (study 1, n = 2,717; study 2, n = 755), cardiovascular reactivity (study 3, n = 160; study 4, n = 200), daily cortisol levels (study 5, n = 118 students, n = 1,213 observations), psychological well-being (studies 4 and 5), academic success (study 5) and anxiety symptoms during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdowns (study 6, n = 341).
Understanding changes in adolescent physical activity behaviors and cognitions prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Dusan Kovacevic; Steven R. Bray; Denver M. Y. Brown (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Despite accumulating evidence that has found significant negative declines in physical activity (PA) as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, little work has sought to understand how PA cognitions have changed during this period and in relation to behavior change during the pandemic. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the changes in adolescents' PA behaviors and cognitions associated with COVID-19 and prospective predictors of PA using the Multi-Process Action Control (M-PAC) framework. Adolescents were recruited from a large school board and a total of 588 participants (Mage = 15.87 ± 0.43 years, 60% female) completed data collection in both Fall 2019 and 2020—prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed self-reported measures of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), participation in organized activities, and variables derived from the M-PAC framework. Mixed effects models were computed to examine longitudinal changes in MVPA and cognitions as well as whether cognitions prior to COVID-19 predict MVPA during COVID-19. A generalized estimating equations model was computed to examine longitudinal changes for participation in organized activities. Findings indicated that MVPA (B = −56.41, p < 0.01) and participation in organized activities (OR = 0.33, p < 0.01) significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in diverse communities: a national survey

Annabelle de St Maurice; Ray Block; Gabriel Sanchez (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Academic Pediatrics
This study surveyed a diverse group of US participants to understand parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. It administered a telephone and online survey from May 7-June 7, 2021 using stratified sampling to ensure robust sample sizes of racial and ethnic minorities. Of the 20,280 contacted, 12,288 respondents completed the survey (response rate 61%). It used chi-square tests and adjusted risk ratios to compare results by racial/ethnic group.
Parent satisfaction with the parent-provider partnership and therapy service delivery for children with disabilities during COVID-19: associations with sociodemographic variables

Ashley N. Murphy; Ellie Bruckner; Linzy M. Pinkerton (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Families, Systems, & Health
 The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) significantly disrupted therapy service delivery for children with disabilities and their families. Parents of children with disabilities have been particularly impacted as a large degree of responsibility has been placed on them to both manage and deliver therapies remotely. However, little is known regarding whether sociodemographic factors are associated with parents’ perceptions of therapy service delivery during COVID-19. This study explored the relationship between sociodemographic factors and parents’ satisfaction with therapies for children with disabilities during COVID-19. Two hundred seven parents of children with disabilities completed an online survey battery that included the Family-Provider Partnership Scale and sociodemographic characteristics and assessed their satisfaction with their child[ren]’s therapies during COVID-19.
Mental health care use among adolescent sexual minority males before and during COVID-19

N. S. Perry; K. M. Nelson

Published: June 2022   Journal: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Adolescent (cisgender) sexual minority males (ASMM) face multiple mental health disparities. Yet surprisingly little is known about use of mental health care among ASMM. The current study examined mental health care use among ASMM, both lifetime use and during the COVID-19 pandemic. ASMM (N = 154, ages 14–17 years) enrolled in Spring 2020 for a pilot randomized controlled trial of an online sexual health intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3-month follow-up.
Group well-child care model for Latino children in immigrant families: adapting to and learning from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) context

Nomi S. Weiss-Laxer; Amelia J. Brandt; Jennifer Acosta (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Families, Systems, & Health
Group well-child care (GWCC) is an alternative to traditional pediatric well-child care designed to increase parental social support and peer learning. This mixed methods study explored the adaptation and implementation of GWCC to a virtual format during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 pandemic) among Spanish-speaking Latino immigrant families. Interviews were conducted with eight providers and 10 mothers from May through September 2020. Qualitative analyses used a priori codes based on an implementation science framework. Quantitative data included demographics, the COVID-19 Impact Scale, and virtual group attendance. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of virtual visit attendance.
1 - 15 of 648

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.