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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 611
Delays in children's preventive health services during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Kimberley H. Nguyen; Kimchi Nguyen; Devika Lekshmi (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Family Medicine

Stay-at-home orders, social isolation recommendations, and fear of COVID-19 exposure have led to delays in children’s preventive health services during the pandemic. Delays can lead to missed opportunities for early screening and detection of health problems, and increased risks for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Understanding prevalence of and reasons for missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services is important for developing strategies to achieve rapid catch-up of essential health services. Using the Household Pulse Survey (n=37,064), a large, nationally-representative household survey fielded from April 14 to May 10, 2021, we examined prevalence of households with children who have missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services, and factors associated with and reasons contributing to missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services.

Creative adolescent experiences of education and mental health during COVID‐19: a qualitative study

Lauren M. Zaeske; Taylor P. Harris; Amanda Williams (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
This qualitative study investigated creative adolescent perceptions of their educational and mental health experiences during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Participants were 25 English-speaking adolescents from the Midwest in the United States. They were identified as creative by their teachers according to known creative profiles. Participants attended an all-day creative career workshop in the Spring 2021 semester. The five focus groups guided by semi-structured interviews conducted for this study occurred during the workshop. This study was phenomenological in nature with constructivist and transformative paradigms, and transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis by the first, second, and third authors.
Behavioral, affective, and cognitive parenting mechanisms of child internalizing and externalizing problems during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Francesca Penner; Yasmin Elzaki; Haglaeeh T. Contreras (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased mental health concerns, including depression and anxiety among parents and internalizing and externalizing problems among youth. To better understand the mechanisms and moderators of child mental health during the pandemic, the current study tested two moderated mediation models in which parent depression and anxiety indirectly impacted child internalizing and externalizing problems through negative effects on multiple parenting variables, with these associations moderated by families’ exposure to COVID-19-stressors. A national sample representative of U.S. parents (N = 796, 48.2% female, Mage = 38.87 years, 60.3% Non-Hispanic white, 18.1% Hispanic/Latinx, 13.2% Non-Hispanic Black/African-American, 5.7% Asian, 2.8% Other Race) completed a cross-sectional online survey in February-April 2021.
Changes in physical activity and sedentary time among children with asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic and influencing factors.

Sandra Lee; Ai Zhang; Lei Liu (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Asthma

Regular physical activity is essential for asthma control in children, but it remains understudied within the context of COVID-19. Physical activity and sedentary time levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among children with asthma were documented and differences by characteristics were explored. This was a cross-sectional self-administered online survey study of 5- to 17-year-old children with asthma from the United States between December 2020 and April 2021.

Adverse events and safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents: safety monitoring for adverse events using real-world data

Chae Won Lee; Soonok Sa; Myunghee Hong (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
A COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) has recently been authorized for adolescents in the US. However, the impact of adverse events on adolescents after vaccination has not been fully investigated. To assess the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine in adolescents, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in adolescents and adults was compared after vaccination. This study included 6304 adolescents (68.14 per 100,000 people) who reported adverse events using vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) data from 10 May 2021 to 30 September 2021. The mean age was 13.6 ± 1.1 years and women (52.7%) outnumbered men.
An exploratory study of the impact of COVID‐19 on foster parenting

Ryan Hanlon; JaeRan Kim; Cossette Woo (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
As the COVID-19 virus began to spread in the United States of America, states' child welfare administrators and policymakers responded differently. Some states implemented more restrictive policies, some less or did not require many restrictions (i.e., stay at home orders or masking in public spaces). Video-based online focus groups with foster parents in four states utilized a consensual qualitative approach to identify themes relating to foster parenting during COVID-19 and understand how policies related to COVID-19 restrictions affected their caregiving decisions. Themes that emerged included pathways to foster parenting pre-pandemic, the impact of COVID-19 on both foster parents, children in care, and foster parents' ability to understand the broader importance of their caregiving. While participants in all of the states reported similar experiences relating to the need for resources and support and the challenge of managing both work and remote education for their children, those in states with restrictive policies were more likely to report pandemic-specific concerns including a lack of agency communication or case progress, the mental health toll on foster children in their care and their concerns about accepting new placements. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Transmission risk of COVID-19 in high school and college water polo

Raymond J. Kreienkamp; Christopher J. Kreienkamp; Cindy Terrill (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Concerns that athletes may be at a higher risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission has led to reduced participation in sports during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess COVID-19 incidence and transmission during the spring 2021 high school and college water polo seasons across the United States. This prospective observational study enrolled 1825 water polo athletes from 54 high schools and 36 colleges. Surveys were sent to coaches throughout the season, and survey data were collected and analyzed.

Minding mental health: clinicians' engagement with youth suicide prevention

Katherine Klee; John P. Bartkowski

Published: May 2022   Journal: Social Sciences
Suicidal ideation and deaths among children and adolescents have seen an unprecedented rise over the last ten years, recently further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores mental health professionals’ approaches to delivering suicide prevention treatment services. Using insights from Giddens’ structuration theory, the study examines licensed mental health professionals’ (1) reflections on suicide prevention trainings for those in their profession, (2) appraisals of available treatment options, and (3) assessments of postvention services provided to professionals who encounter a client suicide. Additional attention was given to the structural impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on intervention services. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with youth mental health clinicians in the state of Texas.
Family thriving during COVID-19 and the benefits for children's well-being

Lindsey C. Partington; Meital Mashash; Paul D. Hastings (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Although the COVID-19 pandemic has raised deserved concern regarding adverse impacts on parents’ and children’s mental health, regulations like “sheltering-in-place” may have afforded parents novel opportunities to foster positive family connections, thereby bolstering well-being. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), this study (a) distinguished family thriving during shelter-in-place (May-June 2020) from other patterns of family functioning, (b) tested potential predictors of family functioning profiles, and (c) examined if family thriving predicted subsequent child adjustment (September–October 2020). 449 parents in two-parent U.S. families with children aged 2–18 years completed online surveys assessing (a) parent–child relationship quality, parents’ positive psychological adjustment, children’s emotional well-being, and parenting efficacy and satisfaction as family functioning indicators, (b) financial, marital, parental psychosocial assets, and child (age, gender, and temperament) predictors of family functioning, and (c) child adjustment. LPA identified four family functioning profiles: Thriving, Managing, Struggling, and Distressed.
The public library's role in youth learning: remediation and acceleration during COVID

Elizabeth McChesney

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Library Administration
This article summarizes key research findings about academic learning loss during the COVID-19 pandemic and how public libraries can help youth with learning remediation and acceleration. Given the educational crisis, it is urgent that public library services and programs create more equitable practices for all children, particularly children of color. Finally, the article highlights specific practices instituted by several library systems that address COVID-related learning loss and are aligned to two areas of national priority: summer learning and out-of-school time.
Environmental and social determinants of leisure-time physical activity in children with autism spectrum disorder

Jihyun Lee; Sean Healy; Justin A. Haegele (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Disability and Health Journal

It is increasingly recognized that children's physical activity behaviors are shaped by neighborhood environment factors and their parent's support. However, these factors have been scarcely studied among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a population at risk of inactivity. This cross-sectional survey study was designed to examine how neighborhood environmental factors and parental support are related to physical activity levels of children with ASD. Also, this study examined if the relationship between the environment and physical activity is modified by demographic factors and COVID-19 related concerns.

Fear of illness & virus evaluation (FIVE) COVID-19 scales for children-parent/caregiver-report development and validation

Estefany Sáez-Clarke; Jonathan S. Comer; Angela Evans (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Anxiety Disorders

Commonly-used youth anxiety measures may not comprehensively capture fears, worries, and experiences related to the pervasive impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study described the development of the Fear of Illness and Virus Evaluation (FIVE) scales and validated the caregiver-report version. After initial development, feedback was obtained from clinicians and researchers, who provided suggestions on item content/wording, reviewed edits, and provided support for the updated FIVE’s content and face validity. Factor structure, measurement invariance, and psychometric properties were analyzed using data from a multi-site, longitudinal study of COVID-19-related effects on family functioning with 1599 caregivers from the United States and Canada.

Maternal attitudes and intentions about the COVID-19 vaccine for children 5 to 11 years

Christine A. Limbers; Rachel Thompson

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care

The current study assessed maternal attitudes and intention about the COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5 to 11 years since the onset of the Delta variant and examined if the Delta variant changed maternal perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19 precautions for children. Participants were 821 mothers (mean age = 40.11 years; 84.3% White) from the United States who had at least one child ages 5 to 11 years old. They were recruited online and completed questionnaires on Qualtrics about their youngest child ages 5 to 11 years. The majority of mothers (n = 595; 72.6%) reported they were very likely to have their child vaccinated for COVID-19 once a vaccine is available for children. After controlling for maternal and child factors, maternal trust in the COVID-19 vaccine development and approval process (Odds Ratios = 35.07; p <0.001), trust in the child’s physician (Odds Ratios = 1.65; p <0.01), and trust in the local public health department (Odds Ratios = 1.87; p <0.05) were associated with maternal likelihood of having one’s child vaccinated for COVID-19.

Parenting a child with a chronic illness during a pandemic

Cara Gallegos; Michael D. Aldridge; Kelley Connor (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Nearly 20% of children in the United States experience one or more chronic health conditions. Parents of a child with a special healthcare need (CSHCN) experience increased stress caring for a child with chronic illness. The purpose of this descriptive study is to describe stress in parents of a child with chronic illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents of CSHCN (n = 34) were asked to fill out the Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP) and answer two questions related to caring for their child during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Associations of mothers’ and fathers’ structure-related food parenting practices and child food approach eating behaviors during the COVID pandemic

Elena Jansen; Kimberly Smith; Gita Thapaliya (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Physiology & behavior

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many mothers and fathers have spent more time at home with their children, warranting consideration of parenting practices around food during the pandemic as influences on obesogenic eating behaviors among children. Structure-related feeding practices, particularly around snacking, may be particularly challenging yet influential in the pandemic setting. Parent sex and levels of feeding-related co-operation among parents (co-feeding) are understudied potential influences on parent-child feeding relationships. This study investigated relationships between structure-related parent feeding and child food approach behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, while considering potential moderating influences of parent sex and co-feeding levels. An online survey was completed by 318 parents (206 mothers and 112 fathers) of 2-12-year-olds who were living in states with statewide or regional lockdowns in May/June 2020 within the US.

16 - 30 of 611

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.