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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 611
COVID-19 mental health impacts among parents of color and parents of children with asthma

Ashley H. Clawson; Ashley B. Cole; Cara N. Nwankwo (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
This study investigated whether select social determinants of health and worries about COVID-19 resource losses mediated the relations between four parent groups: [1) non-Hispanic White (NHW) parents of children with asthma; 2) Black, Indigenous, or other Persons of Color (BIPOC) parents of healthy children; 3) BIPOC parents of children with asthma; and 4) NHW parents of healthy children (referent)] and parent anxiety and depression symptoms during COVID-19. Parents (N = 321) completed online questionnaires about discrimination, anxiety, depression, and COVID-19 impacts on employment/income and access to food and health care. Mediation analyses were conducting using nonparametric bootstrapping procedures.
The COVID-19 pandemic: health impact on unaccompanied migrant children.

Jennifer L Siegel

Published: May 2022   Journal: Social Work
From the point of apprehension by U.S. Customs and Border Protection at the U.S.–Mexican border to their reunification with sponsors in U.S. communities, unaccompanied children (UC) face political, social, and economic conditions, heightening their risk for mental and physical health burdens that may be exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such risk underscores the importance of social work practice and advocacy for the improved treatment and experiences of UC. This article uses a structural vulnerability conceptual lens to summarize the existing literature regarding UC and argues that UC’s liminal immigration status, economic precarity, and lack of healthcare access place this group at high structural vulnerability during the pandemic. Further, this article identifies and describes three contexts of structural vulnerability of UC that are important points of social work intervention: (1) at the border, where migrant children are denied their legal right to seek protection; (2) in detention and shelter facilities; and (3) during reunification with sponsors. This article concludes with important practice and policy opportunities for social workers to pursue to obtain social justice for an important and highly vulnerable migrant child population.
Parent/guardian intentions to vaccinate children against COVID-19 in the United States

Don E. Willis; Mario Schootman; Sumit K. Shah (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vaccination is critical for protecting adults and children from COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. Analyzing subsamples of parent/guardians of children age 0–11 (n = 343) and 12–17 (n = 322) from a larger national survey of US adults (n = 2,022), this study aimed to assess intentions to vaccinate children and how intentions might vary across parent/guardian sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare coverage, vaccination status, political affiliation, prior COVID-19 infection, exposure to COVID-19 death(s) of family or friends, perceived norms of vaccination, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. It also reported the prevalence of vaccinated children for parents whose oldest child was eligible for vaccination at the time of the survey.
COVID-19 and youth violence: views from the frontline

Carole Gibbs; Alaina De Biasi; Jennifer E. Cobbina-Dungy (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Crime and Justice
Violent crime tends to be concentrated in economically disadvantaged, racially minoritized communities, particularly among youth. Emerging research suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic may have exacerbated the drivers of violence in these communities but provides limited insight into its effects in a single locale, especially small to mid-size cities, and on those on the frontlines of youth violence (i.e., youth service workers). The current study provides an in-depth, qualitative examination of these dynamics in vulnerable neighborhoods in Lansing, Michigan, centering the voices of those instrumental to violence prevention and community resilience. Specifically, it explores youth service providers’ perceptions of how COVID-19 changed youth violence and impacted families, communities, and organizations working to prevent and control youth violence. It uses the socioecological model adopted by the public health field to explain and prevent violence to guide our work, as this framework recognizes the interlocking and interactive effects of systemic, community, and relational experiences on youth behavior.
Navigating the “Dual pandemics”: the cumulative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and rise in awareness of racial injustices among high school students of color in urban schools

Christine Jean Yeh; Samantha Stanley; Crystal A. Ramirez

Published: May 2022   Journal: Urban Education
We explored the psychological and educational impact of distance learning during the COVID-19 and racial injustice pandemics. The sample included 19 urban high school students of Color from the San Francisco Bay Area. Interview data were analyzed using Reflexive Thematic Analysis revealing seven themes: (1) challenges learning from home; (2) shifts that impact students’ experience with school; (3) emotions emerging from the COVID-19 pandemic; (4) increased awareness and engagement related to racial injustices; (5) emotional reactions to the rise in awareness to racial injustices; (6) shifts in identity due to social isolation; and (7) coping strategies and support needed.
Assessing psychological impact of COVID-19 among parents of children returning to K-12 schools: a U.S. based cross-sectional survey

Kavita Batra; Jennifer R. Pharr; Emylia Terry (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Healthcare
While impacts of the pandemic on family well-being have been documented in the literature, little is known about the psychological challenges faced by children and their parents as schools reopen after mandated closures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if sending children back to in-person school impacts the mental health of parents and the perceived mental health of their children. This cross-sectional descriptive study recruited a nationally representative, non-probability sample of parents or guardians (n = 2100) of children attending grades K-12 in the United States (U.S.) through a 58-item web-based survey.
Effect of daily school and care disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic on child behavior problems.

Anna Gassman-Pines; Elizabeth O. Ananat; John Fitz-Henley 2. (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Developmental Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic profoundly affected American families and children, including through the closure or change in the nature of their care and school settings. As the pandemic has persisted, many children remain in remote schooling and those attending in-person childcare or school have contended with unpredictable closures. This study investigated the frequency and consequences of disruptions to children’s childcare and school arrangements during Fall 2020. The sample is parents who were hourly service-sector workers prior to the pandemic, had a young child between the ages of 3 and 8, and were at least partially responsible for their children’s school and/or care in Fall 2020 (N = 676); half of the sample were non-Hispanic Black, 22% were Hispanic, and 18% are non-Hispanic White.
COVID-19 exposure and family impact scales for adolescents and young adults.

Lisa A. Schwartz; Amanda M. Lewis; Melissa A. Alderfer (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

To understand the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on adolescents and young adults (AYAs), this study adapted the COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Scales (CEFIS; Kazak et al., 2021) for AYAs. This is the report on the development, structure, and psychometric properties of the CEFIS-AYA. The CEFIS-AYA was developed by a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional team using a rapid iterative process. Data from 3,912 AYAs from 21 programs at 16 institutions across the United States were collected from May 2020 to April 2021. This study examined the underlying structure of the CEFIS-AYA using principal component analysis (PCA), calculated internal consistencies, and explored differences in scores by gender and age.

The Little Red Hen and a Corona Giant: creative storytelling strategy in an early childhood classroom

Ilfa Zhulamanova; Jill Raisor

Published: April 2022   Journal: Global Journal of Transformative Education
Storytelling is a natural mean of communication between generations and is deeply rooted in culture.  In today’s classrooms, the act of storytelling is often overshadowed by a narrow focus on academics.  However, children can use storytelling as a way to demonstrate depth of their understanding. This study details the use of a creative storytelling strategy implemented in an early childhood classroom which was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic.  The end result is a two-phase study which concluded with pre-kindergarten aged children using storytelling to discuss and display their perceptions of Coronavirus in an academic setting.
Estimated transmission outcomes and costs of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing, screening, and surveillance strategies among a simulated population of primary school students.

Alyssa Bilinski; Andrea Ciaranello; Meagan C. Fitzpatrick (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Costs and benefits of COVID-19 testing strategies were evaluated in the context of full-time, in-person kindergarten through eighth grade (K-8) education at different community incidence levels. An updated version of a previously published agent-based network model was used to simulate transmission in elementary and middle school communities in the United States. Assuming dominance of the delta SARS-CoV-2 variant, the model simulated an elementary school (638 students in grades K-5, 60 staff) and middle school (460 students grades 6-8, 51 staff).

Evaluation of suicides among US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Marie-Laure Charpignon; Johnattan Ontiveros; Saahil Sundaresan (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

In 2021, the American Academy of Pediatrics declared a state of emergency regarding child and adolescent mental health. During the COVID-19 pandemic, US adolescents have been affected by the widespread loss of primary caregivers. Suicide-risk screenings have yielded higher positive rates than during the prepandemic period; thus, this study sought to measure suicide-related mortality in this population.Through partnerships with 14 state departments of public health, data from 2015 through 2020 for 85 102 decedents with suicide as the cause of death have been collected.

Park access and mental health among parents and children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Marnie F. Hazlehurst; Sadiya Muqueeth; Kathleen L. Wolf (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Time spent outdoors and in nature has been associated with numerous benefits to health and well-being. This study examined relationships between park access and mental health for children and parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also explored associations between park access and co-participation of parent and child in time outdoors, and child and parent physical activity. It used data from 1,000 respondents to a nationally representative U.S. survey of parent–child dyads during October–November 2020. Park access was defined as an affirmative response to: “do you have a park that you can safely walk to within 10 min of your home?”

Effects of mindful emotion regulation on parents' loneliness and social support: A longitudinal study during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States

Na Zhang; Beth Russell; Crystal Park (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced unprecedented challenges and demands for parents or caregivers of children who experienced disruptions in social support and feelings of isolation. Mindful emotion regulation may be a resilient factor for parents’ psychosocial outcomes. Mindful emotion regulation refers to individuals’ inherent capacities to regulate emotions mindfully, i.e., through paying attention to one’s experiences in the present moment nonjudgmentally. Based on the theoretical and empirical literature associating mindful emotion regulation with loneliness and perceived social support, the current study tested the effects of mindful emotion regulation on later changes in perceived social support and loneliness in U.S. parents during the pandemic. Participants were 147 parents/caregivers who were living with at least one child or adolescent in their household during the pandemic in the USA. Data were collected from a national online sample at four time points: baseline (April 7–21, 2020), 30-, 60-, and 90-days later.
COVID-19 shines a light on health inequities in communities of color: a youth-driven photovoice inquiry.

Astraea Augsberger; Noor Toraif; Adrienne Young (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Community Psychology
This manuscript reports on a youth-driven health assessment engaging youth of color in identifying community health priorities during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Photovoice, a participatory visual ethnographic health assessment strategy, was used to explore the question: What does health or healthiness mean to you and/or your community? Youth captured images that represented their priorities. The photos were discussed using the SHOWed framework and analyzed thematically. Four themes related to community health were identified. Additionally, youth captured their narrative of COVID-19 as “a revealing force that highlights systemic inequities, driving individuals and communities to both cultivate their resilience and take healthcare into their own hands in response to government and policy level failures.
Association of social determinants of health and vaccinations with child mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in the US.

Yunyu Xiao; Paul Siu-Fai Yip; Jyotishman Pathak (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: JAMA Psychiatry

To what extent are individual and structural social determinants of health (SDoH) and vaccinations associated with child mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic? In this cohort study of 8493 US children, pandemic-related food insecurity, parental unemployment, disrupted mental health treatment, living in neighborhoods with higher shares of adults working full-time, and living in states lagging in vaccination rates were associated with increased trajectories of perceived stress, sadness, and COVID-19–related worry. Associations between SDoH and these mental health outcomes were more common among Asian, Black, and Hispanic children more than White children.

31 - 45 of 611

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.