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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 648
Shifts in self-reported physical activity, sedentary behavior, and play among lower-socioeconomic children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a repeated cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Kylie Wilson; Annette Schmidt; Aaron Hess (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: American Journal of Health Promotion

The lack of in-person schooling and participation in structured recreation activities during the COVID-19 pandemic may have altered children’s movement behaviors. This study assessed changes in children’s self-reported in school and out of school physical activity, sedentary behavior, and play before and during the pandemic. A repeated cross-sectional online survey was administered in February 2020 (pre-pandemic, in-person) and 2021 (during pandemic, remote). Children attended an urban public school district in Phoenix (AZ) serving a low-income population. Students in grades 4–8 completed the survey in 2020 (n = 253, 62% response rate) and 2021 (n = 261, 77% response rate). The survey included items from the Youth Activity Profile and three additional questions about play.

Asian American parents' experiences of stress, discrimination, and mental health during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Cindy Y. Huang; William Tsai

Published: May 2022   Journal: Families, Systems, & Health
COVID-19 has placed Asian Americans (AA) at higher risk for discrimination within the U.S. This exacerbates the mental health distress of AA parents, who are also experiencing COVID-19-related stress (e.g., health, financial, work, childcare). The risk factors associated with mental health outcomes for AA parents are not well understood. This brief report examined the relationships among COVID-19 stress, discrimination, and psychological distress of AA parents during the initial months of the pandemic. Baseline data of an ongoing longitudinal examination into the COVID-19 experiences of AA parents and their families were utilized. Participants were 166 AA parents of children ages 2–19 years. They completed an online survey about their experiences of COVID-19-related stress (i.e., childcare, school, work), discrimination, and psychological distress.
Who is doing the chores and childcare in dual-earner couples during the COVID-19 era of working from home?

AUTHOR(S)
Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia

Published: May 2022
In 2020, parents' work-from-home days increased fourfold following the initial COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period compared to 2015–2019. At the same time, many daycares closed, and the majority of public schools offered virtual or hybrid classrooms, increasing the demand for household-provided childcare. Using time diaries from American Time Use Survey (ATUS) and looking at parents in dual-earner couples, this study examines parents' weekday workday time allocated to paid work, chores, and childcare in the COVID-19 era by the couple's joint work location arrangements. It determines the work location of the ATUS respondent directly from their diary and proxy the partner's work-from-home status using the share of workers reporting work from home in their occupation. When their partners worked on-site, mothers and fathers working from home spent more time on childcare, especially mothers, compared to those on-site; fathers spent more time on household chores. However, only mothers' total unpaid and paid work burden was higher.

Risks and protective factors of Hispanic families and their young children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Natasha Cabrera; Minxuan He; Yu Chen (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children
This study examines the risk-related factors during the pandemic and protective factors that might reduce its effects on family functioning in a sample of 161 low-income Hispanic parents in the United States, recruited from an ongoing longitudinal intervention study. They were surveyed about family functioning six months into the pandemic. The study focused on the associations between social (e.g., exposure to the virus) and economic (e.g., job loss) pandemic-related risks on parental stress, parenting, and children’s socioemotional problems and skills, as well as the degree to which coparenting support, parents’ positivity, economic support, and access to services and information mitigated (protected) the negative effects of these stressors on family functioning.
Implementation evaluation of HUGS/Abrazos during the COVID-19 pandemic: a program to foster resiliency in pregnancy and early childhood

AUTHOR(S)
Meisui Liu; Meg Simione; Meghan E. Perkins (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Early life adversity can significantly impact child development and health outcomes throughout the life course. With the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbating preexisting and introducing new sources of toxic stress, social programs that foster resilience are more necessary now than ever. The Helping Us Grow Stronger (HUGS/Abrazos) program fills a crucial need for protective buffers during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has escalated toxic stressors affecting pregnant women and families with young children. HUGS/Abrazos combines patient navigation, behavioral health support, and innovative tools to ameliorate these heightened toxic stressors. We used a mixed-methods approach, guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, to evaluate the implementation of the HUGS/Abrazos program at Massachusetts General Hospital from 6/30/2020–8/31/2021.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among minoritised youth in Cleveland, Ohio, United States

AUTHOR(S)
Jillian Schulte; Megan Schmidt-Sane; Elizabeth Benninger (et al.)

Published: May 2022
Despite progress in COVID-19 vaccination rates overall in Cleveland, vaccine inequity persists as young people from minoritised communities are often less likely to be vaccinated. Despite being over-represented in COVID-19 case counts and fatalities, Black residents were under-represented in COVID-19 vaccination during the first year and half of the pandemic. In Ohio, while roughly 60% of Cuyahoga County residents are fully vaccinated, just 45% of Cleveland residents are fully vaccinated. Lower-income, majority Black, east side neighbourhoods have markedly lower vaccination rates compared to higher-income, mostly white neighbourhoods. Young people ages 16-40 became eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine on March 29th, 2021, and individuals aged 12 and above were able to get vaccinated from May 2021 onward. However, large disparities exist based age, race, and zip code. This brief illustrates underlying reasons shaping COVID-19 vaccine attitudes among minority (especially Black and Latinx) youth (ages 12-18) and offers key considerations for how young people can be better engaged within Cleveland, Ohio. This brief is based on research, including in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 61 young people across 16 neighbourhoods through a Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) approach in Cleveland to contextualise youth perspectives of COVID-19 vaccination and highlight areas of hesitancy and confidence.
Delays in children's preventive health services during the COVID-19 pandemic.

AUTHOR(S)
Kimberley H. Nguyen; Kimchi Nguyen; Devika Lekshmi (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Family Medicine

Stay-at-home orders, social isolation recommendations, and fear of COVID-19 exposure have led to delays in children’s preventive health services during the pandemic. Delays can lead to missed opportunities for early screening and detection of health problems, and increased risks for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Understanding prevalence of and reasons for missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services is important for developing strategies to achieve rapid catch-up of essential health services. Using the Household Pulse Survey (n=37,064), a large, nationally-representative household survey fielded from April 14 to May 10, 2021, we examined prevalence of households with children who have missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services, and factors associated with and reasons contributing to missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services.

Creative adolescent experiences of education and mental health during COVID‐19: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren M. Zaeske; Taylor P. Harris; Amanda Williams (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
This qualitative study investigated creative adolescent perceptions of their educational and mental health experiences during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Participants were 25 English-speaking adolescents from the Midwest in the United States. They were identified as creative by their teachers according to known creative profiles. Participants attended an all-day creative career workshop in the Spring 2021 semester. The five focus groups guided by semi-structured interviews conducted for this study occurred during the workshop. This study was phenomenological in nature with constructivist and transformative paradigms, and transcripts were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis by the first, second, and third authors.
Behavioral, affective, and cognitive parenting mechanisms of child internalizing and externalizing problems during the COVID-19 pandemic.

AUTHOR(S)
Francesca Penner; Yasmin Elzaki; Haglaeeh T. Contreras (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased mental health concerns, including depression and anxiety among parents and internalizing and externalizing problems among youth. To better understand the mechanisms and moderators of child mental health during the pandemic, the current study tested two moderated mediation models in which parent depression and anxiety indirectly impacted child internalizing and externalizing problems through negative effects on multiple parenting variables, with these associations moderated by families’ exposure to COVID-19-stressors. A national sample representative of U.S. parents (N = 796, 48.2% female, Mage = 38.87 years, 60.3% Non-Hispanic white, 18.1% Hispanic/Latinx, 13.2% Non-Hispanic Black/African-American, 5.7% Asian, 2.8% Other Race) completed a cross-sectional online survey in February-April 2021.
Changes in physical activity and sedentary time among children with asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic and influencing factors.

AUTHOR(S)
Sandra Lee; Ai Zhang; Lei Liu (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Asthma

Regular physical activity is essential for asthma control in children, but it remains understudied within the context of COVID-19. Physical activity and sedentary time levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among children with asthma were documented and differences by characteristics were explored. This was a cross-sectional self-administered online survey study of 5- to 17-year-old children with asthma from the United States between December 2020 and April 2021.

Adverse events and safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents: safety monitoring for adverse events using real-world data

AUTHOR(S)
Chae Won Lee; Soonok Sa; Myunghee Hong (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
A COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) has recently been authorized for adolescents in the US. However, the impact of adverse events on adolescents after vaccination has not been fully investigated. To assess the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine in adolescents, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in adolescents and adults was compared after vaccination. This study included 6304 adolescents (68.14 per 100,000 people) who reported adverse events using vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) data from 10 May 2021 to 30 September 2021. The mean age was 13.6 ± 1.1 years and women (52.7%) outnumbered men.
An exploratory study of the impact of COVID‐19 on foster parenting

AUTHOR(S)
Ryan Hanlon; JaeRan Kim; Cossette Woo (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
As the COVID-19 virus began to spread in the United States of America, states' child welfare administrators and policymakers responded differently. Some states implemented more restrictive policies, some less or did not require many restrictions (i.e., stay at home orders or masking in public spaces). Video-based online focus groups with foster parents in four states utilized a consensual qualitative approach to identify themes relating to foster parenting during COVID-19 and understand how policies related to COVID-19 restrictions affected their caregiving decisions. Themes that emerged included pathways to foster parenting pre-pandemic, the impact of COVID-19 on both foster parents, children in care, and foster parents' ability to understand the broader importance of their caregiving. While participants in all of the states reported similar experiences relating to the need for resources and support and the challenge of managing both work and remote education for their children, those in states with restrictive policies were more likely to report pandemic-specific concerns including a lack of agency communication or case progress, the mental health toll on foster children in their care and their concerns about accepting new placements. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Transmission risk of COVID-19 in high school and college water polo

AUTHOR(S)
Raymond J. Kreienkamp; Christopher J. Kreienkamp; Cindy Terrill (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Concerns that athletes may be at a higher risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission has led to reduced participation in sports during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess COVID-19 incidence and transmission during the spring 2021 high school and college water polo seasons across the United States. This prospective observational study enrolled 1825 water polo athletes from 54 high schools and 36 colleges. Surveys were sent to coaches throughout the season, and survey data were collected and analyzed.

Minding mental health: clinicians' engagement with youth suicide prevention

AUTHOR(S)
Katherine Klee; John P. Bartkowski

Published: May 2022   Journal: Social Sciences
Suicidal ideation and deaths among children and adolescents have seen an unprecedented rise over the last ten years, recently further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores mental health professionals’ approaches to delivering suicide prevention treatment services. Using insights from Giddens’ structuration theory, the study examines licensed mental health professionals’ (1) reflections on suicide prevention trainings for those in their profession, (2) appraisals of available treatment options, and (3) assessments of postvention services provided to professionals who encounter a client suicide. Additional attention was given to the structural impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on intervention services. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with youth mental health clinicians in the state of Texas.
Family thriving during COVID-19 and the benefits for children's well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Lindsey C. Partington; Meital Mashash; Paul D. Hastings (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Although the COVID-19 pandemic has raised deserved concern regarding adverse impacts on parents’ and children’s mental health, regulations like “sheltering-in-place” may have afforded parents novel opportunities to foster positive family connections, thereby bolstering well-being. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), this study (a) distinguished family thriving during shelter-in-place (May-June 2020) from other patterns of family functioning, (b) tested potential predictors of family functioning profiles, and (c) examined if family thriving predicted subsequent child adjustment (September–October 2020). 449 parents in two-parent U.S. families with children aged 2–18 years completed online surveys assessing (a) parent–child relationship quality, parents’ positive psychological adjustment, children’s emotional well-being, and parenting efficacy and satisfaction as family functioning indicators, (b) financial, marital, parental psychosocial assets, and child (age, gender, and temperament) predictors of family functioning, and (c) child adjustment. LPA identified four family functioning profiles: Thriving, Managing, Struggling, and Distressed.
46 - 60 of 648

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.