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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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601 - 615 of 648
The pandemic paused the US school-to-prison pipeline: potential lessons learned

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Y. Vinson; Randee J. Waldman

Published: September 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
A global pandemic caused society to radically and quickly reconfigure. Schools, wary of the health risks of in-person instruction, shifted to virtual learning. Although not ideal in many respects, this shift placed adolescents in the USA out of the reach of harsh school disciplinary procedures (ie, zero tolerance policies, out-of-school suspensions, expulsions, and law enforcement referrals), contributing to a drastic reduction in juvenile court referrals nationally. The school-to-prison pipeline paused. Characterised by school disciplinary approaches placing adolescents on a trajectory to juvenile and then adult criminal legal systems, this pipeline is most pronounced for Black and Latinx students, students with disabilities, and in schools serving impoverished communities. Although this survey focuses mainly on the USA, this topic has relevance in other societies with public education, substantial income inequality, and racial inequities in their justice systems.
Technology for educational purposes among low-income latino children living in a mobile park in Silicon Valley: a case study before and during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Claire Ji Hee Kim; Amado M. Padilla

Published: September 2020   Journal: Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences
This case study explores the role of technology in education among low-income Latino residents living in a mobile park in Silicon Valley. Through surveys and in-person interviews with parents and children, qualitative data on home Internet access and availability of technological devices utilized for school-related purposes are reported. The results of this study indicate that despite having a baseline level of access to technology as well as an understanding of its importance in the context of a child’s education, our study population currently faces significant barriers to having adequate access to technology at home due to socioeconomic barriers.
Addressing food insecurity through a health equity lens: a case study of large urban school districts during the COVID-19 pandemics
Institution: The Lancet
Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Urban Health
Reduced access to school meals during public health emergencies can accelerate food insecurity and nutritional status, particularly for low-income children in urban areas. To prevent the exacerbation of health disparities, there is a need to understand the implementation of meal distribution among large urban school districts during emergencies and to what degree these strategies provide equitable meal access. This case study of four large urban school districts during the COVID-19 pandemic aims to address these knowledge gaps. Guided by the Getting to Equity (GTE) framework, this mixed-methods study evaluates emergency meal distribution and strategy implementation in four large urban school districts (Chicago Public Schools, Houston Independent School District, Los Angeles Unified School District, and New York City Department of Education).
Emergency food provision for children and families during the COVID‐19 pandemic: examples from five U.S. cities

AUTHOR(S)
Becca B. R. Jablonski; Joy Casnovsky; Jill K. Clark (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy
As lockdown and school closure policies were implemented in response to the coronavirus, the federal government provided funding and relaxed its rules to support emergency food provision, but not guidance on best practices for effectiveness. Accordingly, cities developed a diverse patchwork of emergency feeding programs. This article uses qualitative data to provide insight into emergency food provision developed in five cities to serve children and families. Based on our qualitative analysis, we find that the effectiveness of local approaches appears to depend on: (i) cross‐sector collaboration, (ii) supply chains, and (iii) addressing gaps in service to increased risk populations.
Virtual parent-child visitation in support of family reunification in the time of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jacqueline Singer; David Brodzinsky

Published: September 2020   Journal: Developmental Child Welfare
The present article examines existing data on how children respond to virtual communication with parents and extended family and what practical issues and training needs are encountered when implementing virtual visits in juvenile dependency cases. During periods of sheltering in place in response to COVID-19 face-to-face visits have been largely curtailed. In their place, child welfare agencies have begun using virtual visitation through various technology platforms such as smartphones, FaceTime, Zoom, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger and Skype, often facilitated by foster parents. A number of questions have arisen, however, about the effectiveness of virtual visitations and how best to use them as a means of supporting reunification goals.
Increased proportion of physical child abuse injuries at a level I pediatric trauma center during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Mark L. Kovler; Susan Ziegfeld; Leticia M. Ryan (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
The Covid-19 pandemic has forced mass closures of childcare facilities and  schools. While these measures are  necessary to  slow  virus transmission, little is  known regarding the secondary health consequences of social distancing. The purpose of this study is to assess the proportion of injuries secondary to physical child abuse (PCA) at a level I pediatric trauma center during the Covid-19 pandemic.
A spatiotemporal analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on child abuse and neglect in the city of Los Angeles, California

AUTHOR(S)
Gia E. Barboza; Lawrence B. Schiamberg; Layne Pachl

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
This study aims to provide unique insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of child abuse and neglect (CAN) in relation to COVID-19 outcomes and identify areas where CAN has increased or decreased during the pandemic.
COVID-19 and school return: The need and necessity

AUTHOR(S)
Cecily L. Betz

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This paper discusses children and youth safely returning to schools in the midst of this Pandemic and the roles and responsibilities of pediatric nurses in supporting their school return. As evidence accumulates to inform treatment and public health preventive practices, questions arise as to the current and long-term psychosocial concerns and risk factors affecting the health and wellbeing of children that are the indirect yet problematic effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Child health experts, educators and families themselves, are calling attention to the actual and potential consequences of the necessary preventive practices of social distancing and stay at home directives. 
Child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: consequences of parental job loss on psychological and physical abuse towards children

AUTHOR(S)
Monica Lawson; Megan H. Piel; Michaela Simon

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
The current study investigated factors associated with child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic, including parental job loss, and whether cognitive reframing moderated associations between job loss and child maltreatment.
Reporting of child maltreatment during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in New York City from March to May 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Eli Rapoport; Hailey Reisert; Emily Schoeman (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
This study aims to assess associations between the pandemic public health response and the number of allegations of child abuse or neglect. It analyzed monthly data from New York City of the number of child maltreatment allegations, stratified by reporter type (e.g., mandated reporter, education personnel, healthcare personnel), as well as the number of Child Protective Services(CPS)investigations warranting child welfare preventative services.
Social distancing for COVID-19 and diagnoses of other infectious diseases in children

AUTHOR(S)
Jonathan Hatoun; Emily Trudell Correa; Sara Mary Alice Donahue (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Pediatrics
Social distancing (SD) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has largely removed children from school, day care, and other contact with peers. In addition to reducing transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, these changes would be expected to reduce the transmission of other infectious diseases among children. This study aims to determine the effect of SD on 12 infectious diseases commonly diagnosed in pediatric primary care that are contagious to various extents.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 146 | Issue: 4 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child diseases, child health, infectious disease | Countries: United States
The COVID-19 impact on childcare in agricultural populations

AUTHOR(S)
Marsha Salzwedel; Amy Liebman; Kate Kruse (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Agromedicine
The corona virus pandemic pulled back the curtain on rural America’s already fragile childcare system and shed light on the critical role that quality, affordable, accessible childcare plays in the lives of workers and families, as well as in the success of agricultural businesses. This commentary aims to describe how existing childcare problems were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, potentially impacting both the health and economics of farm households and farmworker families. For solutions to be successful, efforts will need to be collaborative, with federal interventions spurred on by childcare stakeholders. Successful collaborations will result in a better childcare system that nurtures children while their parents contribute to our nation’s production of agricultural products.
Should we mandate a COVID-19 vaccine for children?

AUTHOR(S)
Douglas J. Opel; Douglas S. Diekema; Lainie Friedman Ross (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

The zeal to develop and implement a vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been exceptional. Operation Warp Speed, the Trump administration's proposal, seeks to produce hundreds of millions of doses of a vaccine by January 2021. Recent polls show as many as 70% of adults in the United States plan to get vaccinated against COVID-19 once a vaccine is available. And thousands of adults have registered to participate as volunteers in human challenge trills to speed up the development of a new vaccine. We anticipate that this fervor will eventually lead to discussions about making a COVID-19 vaccine mandatory. An obvious group to target for mandatory vaccination is children. Not only do we already mandate several vaccines for them to attend school, but strategies to reopen schools or keep them open may be predicated on it.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 2 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, health care, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Vulnerability and resilience to pandemic-related stress among U.S. women pregnant at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Heidi Preis; Brittain Mahaffey; Cassandra Heiselman (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Social Science & Medicine
Women pregnant during the  COVID-19 pandemic are  experiencing moderate to  high levels of emotional distress, which has  previously been shown to  be  attributable to  two  types of  pandemic-related pregnancy stress: stress associated with feeling unprepared for  birth due  to  the  pandemic (Preparedness Stress) and stress related to fears of perinatal COVID-19 infection (Perinatal Infection Stress). Objective. Given the well-documented harms associated with elevated prenatal stress and  the  critical importance of  developing appropriately targeted interventions, we investigated factors predictive of pandemic-related pregnancy stress.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 266 | No. of pages: 4 | Language: English | Topics: Mental Health | Tags: pregnant women, psychological distress, resiliency, women's health | Countries: United States
Sleep and screen time among adolescents during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Kelly Janssens

Published: September 2020
The purpose of this study was to understand how both sleeping habits and smartphone use changed among adolescents between January 2020 to July 2020.
601 - 615 of 648

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.