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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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What have we learnt? Findings from a survey of ministries of education on national responses to COVID-19
Institution: UNESCO, *UNICEF, The World Bank
Published: October 2020 UNICEF Publication
According to this new report published by UNESCO, UNICEF and the World Bank, schoolchildren in low- and lower-middle-income countries have already lost nearly four months of schooling since the start of the pandemic, compared to an average of six weeks among high-income countries. Compiling data from surveys on national education responses to COVID-19 from 149 countries between July and October, the report also finds that schoolchildren in low- and lower-middle income countries were less likely to have access to remote learning or to be monitored on a day-to-day basis by teachers and were more likely to have delays in their schools reopening.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 51 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: education, government policy, COVID-19 response | Publisher: UNESCO, *UNICEF, The World Bank
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A neglected tragedy: The global burden of stillbirths 2020

There is a high risk that the COVID-19 pandemic may reverse decades-long progress on reducing child mortality and affect the number of stillbirths. This new release of the first-ever joint stillbirth estimates by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) presents the number of babies that are stillborn every year due to pregnancy and birth-related complications, the absence of health workers and basic services. The issue has become an essential part of global child survival initiatives. UNICEF calls on international organizations, governments and partners for increased and strong political will, sound policies and targeted investment along the continuum of care for every mother and child.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 90 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Child Protection | Tags: child mortality
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Levels & Trends in Child Mortality. United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) Report 2020
Institution: *UNICEF, World Health Organisation, The World Bank
Published: September 2020 UNICEF Publication

There have been dramatic reductions in child and youth mortality over the last 29 years. Globally, under-five mortality has dropped by 59% since 1990—from 93 deaths per 1,000 live births then to 38 deaths in 2019. Initial evidence suggests that the impact of COVID-19 on direct mortality for children and youth may be small, but indirect effects can be severe. Many life-saving services have already been disrupted by COVID-19. 

Estimates of the impact of COVID-19 on learning and earnings in Indonesia: how to turn the tide

AUTHOR(S)
Noah Yarrow; Eema Masood; Rythia Afkar

Institution: The World Bank
Published: August 2020
This paper uses the World Bank’s recently developed Country Tool for Simulating COVID-19 Impacts on Learning and Schooling Outcomes and data from the forthcoming Indonesia Education Service Delivery Indicator Survey to simulate and contextualize the potential impact of COVID-19 school closures on learning outcomes, proficiency levels, enrollments and expected earnings for Indonesian students in primary and secondary school.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 29 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, educational policy, school attendance, e-learning | Countries: Indonesia
Monitoring COVID-19 Impact on households in Mongolia
Institution: The World Bank
Published: July 2020
To monitor the household-level impacts of COVID-19, the National Statistics Office of Mongolia (NSO) and the World Bank have implemented a joint COVID-19 Household Response Phone Survey (HRPS) on a national sample of 1,334 households.
TV-based learning in Bangladesh : is it reaching students?
Institution: The World Bank
Published: July 2020
Is TV-based learning during COVID-19 school closures in Bangladesh reaching students? Most students (86 percent) within our sample of more than 2,000 Grade 9 stipend recipients are aware of government provided TV-based learning programs; yet only half of the students with access to these programs choose to access them. Also, very few students (21 percent) have access to government provided online learning programs, and among those that do, only about 2 percent choose to access them.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: educational policy, remote learning | Countries: Bangladesh
COVID-19 Pandemic through a gender lens
Institution: The World Bank
Published: June 2020
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has led to disruptions of both social and economic activities across the globe. While the early narrative described COVID-19 as the "great equalizer," asserting that the virus is capable of infecting anyone, it is critical for policymakers to understand that the impacts of COVID-19 will not be the same for everyone. Experience from previous epidemics suggest that COVID-19 will impact groups who are most vulnerable and amplify any existing inequalities across countries, communities, households and individuals. This note focuses on the existing gender inequalities in the economic sphere in Sub-Saharan Africa and summarizes how the COVID-19  pandemic could affect women and girls disproportionately. It draws on impact evaluation research to showcase policy options to help build women's economic resilience and minimize any potential negative impacts during the pandemic and recovery.
Children wait for a teacher in a classroom at Treichville Regional School, in the city of Abidjan. Although the school reopened after being closed for many years due to armed conflict, most teachers remain absent. (2011)
Framework for reopening schools
Global school closures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic present an unprecedented risk to children’s education, protection and well-being. Schools do much more than teach children how to read, write and count. They also provide nutrition, health and hygiene services; mental health and psychosocial support; and dramatically reduce the risk of violence, early pregnancy and more. And it’s the most vulnerable children who are the hardest hit by school closures, and we know from previous crises that the longer they are out of school, the less likely they are to return.When deciding whether to reopen schools, authorities should look at the benefits and risks across education, public health and socio-economic factors, in the local context, using the best available evidence. This policy brief aims to inform the decision-making process regarding school reopening, support national preparations and guide the implementation process, as part of overall public health and education planning processes. The guidelines outline six key priorities to assess the readiness of those schools and inform planning.
The Covid-19 Pandemic: shock to education and policy response
Institution: The World Bank
Published: May 2020
Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, the world was living a learning crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic now threatens to make education outcomes even worse.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 47 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, educational policy, e-learning, lockdown
Remote-learning, time-use, and mental health of Ecuadorian high-school students during the COVID-19 quarantine

AUTHOR(S)
Igor Azanov; Francisco Flores; David McKenzie (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: May 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has closed schools around the world, forcing school systems and students to quickly attempt remote learning. A rapid response phone survey of over 1,500 high school students aged 14 to 18 in Ecuador was conducted to learn how students spend their time during the period of quarantine, examine their access to remote learning, and measure their mental health status. The data show that 59 percent of students have both an internet connection at home and a computer or tablet, 74 percent are engaging in some online or telelearning, and 86 percent have done some schoolwork on the last weekday. Detailed time-use data show most students have established similar daily routines around education, although gender and wealth differences emerge in time spent working and on household tasks. Closure of schools and social isolation are the two main problems students say they face, and while the majority are mostly happy, 16 percent have mental health scores that indicate depression.
Response to COVID-19: preparing for school re-opening – The case of South Korea
Institution: The World Bank
Published: May 2020
The new school year began with online classes for the first time. How the Ministry Of Education (MOE) and local education offices secured digital devices to lend to students in need, and schools prepared online class guidelines, including the class hours, format, attendance, and evaluation. How the government mobilized academia, government-led institutions, and the private sector to overcome technical problems, increased burden of teachers, and equity issues in learning from online classes. In preparing for the physically reopening of schools, it is important to prepare strategies to respond to any additional extended breaks if the virus comes back and to enable local authorities and schools to develop their reopening plans to prioritize the needs of students and the local community, and implement it working with the community partners. Using this crisis to build an education system that can reach everyone and be resilient and sustainable in a time of crisis.
The COVID-19 pandemic: shocks to education and policy responses
Institution: The World Bank
Published: May 2020
Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, the world was living a learning crisis. Before the pandemic, 258 million children and youth of primary- and secondary-school age were out of school. And low schooling quality meant many who were in school learned too little. The Learning Poverty rate in low-and middle-income countries was 53 percent—meaning that over half of all 10-year-old children couldn't read and understand a simple age appropriate story. Even worse, the crisis was not equally distributed: the most disadvantaged children and youth had the worst access to schooling, highest dropout rates, and the largest learning deficits.
Investing in the early years during COVID-19
Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2020
Young children need comprehensive nurturing care which includes good health, adequate nutrition, early learning opportunities, responsive caregiving, and safety and security. Severe, lifelong impacts can result from deprivations during the early years if children do not have these critical inputs to ensure optimal child development. The World Bank’s Investing in the Early Years framework lays out three pillars to ensure children reach their full potential: i. Children are healthy and well-nourished, especially in the first 1,000 days ii. Children receive early stimulation and learning opportunities and iii. Children are nurtured and protected from stress. In the following three pages, we set out specific risks that children face under each of these pillars due to the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) crisis, together with response options, potential platforms and country examples. While health and nutrition are key elements of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) emergency response and are more likely to be addressed immediately, empowering parents to provide warm and responsive caregiving and ensuring safety and security of young children and early learning opportunities for young children is essential and risks falling through the cracks.
Gender dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic
Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2020
Experiences from previous pandemics and large-scale shocks show that these crises often affect men and women differently. Specifically, the effectiveness of policy actions and the prevention of costly reversals in the progress achieved towards greater gender equality will crucially depend on how gender considerations are reflected in the examination of potential impacts of and responses to COVID-19. Not only women and girls can be expected to be impacted differently, but they can also play different roles in the response vis-à-vis men and boys that could enhance the likelihood of success.
15 ways to support young children and their families in the COVID-19 response
Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2020
As the global COVID-19 (Coronavirus) pandemic continues to unfold, young children will be especially vulnerable. World Bank teams can work with client countries to support early childhood development (ECD) by leveraging a range of interventions and mechanisms that will be part of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) response in every country. The report has three key messages : The early years are a critical period to build human capital. Young children are disproportionately at risk and must be prioritized in COVID-19 (Coronavirus) responses. We will reach young children by supporting parents and caregivers.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.