search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   2803     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
31 - 45 of 2803
Acute alcohol intoxication in Dutch adolescents before, during, and after the first COVID-19 lockdown

Louise Pigeaud; Loes de Veld; Joris van Hoof (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
The association between acute alcohol intoxication among adolescents and the COVID-19 lockdown has been studied previously in Trieste, Italy. They recommended that emergency services should be prepared for a potential peak of alcohol intoxication–related emergencies among adolescents as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of acute alcohol intoxication among adolescents in the Netherlands.
SNAP participation among low-income US households stays stagnant while food insecurity escalates in the months following the COVID-19 pandemic

Punam Ohri-Vachaspati; Francesco Acciai; Robin S. DeWeese

Published: September 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased food-insecurity rates, particularly among low-income households. Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was expected to rise in response. This study surveyed 931 US residents from households with annual incomes below $50,000 to collect information on food security and food assistance program participation in the year prior to the pandemic and in the first four months of the pandemic, along with household and individual-level demographics. Food insecurity increased from 31% prior to the pandemic to 39% in the first four months of the pandemic, while SNAP participation stagnated. Even more alarmingly, among low-income households that were also food-insecure, 47% participated in SNAP prior to the pandemic but only 39% did so in the first four months following the pandemic’s onset. In particular, Black households, households with children, and those in the lowest income category experienced the largest declines in SNAP participation. Food assistance programs designed to alleviate hunger should facilitate participation among the most vulnerable, especially when these groups are faced with multiple challenges, like during the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 employment status, dyadic family relationships, and child psychological well-being

Ming-Te Wang; Daphne A. Henry; Juan Del Toro (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

COVID-19 has led to soaring unemployment rates and the widespread adoption of working-from-home (WFH) arrangements that have disrupted family relationships and adolescent psychological well-being. This longitudinal study investigated how parental employment status (i.e., job loss and WFH) influenced adolescents' daily affect indirectly through family functioning (i.e., parent-adolescent conflict and parental warmth) and whether these links varied by family's socioeconomic status. Daily-diary approaches were used to collect dyadic parent-adolescent data from a nationwide American sample (6,524 daily assessments from 447 parent-adolescent dyads; 45% black, 36% white, 10% Latinx, 7% Asian American, 2% Native American) over the course of 15 consecutive days at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

How has COVID-19-related income loss and household stress affected adolescent mental health in Kenya?

Jessie Pinchoff; Elizabeth Layard Friesen; Beth Kangwana (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Adolescent mental health has been under-researched, particularly in Africa. COVID-19-related household economic stress and school closures will likely have adverse effects. We investigate the relationship among adolescent mental health, adult income loss, and household dynamics during the pandemic in Kenya. A cross-sectional mobile phone-based survey was conducted with one adult and adolescent (age 10–19 years) pair from a sample of households identified through previous cohort studies in three urban Kenyan counties (Nairobi, Kilifi, Kisumu). Survey questions covered education, physical and mental health, and COVID-19-related impacts on job loss, food insecurity, and healthcare seeking. Logistic regression models were fit to explore relationships among adult income loss, household dynamics, food insecurity, and adult and adolescent depressive symptoms (defined as PHQ-2 score ≤2).

Providing contact with nature for young generation - a case study of preschools in the City of Poznań, Poland

Iwona Zwierzchowska; Piotr Lupa

Published: September 2021   Journal: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening
Contact with nature is valuable for the health, wellbeing and development of children. Meanwhile, the urban environment and the contemporary urban lifestyle limit the opportunity for contact with nature. Given that children aged three to six years spend a significant amount of time in preschool, this study aimed to: 1) investigate children’s opportunities to contact with nature during their time in preschool, including the availability of these schools’ own outdoor spaces and neighbouring green spaces for visiting; 2) recognise preschools’ practices in using available green spaces to enable children to have contact with nature; 3) identify the impact on the outdoor activities provided by preschools of factors such as the COVID-19 pandemic and preschool managers’ awareness of the importance of children’s contact with nature.
Time use of youth during a pandemic: evidence from Mexico

Cynthia Boruchowicz; Susan W. Parker; Lindsay Robbins

Published: September 2021   Journal: 149
Studying how the pandemic affects the education and work of adolescents is a critical question with long lasting implications for well-being of the next generation, particularly in the developing world. The Covid-19 pandemic by mid-March 2020 had led to the closing of most educational institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the region has been one of the worst hit by the pandemic (Sanmarchi et al., 2021). This paper uses the Mexican National Occupation and Employment Survey (ENOE) to provide evidence on the pandemic’s effects on school and work of youth. It measure changes in the time use of adolescents comparing patterns just before the pandemic (January to March 2020) with those at the beginning of the following school year (September 2020), controlling for pre pandemic trends and potential seasonality.
The role of children and adolescents in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus within family clusters: A large population study from Oman

Abdullah Alqayoudhi; Abdullah Al Manji; Sulien Al khalili (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health

In Oman, many extended families tend to live in one household. Some families can include 20–30 individuals with the majority of them being children. This study investigates the role of children in spreading SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 within family clusters in Oman. This retrospective study includes data of 1026 SARS-CoV-2 positive children (≤18 years) collected from the national surveillance database for COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 30 May 2020.

Investigation of the effects of restrictions applied on children during Covid-19 pandemic

Sibel Serap Ceylan; Çiğdem Erdoğan; Türkan Turan

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of restrictions that have been imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and contact with a COVID-19 positive individual on children and the practices adopted by parents to help their children cope with these effects. The data for this descriptive study were collected through social media platforms. The study included 464 parents who have children between the ages of 3 and 18, use social media, and are willing to participate in the study. The Parent and Child Descriptive Characteristics Form, Assessment Form for Pandemic Effects, and Form of Parent's Practices for Children during the Pandemic were used to collect the study data.

Daily concordance between ecological stressors and sleep in young minority children during the pre-COVID-19 outbreak period

Calista U. Alaribe; Odochi U. Nwabara; Karen Spruyt

Published: September 2021   Journal: Sleep Epidemiology

As the COVID-19 pandemic brings widespread changes in families, the sociology of sleep becomes noticeable. Yet, the socio-contextual determinants of a biopsychosocial phenomenon as sleep are poorly investigated. We examine changes concomitantly occurring in the child's sleep per familial and community stressors. During the pre-COVID-19 outbreak period, in 24 minority children (5.4±1.7 years old, 54.2% girls), sleep was objectively measured 24-hours for two consecutive weeks, and this was repeated three times over the study period of three months. The caregiver filled out questionnaires surveying sociodemographic, community and family aspects.

Children’s sleep during COVID-19: how sleep influences surviving and thriving in families

Nicole E. MacKenzie; Elizabeth Keys; Wendy A. Hall (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to disrupt the lives of families and may have implications for children with existing sleep problems. As such, this study aimed to: (1) characterize sleep changes during the COVID-19 pandemic in children who had previously been identified as having sleep problems, (2) identify factors contributing to sleep changes due to COVID-19 safety measures, and (3) understand parents’ and children’s needs to support sleep during the pandemic. Eighty-five Canadian parents with children aged 4–14 years participated in this explanatory sequential, mixed-methods study using an online survey of children’s and parents’ sleep, with a subset of 16 parents, selected based on changes in their children’s sleep, participating in semi-structured interviews. Families had previously participated in the Better Nights, Better Days (BNBD) randomized controlled trial.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child and adolescent mental health policy and practice implementation

Lawrence A. Palinkas; Jessenia De Leon; Erika Salinas (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The impact of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic on the mental health of millions worldwide has been well documented, but its impact on prevention and treatment of mental and behavioral health conditions is less clear. The COVID-19 pandemic also created numerous challenges and opportunities to implement health care policies and programs under conditions that are fundamentally different from what has been considered to be usual care. This study conducted a qualitative study to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on implementation of evidence-based policy and practice by State Mental Health Authorities (SMHA) for prevention and treatment of mental health problems in children and adolescents.
An online cross-sectional survey of complementary feeding practices during the COVID-19 restrictions in Poland

Andrea Horvath; Agata Stróżyk; Piotr Dziechciarz (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Nutrients
This cross-sectional online survey performed in Poland aimed to improve understanding of how COVID-19 pandemic restrictions affected complementary feeding practices among parents of infants aged 4 to 12 months. Self-selected parents were recruited through the internet. The anonymous questionnaire was opened during two intervals during COVID-19 restrictions. The primary outcome was an assessment of sources of information and infant feeding practices in the context of COVID-19 restrictions. Data from 6934 responders (92.2% mothers) were analyzed.
Poor mental health in caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Its relationships with caregivers’ difficulties in managing the children’s behaviors and worsened psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic

Hui-Wen Tseng; Ching-Shu Tsai; Yu-Min Chen (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has thrown out a challenge to caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the factors related to the poor general mental health state of the caregivers of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic, including (1) difficulties of caregivers in asking their child to adopt protective behaviors against COVID-19, (2) difficulties of caregivers in managing the child’s daily performance, and (3) worsened psychological symptoms in children. In total, 161 caregivers completed an online questionnaire to provide data regarding their general mental health state and difficulties in asking their child with ADHD to adopt protective behaviors against COVID-19 and in managing the child’s after-school learning, sleep routine, and internet use, as well as worsened psychological symptoms. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that caregivers’ difficulties in managing ADHD children’s self-protective behaviors and after-school learning and the children’s worsened emotional symptoms were significantly associated with poor caregiver general mental health state. An intervention that enhances the mental health of caregivers of children with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic by addressing their difficulties in managing the children’s behaviors and psychological problems is warranted.
Rates of myopia development in young Chinese schoolchildren during the outbreak of COVID-19

Yin Hu; Feng Zhao; Xiaohu Ding (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: JAMA Ophthalmology

Were environmental changes during the outbreak of COVID-19 associated with increased development of myopia in young schoolchildren in China?  In this observational study longitudinally monitoring 2114 students from grade 2 to grade 3, myopia incidence doubled from November and December 2019 to November and December 2020 compared with the same period from 2018 to 2019. The proportion of children without myopia and with spherical equivalent refraction greater than −0.50 D and less than or equal to +0.50 D in grade 3 had increased by 18% by November and December 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. These data suggest that development of myopia in young Chinese schoolchildren may have increased during the COVID-19 outbreak; the long-term impact of environmental changes during the COVID-19 outbreak period on the development of myopia in children needs further investigation.

Factors associated with changes in pregnancy intention among women who were mothers of young children in New York City following the COVID-19 outbreak

Linda G. Kahn; Leonardo Trasande; Mengling Liu (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Early evidence shows a decrease in the number of US births during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet few studies have examined individual-level factors associated with pregnancy intention changes, especially among diverse study populations or in areas highly affected by COVID-19 in the US. This research aims to study changes in pregnancy intention following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and identify factors possibly associated with these changes.

31 - 45 of 2803

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.