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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1966 - 1980 of 2058
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): What do we know about children? A systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Nisha Metha; Oliver Mytton; Edward Mullins (et al.)

Published: May 2020   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
This systematic review aims to understand the infection rate, clinical presentation, clinical outcomes and transmission dynamics for SARS-CoV-2, in order to inform clinical and public health measures. Children appear to be less affected by COVID-19 than adults by observed rate of cases in large epidemiological studies. Limited data on attack rate indicate that children are just as susceptible to infection. Data on clinical outcomes are scarce but include several reports of asymptomatic infection and a milder course of disease in young children, though radiological abnormalities are noted. Severe cases are not reported in detail and there are little data relating to transmission.
Children are unlikely to be the main drivers of the COVID‐19 pandemic – A systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Jonas Ludvigsson

Published: May 2020   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
Many countries have closed schools and kindergartens to minimise COVID‐19, but the role that children play in disease transmission is unclear. This systematic literature review from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and medRxiv/bioRxiv preprint servers to 11 May 2020 identified 700 published and unpublished papers on COVID‐19 transmission by children. Children accounted for a small fraction of COVID‐19 cases and mostly had social contacts with peers or parents, rather than older people at risk of severe disease. Data on viral loads were scarce, but indicated that children may have lower levels than adults, partly because they often have fewer symptoms, and this should decrease the transmission risk. Household transmission studies showed that children were rarely the index case and case studies suggested that children with COVID‐19 seldom caused outbreaks. However, it is highly likely that children can transmit the SARS‐COV‐2 virus, which causes COVID‐19, and even asymptomatic children can have viral loads.

Conclusion
Children are unlikely to be the main drivers of the pandemic. Opening up schools and kindergartens is unlikely to impact COVID‐19 mortality rates in older people.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: children, COVID-19, disease transmission
School Closure and Management Practices During Coronavirus Outbreaks Including COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review

AUTHOR(S)
Russel Viner; Simon Russel; Helen Croker (et al.)

Published: May 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, 107 countries had implemented national school closures by March 18, 2020. It is unknown whether school measures are effective in coronavirus outbreaks (eg, due to severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], Middle East respiratory syndrome, or COVID-19). This systematic review seeks to identify what is known about the effectiveness of school closures and other school social distancing practices during coronavirus outbreaks. Data from the SARS outbreak in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore suggest that school closures did not contribute to the control of the epidemic. Modelling studies of SARS produced conflicting results. Recent modelling studies of COVID-19 predict that school closures alone would prevent only 2–4% of deaths, much less than other social distancing interventions. Policy makers need to be aware of the equivocal evidence when considering school closures for COVID-19, and that combinations of social distancing measures should be considered. Other less disruptive social distancing interventions in schools require further consideration if restrictive social distancing policies are implemented for long periods.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 5 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: children, COVID-19, school attendance, schools
Impacts of COVID-19 on Vulnerable Children in Temporary Accommodation in the UK

AUTHOR(S)
Diana Margo Rosenthal; Marcella Ucci; Michelle Heys (et al.)

Published: May 2020   Journal: The Lancet Public Health
There is no doubt that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has huge economic implications as highlighted by the media, but there are also a myriad of considerable direct and indirect health, social, and educational consequences for children and families experiencing homelessness, while living in temporary or insecure accommodation (eg, staying with friends or family, sofa surfing, shelters, bed and breakfast lodging). In particular, young children (aged ≤5 years) living in temporary accommodation have an invisible plight that might not seem obvious to many people because they are not on the streets as homeless (eg, rough sleepers), but are perhaps the most susceptible to viral infection because of pre-existing conditions (eg, diabetes, asthma, epilepsy, anxiety, depression).1 Additionally, these children rarely have the ability to self-isolate and adhere to social distancing, with previous extreme inequalities and inequities in accessing health care becoming exacerbated.
Hear it From the Girls – Asia and COVID-19
Institution: Plan International
Published: May 2020
The Asia Pacific region has seen significant progress in gender equality in recent years in a number of areas, such as education and political participation. From 2000-2016, the number of out-of-school girls in primary and secondary school dropped by 67 million. 1 The number of females in tertiary school rose by 41 million. From 1990 to 2018 the proportion of women in national parliaments has risen from 8 percent to18 percent. Unfortunately, in other areas, Asia and the Pacific have seen a decline in equality. According to UNESCAP, women’s economic empowerment has remained nearly stagnant and those who are young and in the informal labour market are expected to be hit the hardest. The East Asia Pacific Region is one of the only regions in the world where rates of teenage pregnancy are increasing in low-and-middle-income countries.Any emergency risks increasing existing discriminations and incidents of violence. It also risks losing progress so recently made for girls and young women. The COVID-19 Pandemic is an emergency on a scale not seen for nearly 100 years. 
COVID-19 Risks to Children's Health and Nutrition
Institution: World Vision Int'l-USA
Published: May 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic is putting millions of children at heightened risk, and jeopardising their immediate and long-term health and well-being. As countries around the world battle to prevent, contain and respond to COVID-19, it is critical that their efforts reach those most vulnerable and ensure primary health care  is continued and accessible to all. All stakeholders must take proactive measures to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on children’s health and nutrition, and response efforts should consider vulnerable children’s needs and rights. Based on extensive experience working with children, families and communities in emergencies, including epidemics, World Vision outlines a number of recommendations for Governments, UN Agencies, Donors, NGOS, Private Sector, and Faith Leaders. 
COVID-19 & Disruptions to Education
Institution: World Vision Int'l-USA
Published: May 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic is wreaking unprecedented havoc on the lives of millions, creating devastating impacts on children, families and communities around the world. This brief focuses on the pandemic’s impact on children’s education, which cannot be overstated. COVID-19 related school and university closures have disrupted the education of more than 1.5 billion learners—over 90% of the world’s student population.
Gender-based Violence and COVID-19
Institution: UNDP
Published: May 2020

Gender-based violence (GBV) increases during every type of emergency – whether economic crises, conflict or disease outbreaks. Pre-existing toxic social norms and gender inequalities, economic and social stress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with restricted movement and social isolation measures, have led to an exponential increase in GBV. Many women and girls are in ‘lockdown’ at home with their abusers while being cut off from normal support services.
This briefing note provides concrete actions and strategies that UNDP, UN agencies and other development partners can take to prevent and address GBV in the context of COVID-19. It includes recommendations for adapting dedicated GBV services and support to the crisis context, and for mainstreaming GBV prevention and response in 'non-GBV specific' interventions. 

Supporting Schools to Provide Safe Online learning Experience
Published: May 2020   Journal: End Violence Against Children

Across the world, COVID-19 and resulting isolation measures have taken more than 1.5 billion children out of the classroom. Most of those children are now learning online – and while digital solutions are essential to maintaining children’s education, they may also be increasing their exposure to online risks. Today, partners from the Safe to Learn coalition issued guidance for facilitating safe, effective online learning experiences for children during COVID-19. This guidance is directed at education ministries as they develop policies and resources to support schools in providing a safe online learning experience.

Resistance of children to Covid-19. How?

AUTHOR(S)
Alain Fischer

Published: May 2020   Journal: Nature Mucosal Immunology
Both resistance to infection and resistance to disease appear to be much stronger in children than in adults. The apparent resistance to infection might actually reflect a more rapid clearance of the virus so that the chance to detect cases is diminished. Future studies on seropositivity prevalence should help to distinguish between these possibilities. Of note the increased male to female ratio as observed in adult Covid-19 patients (6 to 4) is also observed in children. Finally, children below the age of 1 year are over-represented in pediatric Covid-19 cohorts with a higher risk of fatality compared with children above the age of 1.
Learning at home during COVID-19: effects on vulnerable young Australians

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Brown; Kitty Te Riele; Becky Shelley (et al.)

Institution: University of Tasmania, Peter Underwood Centre
Published: April 2020
Nearly half the national school student population is at risk of having their learning and wellbeingsignificantly compromised by not being at school because they are in a vulnerable group, due to their young age; social disadvantage; specific needs; or family employment context. As soon as health restrictions permit there is an urgent need to reconnect these students to the physical context of school-based learning to support their learning and wellbeing outcomes. Concurrently there is a need to invest rapidly in developing significant capability in schools to deliver education both online and on-site
Reach up and learn in the Syria response: adapting and implementing an evidence-based home visiting program in Lebanon, Jordan and Syria

AUTHOR(S)
Aimee Vachon; Katelin Wilton

Published: April 2020
This report aims to highlight one major initiative, the International Rescue Committee’s (IRC) implementation of the Reach Up and Learn program in the Middle East, and the ways in which this initiative is providing vital support to both children and their caregivers affected by the Syrian refugee crisis. The first section includes a description of the adaptation process, with following sections highlighting the diverse characteristics of frontline staff and clients, program costs and the early-stage measurement piloting conducted in preparation for the planned randomized controlled trial. By sharing these experiences and lessons learned, the report aims to provide practical guidance for early childhood leaders, practitioners, policy-makers and researchers interested in designing, delivering, testing and scaling home visiting programs in crisis- and conflict-affected settings.
Infancia confinada: ¿Cómo viven la situación de confinamiento niñas, niños y adolescentes?

AUTHOR(S)
Marta Martínez Muñoz; Iván Rodríguez Pascual; Gabriela Velásquez Crespo

Published: April 2020

Home quarantine may lead to families developing a variety of psychological distress. The purpose of this research is to examine the psychological status and well-being of children and their parents during 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Spain. It aims to offer testimonies and reflections of the confinement period along with its living conditions, emotional mapping and an analysis of the effects that confinement is generating on boys and girls.

Girls' education and COVID-19: what past shocks can teach us about mitigating the impact of pandemics

AUTHOR(S)
Lucia Fry; Philippa Lei; Naomi Nyamweya (et al.)

Institution: Malala Fund
Published: April 2020

This report uses insights from the 2014-15 Ebola epidemic and the 2008 global financial crisis to understand the short- and long-term consequences of COVID-19 for girls. Following the Ebola outbreak and school closures in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia, enrolment rates for girls dropped. Increased rates of poverty, household responsibilities, child labour and teenage pregnancy as well as restrictive school policies prevented many girls from returning to the classroom. The epidemic also reduced funding for education as governments diverted funds to public health and put a strain on the preexisting teacher shortage. Girls' education and COVID-19 suggests how governments and international institutions can mitigate the effects of the current pandemic and help girls return to school, including finding ways to keep girls learning during the pandemic, factoring in gender when planning for reopening schools and making sure that education systems have adequate financing in the post-crisis months and years.

Delivering distance learning in emergencies: a review of evidence and best practice

AUTHOR(S)
Emily Morris; Anna Farrell; Abagail Todd

Published: April 2020
The purpose of this review is to provide evidence on four effective distance learning modalities that can be implemented in USAID-recipient countries during and beyond emergencies. These four distance learning modalities—radio/audio, video/television, mobile phone programming, and online learning—are examined alongside the technologies used to access distance learning (radios, mobile phones, televisions, tablets, and, to a lesser extent, computers). While these modalities can be implemented in conflict settings and during crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic when learning institutions are closed, their utility also extends beyond these extreme circumstances in order to promote inclusion and to increase access to quality teaching and learning.
1966 - 1980 of 2058

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.