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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 1066
Considerations for the transportation of school aged children amid the Coronavirus pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Yousif Abulhassan; Gerard A. Davis

Published: January 2021   Journal: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Close proximity seating and the distinctive anthropometric characteristics of young children introduce unique challenges when implementing control strategies to promote safe transportation on school buses. Though face coverings may become one of the most commonly used controls on mass transportation to reduce the spread of COVID-19, the lack of personal protective equipment specifically designed for young children requires further investigation into control strategies to potentially reduce the spread of COVID-19 among school bus passengers. The purpose of this paper is to identify potential concerns and countermeasures (immediate and long term) to be considered for the safe transportation of children amid the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis by taking into consideration the design of school bus cabins and the anthropometric characteristics of children. COVID-19 mitigation strategies concerning cabin design and busing operations are discussed to provide general recommendations for operating fleets while providing as safe and healthy a passenger environment as possible considering both practicality and cost-effectiveness.
Cite this research | Vol.: 9 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disease transmission, school attendance, COVID-19 response
Mindfulness training on the resilience of adolescents under the COVID-19 epidemic: a latent growth curve analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Yue Yuan

Published: January 2021   Journal: Personality and Individual Differences
As a preventive measure during the COVID-19 epidemic, we have had to stay at home for a long time. The lifestyle of adolescents has undergone severe changes. Almost every school started online education for the first time. Some adolescents have shown low resilience when faced with these changes. Most previous research has focused on mindfulness training and resilience by using cross-sectional or two-point tracking designs. However, little is known about the developmental trajectories of the impact of mindfulness training on resilience, particularly during this epidemic. Therefore, this study aims to explore how the developmental trajectories of resilience are impacted by mindfulness training.
School closure during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: impact on children’s sleep

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Teik Chung Lim; Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy; Ramkumar Aishworiya (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Sleep Medicine

To evaluate the sleep habits of school-going children before and during school closure in the national lockdown period (called ‘Circuit Breaker’ or CB in Singapore) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional, anonymous, online, population-based survey questionnaire was administered to parents aged 21 years and above with children aged between 3 and 16 years attending pre-school, primary or secondary school (equivalent to kindergarten, middle and-high school) and residing in Singapore. Sleep duration in relation to various daily activities including academic activities, physical exercise, and screen time was evaluated pre-CB and during CB.

The role of only-child status in the psychological impact of COVID-19 on mental health of Chinese adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Yujia Cao; Liyuan Huang; Tong Si (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

The impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on public mental health in 2019 is verified, but the role of only-child status in the mental health of adolescents confined at home during the COVID-19 epidemic has not been investigated and is not clear. This study aims to assess the impact of only-child status on the mental health of adolescents confined at home during the COVID-19 outbreak. The exposure risk to COVID-19, adverse experience, parent-child relationship, and resilience have also been measured and considered.

Potential health-related behaviors for pre-school and school-aged children during COVID-19 lockdown: a narrative review

AUTHOR(S)
Rubén López-Bueno; Guillermo F. Lopez-Sánchez; José A. Casajús (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine
As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, different measures have been implemented by governments from each affected country. Such measures usually involve restrictions on the movement of citizens, and have had a profound effect on usual activities and timetables. As a result of school closures and strict restrictions regarding going outside home, children have been one of the most disadvantaged population groups during the lockdown period. This review depicts the potential health-related behaviors according to related literature, and put the focus on future short and long-term sequels of social isolation. Socio-affective complications and insufficient physical activity are underscored as two of the main concerns, particularly among socio-economic deprived children. Both issues could be effectively addressed with either adequate parental or community guidance.
Relationship between parenting practices and children's screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Aslihan Ozturk Eyimaya; Aylin Yalçin Irmak

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

This study investigates the relationship between parenting practices and children's screen time following the COVID-19 outbreak. The population of the present cross-sectional study was the parents of children studying in three randomly-selected schools in the western, eastern and central regions of Turkey. The study data were collected between May 15 and 31, 2020, using a descriptive questionnaire form and the Parenting Practices Scale applied to 1115 parents of children between 6 and 13 years of age. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 software package, and with descriptive, correlation and multiple regression analyses.

What happens when schools shut down? Investigating inequality in students’ reading behavior during Covid-19 in Denmark

AUTHOR(S)
David Reimer; Emil Smith; Ida Gran Andersen (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
The outbreak of Covid-19 in spring 2020 shut down schools around the world and placed parents in charge of their children’s schooling. Research from the lockdown period documents that families differ in their responses to their new responsibility for their children’s homeschooling by socioeconomic status and that the Covid-19 crisis has  increased educational inequality. The  aim  of  this  paper is  to  examine inequality in  children’s reading behavior before, during and after the lockdown of schools in Denmark by analyzing new digital data from a widely used reading app combined with administrative data.
Assessment of parent-child relationship in Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Halil Uzun; Nezahat Hamiden Karaca; Şermin Metin

Published: January 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
COVID-19, which emerged in 2019 and spread rapidly around the world, has made a great change in the daily lives of individuals and has created a basis for social-emotional-psychological problems. It is thought that the individuals that are affected by this situation the most are children, and therefore it will be significant to re-examine the factors of the epidemic experienced today affecting the family-child relationship. Accordingly, present study aims to evaluate the parent–child relationship during the pandemic process in terms of a number of variables. This is a study aimed at describing the relationship of parents with children between the ages of 4–6, with their children during the Covid-19 process, based on the views of parents.
Obsessive compulsive symptoms severity among children and adolescents during COVID-19 first wave in Israel

AUTHOR(S)
Maya Schwartz-Lifshitz; Dana Basel; Claudia Lang (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
Several current publications have considered persons with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) as particularly vulnerable during the COVID-19 period, and to require more frequent symptom monitoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether OCD exacerbated during the first wave of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Twenty-nine children and adolescents with OCD were evaluated in the midst of the first outbreak of the COVID- 19 pandemic in Israel (April–May 2020).
Depressive symptoms in response to COVID-19 and lockdown: a cross-sectional study on the Italian population

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Delmastro; Giorgia Zamariola

Published: December 2020   Journal: Scientific Reports
The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown orders adopted to prevent the spread of the disease had a huge impact on a personal, social, and economic level for the world population. In Europe, Italy was one of the frontrunner countries dealing with an emergency that significantly affected people’s lives. Previous research on the psychological impact of the pandemic revealed an increase in anxiety, depression, and feelings of distress; however, these studies were conducted on non-representative samples of the population reached through social media channels, a method that is likely to lead to many forms of statistical and methodological bias. For the first time to our knowledge, this study assessed the psychological impact of COVID-19 on 6700 Italian individuals, representative of the Italian population in terms of age, gender, and geographical areas revealing higher scores of depressive symptoms in females, younger adults, people reporting professional uncertainty and lower socio-economic status. A positive correlation was also found for individuals living alone, those who could not leave home for going to work, and people with a case of COVID-19 in the family, whereas the region of residence was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. These findings underline the importance of considering the psychological effects of COVID-19 and providing support to individuals seeking mental health care.
Longitudinal symptom dynamics of COVID-19 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Barak Mizrahi; Smadar Shilo; Hagai Rossman (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, obtaining information on symptoms dynamics is of essence. Here, we extracted data from primary-care electronic health records and nationwide distributed surveys to assess the longitudinal dynamics of symptoms prior to and throughout SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information was available for 206,377 individuals, including 2471 positive cases. The two datasources were discordant, with survey data capturing most of the symptoms more sensitively. The most prevalent symptoms included fever, cough and fatigue. Loss of taste and smell 3 weeks prior to testing, either self-reported or recorded by physicians, were the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19. Additional discriminative symptoms included self-reported headache and fatigue and a documentation of syncope, rhinorrhea and fever. Children had a significantly shorter disease duration. Several symptoms were reported weeks after recovery. By a unique integration of two datasources, our study shed light on the longitudinal course of symptoms experienced by cases in primary care.
Comparison of the characteristics, morbidity, and mortality of COVID-19 and seasonal influenza: a nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Lionel Piroth; Jonathan Cottenet; Anne-Sophie Mariet (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
To date, influenza epidemics have been considered suitable for use as a model for the COVID-19 epidemic, given that they are respiratory diseases with similar modes of transmission. However, data directly comparing the two diseases are scarce. This study did a nationwide retrospective cohort study using the French national administrative database (PMSI), which includes discharge summaries for all hospital admissions in France. All patients hospitalised for COVID-19 from March 1 to April 30, 2020, and all patients hospitalised for influenza between Dec 1, 2018, and Feb 28, 2019, were included.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, COVID-19, epidemiology, hospitalization | Countries: France
SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings: a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of infection clusters and outbreaks in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sharif A. Ismail; Vanessa Saliba; Jamie Lopez Bernal (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Understanding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission in educational settings is crucial for ensuring the safety of staff and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study estimated he rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks among staff and students in educational settings during the summer half-term (June–July, 2020) in England. In this prospective, cross-sectional analysis, Public Health England initiated enhanced national surveillance in educational settings in England that had reopened after the first national lockdown, from June 1 to July 17, 2020.
Trajectories of anxiety and depressive symptoms during enforced isolation due to COVID-19 in England: a longitudinal observational study

AUTHOR(S)
Daisy Fancourt; Andrew Steptoe; Feifei Bu

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Psychiatry
There is major concern about the impact of the global COVID-19 outbreak on mental health. Several studies suggest that mental health deteriorated in many countries before and during enforced isolation (ie, lockdown), but it remains unknown how mental health has changed week by week over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to explore the trajectories of anxiety and depression over the 20 weeks after lockdown was announced in England, and compare the growth trajectories by individual characteristics.
Attitudes towards vaccines and intention to vaccinate against COVID-19: implications for public health communications

AUTHOR(S)
Elise Paul; Andrew Steptoe; Daisy Fancourt

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Negative attitudes towards vaccines and an uncertainty or unwillingness to receive vaccinations are major barriers to managing the COVID-19 pandemic in the long-term. Predictors of four domains of negative attitudes towards vaccines were estimated and groups most at risk of uncertainty and unwillingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in a large sample of UK adults were identified. Data were cross-sectional and from 32,361 adults in the UCL COVID-19 Social Study. Ordinary least squares regression analyses examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors on four types of negative vaccine attitudes: mistrust of vaccine benefit, worries about unforeseen effects, concerns about commercial profiteering, and preference for natural immunity. Multinomial regression examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors, negative vaccine attitudes, and prior vaccine behaviour on uncertainty and unwillingness to be vaccinated for COVID-19.
16 - 30 of 1066

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.