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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 2998
"Public health and social measures' considerations for educational authorities: schooling in the time of COVID-19: Considerations for health and educational authorities on the public health and social measures to reopen schools as safely as possible"

AUTHOR(S)
Kalpana Vincent; Viviane Bianco; Sarah Fuller (et al.)

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

The return to face-to-face learning helps children return to a sense of normality, although different normality as prevention and control measures have likely altered school and classroom routines. It is important that schools should have a risk-mitigation strategy in place. Countries should ensure these strategies carefully balance the likely benefits for, and harms to, younger and older age groups of children when making decisions about implementing infection prevention and control measures. Any measure needs to be balanced with the even worse alternative of schools being closed and Any measure introduced by schools should follow standard protocols for implementation. This publication shares more detailed considerations for health and educational authorities on the public health and social measures to reopen schools as safely as possible.

Schooling in the time of COVID-19, a resource pack produced by UNICEF ECARO and WHO Europe
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

Schools are essential for children’s learning, health, safety and well-being. But students’ learning suffered a major setback when most educational institutions reduced or cancelled in-person instruction and moved to remote learning and teaching to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Prolonged school closures continue to jeopardise the future of millions of children across the globe. The Europe and Central Asia Region is no exception. Schools should be the first to open and last to close. Getting children back in the classroom remains a priority for UNICEF and WHO Regional Offices, striking a balance between applying public health and social measures and ensuring that children are able to continue learning and socializing to the greatest extent possible. UNICEF and WHO have created several tools and resources to support countries in their back-to-school efforts. This joint UNICEF Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia (UNICEF/ ECARO) and WHO Regional Office for Europe Schooling Resource Pack has an easy-to-find compilation of materials to help parents/caregivers, teachers and students return to school safely.

The State of the World's Children 2021: on my mind: promoting, protecting and caring for children’s mental health

AUTHOR(S)
Brian Keeley; Juliano Diniz de Oliveira; Tara Dooley

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about the mental health of a generation of children. But the pandemic may represent the tip of a mental health iceberg – an iceberg we have ignored for far too long. The State of the World’s Children 2021 examines child, adolescent and caregiver mental health. It focuses on risks and protective factors at critical moments in the life course and delves into the social determinants that shape mental health and well-being. It calls for commitment, communication and action as part of a comprehensive approach to promote good mental health for every child, protect vulnerable children and care for children facing the greatest challenges.

What factors are most closely associated with mood disorders in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic? A cross-sectional study based on 1,771 adolescents in Shandong Province, China

AUTHOR(S)
Ziyuan Ren; Yaodong Xin; Zhonglin Wang (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

COVID-19 has been proven to harm adolescents' mental health, and several psychological influence factors have been proposed. However, the importance of these factors in the development of mood disorders in adolescents during the pandemic still eludes researchers, and practical strategies for mental health education are limited. This study constructed a sample of 1,771 adolescents from three junior high middle schools, three senior high middle schools, and three independent universities in Shandong province, China. The sample stratification was set as 5:4:3 for adolescent aged from 12 – 15, 15 – 18, 18 – 19.

Prevalence of internet addiction disorder and its correlates among clinically stable adolescents with psychiatric disorders in China during the COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Zong-Lei Li; Rui Liu; Fan He (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged, Internet usage has increased among adolescents. Due to this trend, the prevalence of Internet addiction disorder (IAD) may have increased within this group. This study examined the prevalence of IAD and its correlates among clinically stable adolescents with psychiatric disorders in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. A multi-center, cross-sectional study was carried out between April 29 and June 9, 2020 in three major tertiary mental health centers in China. IAD and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively.

COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy and lactation: current research and gaps in understanding

AUTHOR(S)
Lydia L. Shook; Parisa N. Fallah; Jason N. Silberman (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Infection
The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the urgent need to develop vaccine strategies optimized for pregnant people and their newborns, as both populations are at risk of developing severe disease. Although not included in COVID-19 vaccine development trials, pregnant people have had access to these vaccines since their initial release in the US and abroad. The rapid development and distribution of novel COVID-19 vaccines to people at risk, including those who are pregnant and lactating, presents an unprecedented opportunity to further our understanding of vaccine-induced immunity in these populations. This review aims to summarize the literature to date on COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy and lactation and highlight opportunities for investigation that may inform future maternal vaccine development and implementation strategies.
The impact of COVID-19 on cognitive development and executive functioning in adolescents: a first exploratory investigation

AUTHOR(S)
Alessandro Frolli; Maria Carla Ricci; Francesca Di Carmine

Published: September 2021   Journal: Brain Sciences
The rapid expansion and severity of the COVID-19 contagion has had negative physical and psychological health implications for millions of people around the world, but even more so among children and adolescents. Given the severity of the situation and the small number of studies on the direct influence of viral infection on the cognitive development within adolescents, the present study aims at understanding the consequences of contracting the virus and being hospitalized in relation to cognitive functioning, in particular, for executive functioning, among adolescents.
The approach of pregnant women to vaccination based on a COVID-19 systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Sławomir M. Januszek; Anna Faryniak-Zuzak; Edyta Barnaś (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Medicina
Pregnant women are more likely to develop a more severe course of COVID-19 than their non-pregnant peers. There are many arguments for the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review concerning the approach of pregnant women towards vaccination against COVID-19, with particular regard to determinants of vaccination acceptance.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 57 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, pregnancy, pregnant women, vaccination, vaccination policies
Teacher expectations and parental stress during emergency distance learning and their relationship to students’ perception

AUTHOR(S)
Ariana Garrote; Edith Niederbacher; Jan Hofmann (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
School closures in spring 2020 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic were an unprecedented and drastic event for students, parents, and teachers. The unplanned adaptation of classroom instruction to emergency distance learning was necessary to ensure continued education. In this new learning environment, teachers formed expectations for student academic achievement gains, which in turn affected the opportunities for students to learn. Parents faced new challenges in supporting their children’s learning. According to parenting stress models, such drastic events can be a stress factor for parents, which in turn affects their children’s adjustment. This study analyzed the extent to which parents and teachers affected the perceptions of students in compulsory school toward distance learning through processes at home (individual level) and at the class level with data from multiple informants. On an individual level, the relationship between parents’ perceived threat of COVID-19 and their stress due to distance learning and students’ perceived threat of COVID-19 and their perception of distance learning were examined. Students’ learning behavior was accounted for as a variable related to their perception of distance learning. At the class level, the explanatory character of teacher expectations and class-aggregated achievement gains were examined. Data on students in grades 4 to 8, parents, and teachers in Switzerland were collected with standardized online questionnaires after the period of school closures.
The protective role of parent resilience on mental health and the parent–child relationship during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Beth S. Russell; Alexandria J. Tomkunas; Morica Hutchison (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 pandemic is linked to particularly potent psychological effects for children and their caregivers while families adjust to new daily routines for work, education, and self-care. Longitudinal associations are presented from a national sample of 271 parents (mean age = 35.29 years, 48.5% female) on resilience, mental health and stress indicators, and parenting outcomes. Multigroup path model results indicate significant associations between resilience and parent stress or parent perceived child stress initiates a sequence of significant linkages to parent depression, followed by caregiver burden and parent–child relationship quality. This final set of linkages between depression and both parenting outcomes were significantly stronger for men, who also reported higher rates of perceived child stress. Results suggest that fathers’ depression symptoms and associated spill-over to perceived child stress is producing stronger effects on their parenting experiences than effects reported by mothers.
Postpartum women’s psychological experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic: a modified recurrent cross-sectional thematic analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Leanne Jackson; Leonardo De Pascalis; Joanne A. Harrold (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

COVID-19 has placed additional stressors on mothers during an already vulnerable lifecourse transition. Initial social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 1; T1) and initial changes to those social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 2; T2) have disrupted postpartum access to practical and emotional support. This qualitative study explores the postpartum psychological experiences of UK women during different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated ‘lockdowns’. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 women, approximately 30 days after initial social distancing guidelines were imposed in the UK (22 April 2020). A separate 12 women were interviewed approximately 30 days after the initial easing of social distancing restrictions (10 June 2020). Data were transcribed verbatim, uploaded into NVivo for management and analysis, which followed a recurrent cross-sectional approach to thematic analysis.

The COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study on the emotional-behavioral sequelae for children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric disorders and their families

AUTHOR(S)
Alessia Raffagnato; Sara Iannattone; Benedetta Tascini (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study aimed to investigate the immediate and short-term impact of the pandemic on the psychological well-being of Italian children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and their families. Overall, 56 patients aged 6–18 (M = 13.4 years, SD = 2.77) and their parents were evaluated during the COVID-19 lockdown (T0) and after 4 months (T1). An ad hoc data sheet, Youth Self-Report 11–18 (YSR), Child Behavior Checklist 6–18 (CBCL), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were administered. Patients, mainly suffering from internalizing disorders, overall demonstrated a good adaptation to the pandemic context. Moreover, patients with behavioral disorders showed a greater psychological discomfort at both T0 and T1 compared to patients with internalizing disorders.
Severe social anxiety among adolescents during COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Mohamad H. Itani; Ekram Eltannir; Hayat Tinawi (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Patient Experience
This research aims to study the prevalence of severe social anxiety (SSA) among a group of adolescents during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A total of 178 adolescents attending the private clinics of the authors were screened online for the presence of SSA, by using the self-reporting format of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for children and adolescents (LSAS-CA). SSA defined as LSAS-CA scores of 80 or more was checked for statistical association with the adolescents’ sociodemographic data and knowledge about the COVID-19 infection. The 18% of our participants had SSA, no correlation was found between having SSA and ä acknowledging or fearing the COVID-19 morbidity. Factors associated with SSA included texting, using social media, and playing video games during the lockdown. Mitigating factors include high family socioeconomic status, history of socialization with friends, and the use of WhatsApp as a source of information about COVID-19 infection.
Brief report: A cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and concerns of Chinese families of children with special educational needs and disabilities post-first-wave of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Xueyun Su; Ru Ying Cai; Mirko Uljarević (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has a multifaceted impact on mental health due to ill health, restrictions and lockdowns, and loss of employment and institutional support. COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already higher prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Therefore, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND in order to identify their ongoing health support needs. The current study aims to examine the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in China. The sample consisted of 271 parents of children with SEND aged between 6 and 17 years (Mage = 8.37; SDage = 2.76). Parents completed an online survey between 10 April to 8 June 2020. Both child and parental anxiety levels and various concerns increased after the initial wave of COVID-19 when compared with retrospective pre-COVID-19 levels. Parental anxiety and concern levels were significantly higher for those living in rural areas compared to urban areas. In addition, parental and child anxiety and concern levels were significantly correlated with each other. Parental anxiety at the lowest level made a unique and significant statistical contribution to children's anxiety levels. The implications of the study findings are discussed.
Financial and work burden, psychosocial functioning, and family interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia: effects on child outcomes

AUTHOR(S)
Yulina Eva Riany; Alina Morawska

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected all aspects of family life worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effects of several family factors on child outcomes during the pandemic in Indonesia, a country with approximately 260 million people. A range of child maladjustment and child competency variables were examined, along with a set of associated variables, including family income, psychosocial functioning, and family interactions, which were modelled via Structural Equation Modelling to understand the interrelationships between variables associated with child adjustment. Using an online survey, a total of 354 parents with at least one typically developing child between the age of 2 and 10 years participated in this study.
16 - 30 of 2998

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.