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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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21 - 40 of 107
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and/or adolescents: a meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Alessandro Mantovani; Elisabetta Rinaldi; Chiara Zusi; et al.

Published: June 2020   Nature Paediatric Research
This review systematically researched in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases observational studies describing COVID-19 in children and/or adolescents until April 11, 2020. Data regarding clinical and radiological features were extracted from eligible studies and meta-analysis was performed using random-effects modeling. The study finds that children and/or adolescents tend to have a mild COVID-19 course with a good prognosis.
Compared to adults, children and/or adolescents tend to have a mild COVID-19 course with a good prognosis.
Behavioural and Emotional Disorders in Children During the COVID-19 Epidemic

AUTHOR(S)
Wen YanJiao; Lin Na Wang; Juan Liu; et al.

Published: June 2020   The Journal of Pediatrics

Since December 2019, health systems around the globe have struggled with an increasing number of cases of a viral respiratory syndrome that emerged in China. The cause is a new strain in the coronavirus family, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)1, SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19. The European Paediatric Association–Union of National European Paediatric Societies and Associations (EPA-UNEPSA) has established a collaborative working group with key Chinese academic institutions and medical centers with the purpose of facilitating the reciprocal exchange of information and sharing scientific knowledge. The aim of this commentary by the China-EPA-UNEPSA working group is to raise awareness regarding children's psychological needs during epidemics and report early data collected in the COVID-19–affected areas in China during the current outbreak, emphasizing the role of families and caregivers in the timely recognition and management of negative emotions.

COVID-19 in Children and Adolescents in Europe: A Multinational, Multicentre Cohort Study

AUTHOR(S)
Petra Prunk; Veronika Osterman; Uros Krivec; et al.

Published: June 2020   The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
To date, few data on paediatric COVID-19 have been published, and most reports originate from China. This study aimed to capture key data on children and adolescents with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection across Europe to inform physicians and health-care service planning during the ongoing pandemic.
The Secondary Impacts of COVID-19 on Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Tal Rafaeli; Geraldine Hutchinson

Published: June 2020   K4D Helpdesk Report
Based on emerging evidence and lessons from past health crises, there is strong evidence to suggest that women and girls in SSA will suffer from extreme and multifaceted negative secondary impact as a result of the COVID-19 crisis. Some of which may include higher poverty rates, increase in unplanned pregnancies, a surge in school dropout rates and child labour of adolescent girls, loss of income and reduced financial empowerment, increased household work, reduced access to healthcare and WASH alongside increased maternal deaths, and greater food insecurity and malnutrition.
Soro Sali, a 39 years old woman is practicing Kangaroo, at the Regional Hospital of Korhogo, in the North of Côte d'Ivoire.
Data to inform the COVID-19 response
Published: June 2020 UNICEF Publication
Timely, disaggregated, and quality data on the situation of children can help identify where the most vulnerable live so that interventions to counteract the potential adverse effects of COVID-19 can be implemented to reach those most in need. UNICEF’s call to protect children, especially the most marginalized, is essential now more than ever and our global databases can inform that response by painting a picture of children around the world. In the face of this unprecedented crisis, where are children especially vulnerable to physical punishment? Are sufficient hygiene facilities available in schools? And is healthcare accessible for children with acute respiratory symptoms? How will the most vulnerable children, such as those living on the street or in refugee camps fare? Data like these can provide guidance for UNICEF and country programmes so that our efforts to mitigate and overcome the effects of the pandemic can be measured.
Reshmi Prabhu (12) in a cotton field in Karnatarka, India. She previously worked in the fields before being enrolled in school for the first time this year. 
COVID-19 and Child Labour: A time of crisis, a time to act
Published: June 2020 UNICEF Publication
Recent years have seen significant progress in the fight against child labour. The current COVID-19 pandemic, however, can potentially reverse the positive trends observed in several countries and further aggravate the problem in regions where child labour has been more resistant to policy and programme measures.
The level of global economic integration and the current crisis are likely to have a large and possibly lasting worldwide adverse socio-economic and financial impact. The pandemic is increasing economic insecurity causing disruptions in supply chains, falling commodity prices, in particular oil, and halting the manufacturing industry. The financial markets have been particularly affected, tightening liquidity conditions in many countries and creating unprecedented outflows of capital in many economies.
The paper discusses the main channels through which the current pandemic can influence child labour, including fall in living standards; deteriorating employment opportunities; rise in informality; reduction in remittances and migration; contraction of trade and foreign direct investment; temporary school closures; health shocks; pressure on public budgets and international aid flows.
Migrant and displaced children in the age of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Danzen You; Naomi Lindt; Rose Allen; et al.

Published: June 2020   Migration Policy Practice

This article examines the socioeconomic challenges that the COVID-19 pandemic poses for children on the move across four dimensions: poverty, survival and health, learning and protection and safety.  It also considers how new laws and regulations enacted in response to the pandemic are impacting these children. It then suggests the necessary policies and actions to protect this intensely vulnerable population. 
Many displaced children will see their family’s income shrink or disappear and, globally, poverty levels are expected to worsen. Vulnerable populations are predicted to disproportionately bear the brunt of this economic contraction. Poor health systems and disrupted health services – a reality for many migrant and displaced children – are likely to further weaken, placing children at risk of intensified hardship, both physical and psychological. The crowded conditions and poor access to proper water and sanitation common among families living in displacement pose obvious risks at a time when social distancing and hygiene are so critical.  
Migrant and displaced learners regularly encounter obstacles in accessing education, and the online materials and remote classrooms functioning around the world today may be far from their reach. They are at risk of falling further behind in school. And given that economic downturns typically lead to more children working, getting pregnant or married, and being trafficked or sexually exploited, migrant and displaced children – who already face great risks to their safety — stand to see their situation worsen. Domestic violence is on the rise globally, and accounts of stigma and discrimination against the displaced are also increasing. The increasing global death toll means some migrant and displaced children will be orphaned and become vulnerable to child protection abuses.  

Challenges of COVID-19 in children in low- and middle-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Heather J. Zar; Jeanette Dawa; Gilberto B. Fischer

Published: June 2020   Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
As the coronavirus pandemic extends to low and middle income countries (LMICs), there are growing concerns about the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in populations with high prevalence of comorbidities, the impact on health and economies more broadly and the capacity of existing health systems to manage the additional burden of COVID-19. The direct effects of COVID are less of a concern in children, who seem to be largely asymptomatic or to develop mild illness as occurs in high income countries; however children in LMICs constitute a high proportion of the population and may have a high prevalence of risk factors for severe lower respiratory infection such as HIV or malnutrition. Further diversion of resources from child health to address the pandemic among adults may further impact on care for children. Poor living conditions in LMICs including lack of sanitation, running water and overcrowding may facilitate transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The indirect effects of the pandemic on child health are of considerable concern, including increasing poverty levels, disrupted schooling, lack of access to school feeding schemes, reduced access to health facilities and interruptions in vaccination and other child health programs. Further challenges in LMICs include the inability to implement effective public health measures such as social distancing, hand hygiene, timely identification of infected people with self-isolation and universal use of masks. Lack of adequate personal protective equipment, especially N95 masks is a key concern for health care worker protection. While continued schooling is crucial for children in LMICs, provision of safe environments is especially challenging in overcrowded resource constrained schools. The current crisis is a harsh reminder of the global inequity in health in LMICs. The pandemic highlights key challenges to the provision of health in LMICs, but also provides opportunities to strengthen child health broadly in such settings.
Rapid Systematic Review: The Impact of Social Isolation and Loneliness on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in the Context of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Elizabeth Loades DClinPsy; Eleanor Chatburn; Nina Higson-Sweeney

Published: June 2020   Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in governments implementing disease containment measures such as school closures, social distancing and home quarantine. Children and adolescents are experiencing a prolonged state of physical isolation from their peers, teachers, extended family and community networks. Quarantine in adults generally has negative psychological effects including confusion, anger, and post-traumatic distress. Duration of quarantine, infection fears, boredom, frustration, lack of necessary supplies, lack of information, financial loss, and stigma appear to increase the risk of negative psychological outcomes. Social distancing and school closures may, therefore, increase mental health problems in children and adolescents, already at higher risk of developing mental health problems compared to adults  at a time when they are also experiencing anxiety over a health threat and threats to family employment/income.
COVID-19 in 7780 pediatric patients: A systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Ansel Hoang; Kevin Chorat; Axel Moreira; et al.

Published: June 2020   E Clinical Medicine
This review characterizes clinical symptoms, laboratory, and imaging findings, as well as therapies provided to 7780 confirmed pediatric cases of COVID-19. Evidence shows that that children diagnosed with COVID-19 have an overall good prognosis. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings and better understand which patients are at increased risk for developing severe inflammation and multiorgan failure.
Impact of COVID -19 on children: special focus on the psychosocial aspect

AUTHOR(S)
Ritwik Ghosh; Mahua J. Dubei; Subhankar Chatterjee; Souvik Dubei

Published: June 2020   Minerva Pediatrica
Although medical literature shows that children are minimally susceptible to 2019-Corona virus disease (COVID-19), they are hit the hardest by psychosocial impact of this pandemic. Being quarantined in homes and institutions may impose greater psychological burden than the physical sufferings caused by the virus. School closure, lack of outdoor activity, aberrant dietary and sleeping habits are likely to disrupt children’s usual lifestyle and can potentially promote monotony, distress, impatience, annoyance and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations. Incidences of domestic violence, child abuse, adulterated online contents are on the rise. Children of single parent and frontline workers suffer unique problems. The children from marginalized communities are particularly susceptible to the infection and may suffer from extended ill-consequences of this pandemic, such as child labor, child trafficking, child marriage, sexual exploitation and death etc. Parents, pediatricians, psychologists, social workers, hospital authorities, government and non-governmental organizations have important roles to play to mitigate the psychosocial ill-effects of COVID-19 on children and adolescents. To provide the basic amenities, social security, medical care, and to minimize the educational inequities among the children of the different strata of the society are foremost priorities.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 72 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 226-35 | Language: English | Tags: child mental health, domestic violence, COVID-19 | Topics: Mental Health
Children's (in)visibility in social vulnerability and the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19)

AUTHOR(S)
Marialda Moreira Christoffel; Ana Leticia Monteiro Gomes; Tania Vignuda de Souza; Lia Leao Ciuffo

Published: June 2020   Revista brasileira de enfermagem

This reflective study is based on discursive formulation in three aspects: principles of the objectives and goals for the millennium sustainable development; impact of the pandemic on the health of children and their families living in social vulnerability; and the role of pediatric nursing in the care provided - limits and challenges. In January 2020, the news of COVID 19 is released as a pandemic. In Brazil, children and families are still without access to basic rights, thereby increasing their risks of social vulnerability because of the quarantine. The nursing field has an important role in monitoring children and their families, offering guidance in search for solutions and preventing contamination. There are still challenges to be overcome by the children and their families in situations of vulnerability against COVID-19.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 29 | Issue: 73 (Supplement 2) | Language: English | Tags: child care, child health, poor children, SDGs, COVID-19, vulnerable children | Topics: Child Protection | Countries: Brazil
Will COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown increase myopia in Indian children?

AUTHOR(S)
Muthu Sumitha; Srinivasan Sunjay; Vasudha Kemmanu; et al.

Published: June 2020   Indian Journal of Ophtalmology
Like most other Asian countries, India has also seen a gradual increase in the incidence and prevalence of myopia. Increased screen‑time, prolonged near work, reduced outdoor activities are some of the important risk factors for myopia according to various studies. Countries like China, where schools have replaced books with tablets and computers, evidently have a higher incidence of myopia.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 68 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 1496 | Language: English | Tags: child health, COVID-19 | Topics: Health | Countries: India
Domestic violence during COVID-19: the GP role.

AUTHOR(S)
Jeremy Gibson

Published: June 2020   British Journal of General Practice

Threatened by COVID-19, the world has been on lockdown. But within the walls of their own homes many women face an enemy more terrifying than COVID-19. The domestic abuse charity Refuge reported a 700% increase in calls in a single day.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 70 | Issue: 696 | No. of pages: 340 | Language: English | Tags: domestic violence, COVID-19 | Topics: Child Protection
Child abuse: a hidden crisis during COVID-19 quarantine

AUTHOR(S)
Maximilian Andreas Storz

Published: June 2020   Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health

According to the WHO, children and their mothers living in abusive relationships are now more likely to be exposed to violence. Family members spend more time in close contact, and families have to cope with additional stress and potential economic or job losses. We must not forget about these children.

Coronavirus (COVID‐19) pandemic: personal view to a new model of paediatric practice

AUTHOR(S)
Zakaria Barsoum

Published: June 2020   Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health
Virtual consultations minimise the risk of COVID‐19 transmission, promote public protection and reduce the backlog of waiting lists during this time of testing. Although clinical confidence and appropriateness of use may vary in various aspects of clinical care, the author's experience in paediatric allergy is satisfactory.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 1 | Tags: child care, COVID-19 | Topics: Health
Why children avoid the worst coronavirus complications might lie in their arteries

AUTHOR(S)
David Cyranoski

Published: June 2020   Nature
Evidence is mounting that healthy blood vessels protect children from serious effects of COVID-19, such as stroke.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 582 | No. of pages: 324-325 | Tags: child health, COVID-19 | Topics: Health
Paediatrics is a big player of COVID-19 in Hong Kong

AUTHOR(S)
K.L. Hon; Karen K.Y. Leung

Published: June 2020   Hong Kong Medical Journal
As of 23 April 2020, there have been 104 confirmed paediatric cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong. Fortunately, all cases were mild or asymptomatic with no fatalities. The proportion of patients with COVID-19 who are aged <19 years is 14.1% in Hong Kong, which is higher than other countries . This may be attributable to high numbers of overseas students returning to Hong Kong; even those who are asymptomatic are tested as part of the current border controls. Mortality for patients aged <19 years is very low, with less than 10 reported cases, mostly teenagers.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 26 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 265-266 | Language: English | Tags: child health, COVID-19 | Topics: Health | Countries: Hong Kong
Should Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Inflammatory Syndromes in Children Affect Social Reintegration?

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Portman; Rolando Cimaz

Published: June 2020   JAMA Pediatrics
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appears to induce this new condition, which has been called pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome (PIMS) or pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and described in detail by investigators in Europe and New York, New York. Pediatric inflammatory syndromes presumably triggered by SARS-CoV-2 exposure deserve heightened awareness because they have critical and potentially life-altering outcomes on affected children. However, unless a substantial increase in case numbers occurs over the coming months, these syndromes remain rare and should not be used to substantially change decisions affecting millions of schoolchildren, given the negative outcomes of delaying school reopenings. These include adverse outcomes on child mental health and learning. Additionally, school delays will produce further societal inequities.
Comment les enfants et adolescents avec le trouble déficit d’attention/hyperactivité (TDAH) vivent-ils le confinement durant la pandémie COVID-19 ?

AUTHOR(S)
E. Bobo; L. Lin; E. Acquaviva; et al.

Published: June 2020   L'Encéphale
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the French government has decided a general lockdown. This unprecedented situation has raised concerns about children's and adolescent's mental health. Children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may find this context of restrained activity particularly tricky. The objectives of our study are to gather information about the well-being and global life conditions of children and adolescents with ADHD during the COVID-19 outbreak in France.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 46 | Issue: 3, Supplement | No. of pages: 585-592 | Language: French | Tags: child mental health, COVID-19, lockdown | Topics: Mental Health
21 - 40 of 107

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents. Learn more.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.