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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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3691 - 3705 of 5225
Safe back to school: Sierra Leone
Institution: Save the Children
Published: March 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated an existing learning crisis in Sierra Leone, and has disrupted the learning of over 2.4 million children across the country. The most marginalised and deprived children, including girls, children from poor households, and children from rural areas, already had limited access to good quality education prior to the pandemic, and are now at an increased risk of being left behind, and not returning to school at all. Save the Children are calling on the Government of Sierra Leone to commit to realising the right to quality education for all children by ensuring that all children are able to return to school safely, and that long-term, systemic issues with the education system damaging the quality of learning are acted on to ensure that all children are able to access good quality education.

Working children in crisis-hit Lebanon: exploring the linkages between food insecurity and child labour
Food insecurity has increased significantly in Lebanon during the past year; nearly 97% of the Syrian refugees on Lebanese soil are marginally or completely food insecure. Food basednegative coping mechanisms have also increased and infant and young child feeding practices have deteriorated. Food is the main expenditure for the most vulnerable households. According to the last available figure on this topic (2016), at least 100,000 children were working in Lebanon and this trend is expected increase. The objective of this report is to draw attention to the linkage between food insecurity and child labour, and its recent evolution in Lebanon. ACF and IRC developed questionnaires and interviewed 648 individuals between July and September 2020 in the Bekaa, Beirut, North and South Lebanon. The interviewees were mostly Syrian refugees but also Lebanese individuals and working children were included. The survey findings were complemented by existing research findings from NRC and CAMEALEON and data from the Lebanon Protection Consortium (LPC).
Direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 pandemic and response in South Asia

Over recent decades, South Asia has made remarkable progress in improving the health of mothers and children. But the year 2020 brought a great shock to South Asia, as it did to the whole world. The COVID-19 pandemic has had major and multiple impacts – both direct and indirect. One of the critical indirect impacts has been severe disruptions to the delivery and use of routine services, including essential health and nutrition services. The region saw significant drops in the use of both preventive and curative services. Direct and Indirect Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic and Response in South Asia uses a series of exercises based on actual observed changes in services and intervention coverage to model impacts on mortality, hospitalizations, and ICU admissions due to COVID-19. It also models the impact of nationwide stay-at-home orders to curb the spread of COVID-19 on maternal and child mortality, educational attainment of children, and the region’s economy. The study focuses on South Asia’s six most populous countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka and makes the case for interventions and strategies to minimise these indirect consequences.

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the clinical outcomes and placental pathology of pregnant women and their infants: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Irina Oltean; Jason Tran; Sarah Lawrence (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Heliyon
Pregnant women are susceptible to viral infections due to physiological changes such as cell-mediated immunity. No severe adverse pregnancy or neonatal outcomes have been consistently reported in 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) positive pregnancy cases. There are controversies around the role of COVID-19 in pregnancy. A systematic review was conducted to examine clinical maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes. Studies were included if they reported SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women and/or COVID-19 positive neonates as validated by positive antibody testing or viral testing using polymerase chain reaction. Case series, case reports, case-control studies, and comparative studies were included. Eight hundred and thirty-seven records were identified, resulting in 525 records for level I screening. Forty-one were included after full-text review.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children in summer schools applying stringent control measures in Barcelona, Spain

AUTHOR(S)
Iolanda Jordan; Mariona Fernandez de Sevilla; Victoria Fumado (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Understanding the role of children in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is critical to guide decision-making for schools in the pandemic. We aimed to describe the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adult staff in summer schools.
Influence of SARS-COV-2 during pregnancy: a placental view

AUTHOR(S)
Marcos Aurélio Santos da Costa; Diana Babini Lapa de Albuquerque Britto; Jennyfer Martins de Carvalho (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Biology of Reproduction
Since the beginning of the current coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19), there has been great concern over a disease that has spread rapidly in several countries worldwide, with the result of several deaths, including deaths of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on placental changes in infected pregnant women and/or asymptomatic carriers of COVID-19 during pregnancy, aiming at the possible vertical transmission. A systematic collection was carried out on the effects of that COVID-19 can cause directly and/or indirectly to pregnancy and the placenta in the following databases: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, Lilacs, and Web of Science.
Psychospiritual care for parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Randy G. Quendan; Reiner B. Lingad; Ivan Efreaim A. Gozum

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Health
In a recent article, energy poverty increases the likelihood of depression in parents. The authors responded that this situation must be given attention because parental well-being can influence child development and outcomes. With this, this paper proposes that an avenue that can be done is by providing a psychospiritual care for parents especially during the COVID-19 pandemic in which anxieties among family members arise.
Household SARS-CoV-2 transmission and children: a network prospective study

AUTHOR(S)
Antoni Soriano-Arandes; Anna Gatell; Pepe Serrano (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
The role of children in household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains uncertain. Here, we describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children with COVID-19 in Catalonia (Spain) and investigate the dynamics of household transmission. Prospective, observational, multicenter study performed during summer and school periods (1 July31 October, 2020), in which epidemiological and clinical features, and viral transmission dynamics were analyzed in COVID-19 patients <16 years. A pediatric index case was established when a child was the first individual infected within a household. Secondary cases were defined when another household member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 before the child. The secondary attack rate (SAR) was calculated, and logistic regression was used to assess associations between transmission risk factors and SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 32 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease transmission, family, household, infectious disease | Countries: Spain
Influence of the characteristics of the house and place of residence in the daily educational activities of children during the period of COVID-19’ confinement

AUTHOR(S)
María Luisa Zagalaz-Sanchez; Javier Cachon-Zagalaz; Víctor Arufe-Giraldez (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Heliyon
The period of confinement motivated by the COVID-19 pandemic and established by the governments of different countries has influenced the lifestyle of millions of children, not being able to continue carrying out multiple educational activities as they did until confinement. The objective of this research was to determine and analyze whether the living conditions of children during the period of confinement caused by COVID-19 influenced their daily educational activities. A descriptive, comparative and cross-sectional quantitative study with a non-experimental design was carried out, with a single measurement in a single group. Factors associate with living conditions were analyzed, such as the place of residence and the type of house in which Spanish children have been confined, as well as the number and use of technological devices. The parents' perception of the children's state of fatigue, happiness, energy and tiredness was also analyzed.
COVID-19 in youth soccer during summer 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Andrew M. Watson; Kristin Haraldsdottir; Kevin Biese

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Athletic Training

As sports reinitiate around the country, the incidence of COVID-19 among youth soccer athletes remains unknown. This paper aims to determine the incidence of COVID-19 among youth soccer athletes and the risk mitigation practices utilized by youth soccer organizations.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 65 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 22 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescents, COVID-19 response, infectious disease, physical activity, youth
Impact of COVID-19 on mental health in adolescents: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth A. K. Jones; Amal K. Mitra; Azad R. Bhuiyan

Published: March 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Due to lack of sufficient data on the psychological toll of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent mental health, this systematic analysis aims to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on adolescent mental health. This study follows the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews of 16 quantitative studies conducted in 2019–2021 with 40,076 participants. Globally, adolescents of varying backgrounds experience higher rates of anxiety, depression, and stress due to the pandemic. Secondly, adolescents also have a higher frequency of using alcohol and cannabis during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social support, positive coping skills, home quarantining, and parent–child discussions seem to positively impact adolescent mental health during this period of crisis. Whether in the United States or abroad, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted adolescent mental health. Therefore, it is important to seek and to use all of the available resources and therapies to help adolescents mediate the adjustments caused by the pandemic
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on behavioral and emotional aspects and daily routines of Arab Israeli children

AUTHOR(S)
Rafat Ghanamah; Hazar Eghbaria-Ghanamah

Published: March 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Negative psychological effects of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been identified in adults and children, such as anxiety and sleep disorders. However, research about the impact of this pandemic on children from ethnical minorities is scarce. We tested the effects of COVID-19 outbreak on psychological aspects and daily routines among Arab Israeli Children. An online crosssectional survey was conducted among Arab Israeli parents, including behavioral and emotional aspects questionnaire and questions addressing using of screens, sleep, and physical activities.
Sleep and the general behavior of infants and parents during the closure of schools as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic: comparison with 2019 data

AUTHOR(S)
Yasuaki Shinomiya; Arika Yoshizaki; Emi Murata (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Children
This study compared cross-sectional data from online surveys describing the sleep behavior of infants and caregivers in March 2020 (the school closure period during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic; n = 295, 23.8 ± 3.8 months old) and March 2019 (before the pandemic; n = 2017, 24.2 ± 3.8 months old).
COVID-19 and the Looming Debt Crisis: Protecting and Transforming Social Spending for Inclusive Recoveries

Compounding the COVID-19 pandemic is a looming debt crisis for low- and middle-income countries where a growing debt burden threatens to crowd out social spending for children.

This policy brief explores whether the current support from the international community is enough to maintain spending on basic services during COVID-19. It highlights countries that are most at risk due to high levels of poverty, as well as those less likely to benefit from the G20 Debt Standstill (DSSI). It concludes that a new international debt restructuring architecture, which encompasses the needs of poorer countries, is crucial to protecting children’s rights in the wake of COVID-19. 

Old tricks, new opportunities: how companies violate the International code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes and undermine maternal and child health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Constance Ching; Paul Zambrano; Tuan T. Nguyen (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Breastfeeding is critical to maternal and child health and survival, and the benefits persist until later in life. Inappropriate marketing of breastmilk substitutes (BMS), feeding bottles, and teats threatens the enabling environment of breastfeeding, and exacerbates child mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition, especially in the context of COVID-19. These tactics also violate the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. This study identified marketing tactics of BMS companies since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic by reviewing promotional materials and activities from 9 companies in 14 countries, and the official Code reporting data from the Philippines.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.