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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Child and family outcomes following pandemics: a systematic review and recommendations on COVID-19 policies

AUTHOR(S)
Vanessa C. Fong; Grace Iarocci

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
A systematic review of mental health outcomes and needs of children and families during past pandemics was conducted based on the PRISMA protocol. The objectives were to evaluate the quality of existing studies on this topic, determine what is known about mental health outcomes and needs of children and families, and provide recommendations for how COVID-19 policies can best support children and families.
Systematic review of the literature about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the lives of school children

AUTHOR(S)
Javier Cachón-Zagalaz; María Sánchez-Zafra; Déborah Sanabrias-Moreno (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

The year 2020 has been marked by the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This virus has reached many countries and has paralyzed the lives of many people who have been forced to stay at home in confinement. There have been many studies that have sought to analyze the impact of this pandemic from different perspectives; however, this study will pay attention to how it has affected and how it may affect children between 0 and 12 years in the future after the closure of schools for months. The objective of this article is to learn about the research carried out on the child population in times of confinement, especially those dealing with the psychological and motor aspects of minors.

COVID-19 and children: UNICEF data hub
Institution: UNICEF Data & Analytics
Published: October 2020

Children are not the face of this pandemic. But they risk being among its biggest victims, as children’s lives are nonetheless being changed in profound ways. All children, of all ages, and in all countries, are being affected, in particular by the socio-economic impacts and, in some cases, by mitigation measures that may inadvertently do more harm than good. Moreover, the harmful effects of this pandemic will not be distributed equally. They are expected to be most damaging for children in the poorest countries, and in the poorest neighbourhoods, and for those in already disadvantaged or vulnerable situations. The potential losses that may accrue in learning for today’s young generation, and for the development of their human capital, are hard to fathom. 188 countries imposed countrywide school closures during the pandemic, affecting more than 1.6 billion children and youth. Even prior to the pandemic, however, children’s learning was in crisis, and the pandemic has only sharpened these inequities, hitting schoolchildren in poorer countries particularly hard. Globally, many schools lack the resources to invest in digital learning, and many children from poorer households do not have internet access.

Impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on children with ADHD and their families: an online survey and a continuity care model

AUTHOR(S)
Ruchita Shah; V. Venkatesh Raju; Akhilesh Sharma (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Little is known about the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on children with attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to assess the impact of lockdown on children with the ADHD, and their families. Additionally, feasibility of carrying out “text message-based” intervention was evaluated. Methods An online survey was performed to evaluate the impact of lockdown on children with ADHD and their family members. Additionally, a “text message”-based intervention was performed over 2 weeks. Along with the text-based intervention, we also provided reading materials and an option of telephonic consultation.
Anxiety symptoms in healthcare workers and their children during the Covid-19 pandemic In Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Berkan Şahin; Esra Hosoglu; Bedia Sultan Önal

Published: October 2020
Infectious disease outbreaks not only affect the physical health of patients but also affect the psychological health and well-being of the uninfected population. High rates of psychiatric symptoms and stress are observed in the general population in COVID-19 pandemic and healthcare workers (HCWs) reported higher-risk perception and anxiety level. This study aimed to evaluate the anxiety levels of HCWs and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey.
Vulnerability in facing the Covid-19 pandemic in the light of relational trauma

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Simonič; Christian Gostečnik; Tanja Repič Slavič (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Person and the Challenges

Coping with the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed different ways individuals react to frustrations they have experienced. Many times we have witnessed an increased level of aggression in interpersonal relationships and in the general social context. There are some differences in coping and responding according to gender, with men showing a higher level of vulnerability and risk of inappropriate regulation and expression of anger when frustrated. To a certain extent, the answer to why this happens is provided by neuroscientific research, which shows that already at an early age, boys’ brains develop differently from girls’, as it takes more time to develop their stress-regulating mechanism; consequently, due to slower development, boys are more vulnerable to early stressful situations and have more problems with self-regulation of affective states at this early age. Together with the possibility of relational trauma in the family, to which many children are exposed from the earliest period of their lives and which plays an important role in providing a context for the development of affect regulation, that means that boys and men are even more vulnerable and sensitive to stress, aggression and trauma later in life. It makes sense to take these neuroscience findings into account when building an understanding of responses to stressful challenges, such as coping with a pandemic, as well as when planning appropriate models to help individuals cope with different types of stress.

Child care and COVID: precarious communities in distanced times

AUTHOR(S)
Beth Blue Swadener; Lacey Peters; Dana Frantz Bentley (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Global Studies of Childhood
Drawing from an analysis of responses to COVID affecting the ECCE sector in the US, including the narratives of early childhood educators, this study engages with several questions. These include: How is care work with children constructed and affected by COVID-19? How might current responses and policies be understood through the lens of social citizenship and the collective/the individual? How do these issues reflect the precarity of the ECCE sector? How are embodied and emotional aspects of care work manifesting in early educator/caregiver lives in the time of the pandemic? Who is caring for the caregivers and what care may be needed? How can we re-imagine the care of ourselves, and in relation to an ethics of care for the other?
Characteristics of symptomatic women of reproductive age with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by pregnancy status

AUTHOR(S)
Laura D. Zambrano; Sascha Ellington; Penelope Strid (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Limited information suggests that pregnant women with COVID-19 might be at increased risk for severe illness compared with non-pregnant women. In an analysis of approximately 400,000 women aged 15–44 years with symptomatic COVID-19, intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death were more likely in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness including death; measures to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized for pregnant women and their families. These findings can inform clinical practice, risk communication, and medical countermeasure allocation.


Public health antibody screening indicates a six-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 exposure rate than reported cases in children

AUTHOR(S)
Markus Hippich; Lisa Holthaus; Robin Assfalg (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Clinical Advances
This paper describes a highly specific and sensitive approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for population-scale immune surveillance. Antibody positivity was defined as a dual-positive response against both the receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation assays in capillary blood from 15,771 children aged 1 to 18 years living in Bavaria, Germany, and participating in a public health type 1 diabetes screening program, in 1,916 dried blood spots from neonates in a Bavarian screening study, and in 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Virus positive incidence was obtained from the Bavarian health authority data.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 15, 4 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease | Countries: Germany
COVID-19’s impact on HIV vertical transmission services reversed
Institution: UNAIDS - The Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS
Published: October 2020
Recent data collection has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on HIV testing services but the impact on HIV treatment has been less than originally feared. The impact on services for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (from mother to child) is mixed—by April, countries generally saw a decline in the number of women tested for HIV at their first antenatal clinic visit, but by June that decline had been reversed.
UNICEF’s approach to mental health during COVID-19 in East Asia and the Pacific
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2020
This brief presents a snapshot of the multisectoral and adaptive approaches of UNICEF across East Asia and the Pacific to mental health and psycho-social support during the COVID-19 response, that were undertaken in collaboration with government, civil society, development partners and young people’s networks.
Clinical manifestations and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Jeong Yee; Woorim Kim; Ji Min Han Han (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Scientific Reports
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science have been searched for qualified studies. The clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their infants were reported as means and proportions with 95% confidence interval. Eleven studies involving with 9032 pregnant women with COVID-19 and 338 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Pregnant women with COVID-19 have relatively mild symptoms. However, abnormal proportions of laboratory parameters were similar or even increased, compared to general population.
Management of newborns exposed to mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Shaili Amatya Amatya; Tammy E. Corr; Chintan K. Gandhi (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Perinatology
There is limited information about newborns with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. Particularly in the hospital after delivery, clinicians have refined practices in order to prevent secondary infection. While guidance from international associations is continuously being updated, all facets of care of neonates born to women with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 are centerspecific, given local customs, building infrastructure constraints, and availability of protective equipment. Based on anecdotal reports from institutions in the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic close to our hospital, together with our limited experience, in anticipation of increasing numbers of exposed newborns, this study has developed a triage algorithm at the Penn State Hospital at Milton S. Hershey Medical Center that may be useful for other centers anticipating a similar surge.
The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates

AUTHOR(S)
Giuseppe De Bernardo; Maurizio Giordano; Giada Zollo (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Perinatology
The COVID-19 pneumonia was firstly reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease had a rapid spread all over the word becoming an international public health emergency. Limited data were available on COVID-19 positive neonates. We reviewed relevant literature to understand the clinical course of disease and transmission routes in affected neonates. The aim of the study was evaluating the clinical course and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates. Based on current literature, the hypothesis of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, though conceivable, remains unproven. A research conducted on PubMed database from December 2019 to April 27, 2020 revealed that were reported 25 neonates affected by SARS-CoV-2. Main symptoms were fever, cough, or shortness of breath but often these neonates did not show other symptoms during length stay in hospital. No deaths occurred.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 40 | No. of pages: 1462-1469 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease
Synthesis and systematic review of reported neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections

AUTHOR(S)
Roberto Raschetti; Alexandre J. Vivanti ; Christelle Vauloup-Fellous (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
A number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been reported in neonates. This survey aims to clarify the transmission route, clinical features and outcomes of these infections. It presents a meta-analysis of 176 published cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections that were defined by at least one positive nasopharyngeal swab and/or the presence of specific IgM. This report shows that 70% and 30% of infections are due to environmental and vertical transmission, respectively.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.