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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Coronavirus government response tracker
Institution: University of Oxford. Blavatnik School of Government
Published: March 2020

The Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) systematically collects information on several different common policy responses that governments have taken to respond to the pandemic on 18 indicators such as school closures and travel restrictions. It now has data from more than 180 countries.

COVID-19 a gender lens: protecting sexual and reproductive health and rights, and promoting gender equality
Institution: UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund
Published: March 2020

Disease outbreaks affect women and men differently, and pandemics make existing inequalities for women and girls and discrimination of other marginalized groups such as persons with disabilities and those in extreme poverty, worse. This needs to be considered, given the different impacts surrounding detection and access to treatment for women and men. Women represent 70 percent of the health and social sector workforce globally and special attention should be given to how their work environment may expose them to discrimination, as well as thinking about their sexual and reproductive health and psychosocial needs as frontline health workers.

COVID-19: how to include marginalized and vulnerable people in risk communication and community engagement
Published: March 2020
Women, the elderly, adolescents, youth, and children, persons with disabilities, indigenous populations, refugees, migrants, and minorities experience the highest degree of socioeconomic marginalization. Marginalized people become even more vulnerable in emergencies. This is due to factors such as their lack of access to effective surveillance and early-warning systems, and health services. The COVID-19 outbreak is predicted to have significant impacts on various sectors.
A few lessons from responding to the Ebola crisis in West Africa
Institution: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Published: March 2020
As UNHCR prepares to respond to a potential outbreak of COVID 19 in refugee, internally displaced persons (IDP) settings, the Evaluation Service offered to do a quick extraction of key findings and recommendations emerging from independent assessments of similar responses – with specific reference to Ebola (other outbreaks may also be relevant but are beyond the scope of this first review).
Gender implications of COVID-19 outbreaks in development and humanitarian settings
Published: March 2020
There is a marked lack of research on the implications of public health emergencies on different groups, especially women and girls. Less than 1 percent of published research papers on the 2014–16 West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak and the 2016 Zika outbreak focused on the gender dimensions of the emergencies. Research on the gender implications of previous health emergencies is even more scarce. CARE’s analysis shows that COVID-19 outbreaks in development or humanitarian contexts could disproportionately affect women and girls in a number of ways, including adverse effects on their education, food security and nutrition, health, livelihoods, and protection. Even after the outbreak has been contained, women and girls may continue to suffer from ill-effects for years to come.
Infant and young children feeding in the context of COVID-19
This brief is meant to provide information specific to infant and young child feeding (IYCF)in the context of COVID-19. This Brief does not cover wider mitigation and response measures available in other guidance. As a nutrition community, we will continue to develop our understanding on practical solutions to deliver programming in the context of COVID-19. Documenting and disseminating these lessons and emerging evidence will be key to implementing the most appropriate and effective responses in the face of this pandemic.
Remote learning and covid-19
Institution: The World Bank
Published: March 2020
Little research attention has been paid to documenting and analyzing attempts of education systems moving quickly and at scale to provide online learning when all or many schools are closed. Related 'good practices' are considered rare, and on the whole, activities and initiatives of these sorts are poorly documented, especially when it comes to the needs of learners and education systems across the so-called 'developing world'. That said, it is possible to extrapolate from the existing knowledgebase about the use of educational technologies in general over past decades, as well as from consensus expert and practitioner wisdom and experience, to offer high-level guidance and 'rules of thumb' for policymakers forced to make related decisions in fast moving, very challenging circumstances with little guidance or relevant experience.
Age profile of susceptibility, mixing, and social distancing shape the dynamics of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China

AUTHOR(S)
Juanjuan zhang; Maria Litvinova; Yuxia Liang (et al.)

Published: March 2020   Journal: MedRXiv
Strict interventions were successful to control the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in China. As transmission intensifies in other countries, the interplay between age, contact patterns, social distancing, susceptibility to infection and disease, and COVID-19 dynamics remains unclear. To answer these questions, we analyze contact surveys data for Wuhan and Shanghai before and during the outbreak and contact tracing information from Hunan Province. Daily contacts were reduced 7-9 fold during the COVID-19 social distancing period, with most interactions restricted to the household. Children 0-14 years were 59% (95% CI 7-82%) less susceptible than individuals 65 years and over. A transmission model calibrated against these data indicates that social distancing alone, as implemented in China during the outbreak, is sufficient to control COVID-19. While proactive school closures cannot interrupt transmission on their own, they reduce peak incidence by half and delay the epidemic. These findings can help guide global intervention policies.
Considering inequalities in the school closure response to COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Richard Armitage; Laura B Nellums

Published: March 2020   Journal: The Lancet Global Health
As COVID-19 is declared a pandemic and several countries declare nationwide school closures, these measures are affecting hundreds of millions of children.1More countries are entering delay and mitigation phases of pandemic control, with an urgent need for proactive and multifaceted responses addressing children's social, economic, and health needs to avoid widening disparities and honour commitments to the UN Convention on Child Rights and Sustainable Development Goals.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Violence against Women and Girls

AUTHOR(S)
Erika Fraser

Published: March 2020   Journal: VAWG Helpdesk Report
This report from the VAWG Helpdesk explores the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact on violence against women and girls, based on emerging evidence, including increased risk of corporal punishment, sexual exploitation, and abuse of girls, as well as intensification of child protection issues due to children being separated from caregivers.
Parenting in a time of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Lucie Cluver; Jamie Lachman; Lorraine Sherr (et al.)

Published: March 2020   Journal: The Lancet
WHO, UNICEF, the Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children, the United States Agency for International Development USAID, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Parenting for Lifelong Health, and the UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund Accelerating Achievement for Africa's Adolescents Hub are collaborating to provide openaccess online parenting resources during COVID-19.
These resources focus on concrete tips to build positive relationships, divert and manage bad behaviour, and manage parenting stress. They are shared through social media, and they are accessible on non-smartphones through the Internet of Good Things. A team of international volunteers are producing translations in 55 languages. Importantly, these parenting resources are based on robust evidence from randomised controlled trials in low-income and middle-income countries.
Find out more here: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30736-4/fulltext#coronavirus-linkback-header
Mitigate the Effects of Home Confinement on Children During the COVID-19 Outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Guanghai Wang; Yunting Zhang

Institution: The Lancet
Published: March 2020   Journal: The Lancet
In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the Chinese Government has ordered a nationwide school closure as an emergency measure to prevent spreading of the infection. Public activities are discouraged. The Ministry of Education estimates that more than 220 million children and adolescents are confined to their homes; this includes 180 million primary and secondary students and 47 million preschool children). Thanks to the strong administrative system in China, the emergency home schooling plan has been rigorously implemented. Massive efforts are being made by schools and teachers at all levels to create online courses and deliver them through TV broadcasts and the internet in record time. The new virtual semester has just started in many parts of the country, and various courses are offered online in a well organised manner. These actions are helping to alleviate many parents' concerns about their children's educational attainment by ensuring that school learning is largely undisrupted.
Systematic Review of COVID‐19 in Children Shows Milder Cases and a Better Prognosis Than Adults

AUTHOR(S)
Jonas F. Ludvigsson

Published: March 2020   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people. Data on symptoms and prognosis in children are rare. A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID‐19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), using the MEDLINE and Embase databases between January 1 and March 18, 2020.

SEL and PSS measurement and assessment tools in education in emergencies: identifying, analyzing, and mapping tools to global guidance dhttps://inee.org/resources/sel-and-pss-measurement-and-assessment-tools-education-emergencies-identifying-analyzin

AUTHOR(S)
Stephanie M. Jones; Rebecca Bailey; Sonya Temko (et al.)

Published: January 2020
The purpose of the INEE QELO Mapping Project is to identify and “map” (code, analyze, describe) existing social emotional learning (SEL) and psychosocial support (PSS) measurement/assessment tools, as well as guidance documents, being used in the international Education in Emergencies (EiE) sector with the broad aim of informing policy that is grounded in a shared understanding of learning outcomes and monitoring. The work is a priority of the Quality and Equitable Learning Outcomes (QELO) work stream within INEE’s Education Policy Working Group (EPWG) and is funded by Porticus.
The renewed significance of new school approaches in the post-COVID-19 world

AUTHOR(S)
Eder Cuevas

Published: January 2020   Journal: The Blue Dot

This paper assesses that it is time to de-school education, free the school from curricular constraints and empower it to be a laboratory of life that provides a prepared environment which is a Montessori concept meaning that the environment can be designed to facilitate maximum independent learning and exploration by the child and adolescent, therefore that skills and challenges converge, organizing experiences that lead to knowledge.

Cite this research | Vol.: 12 | No. of pages: 47-50 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, educational policy, remote learning, school attendance | Publisher: UNESCO
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.