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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 1420
Changes of internet behavior of adolescents across the period of COVID-19 pandemic in China

Qianying Wu; Tianzhen Chen; Na Zhong (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
During the COVID-19 pandemic, internet use and gaming of adolescents had been elevated. On the one hand, internet use and gaming in the period was a good approach to killing quarantined time. However, the increased use of the internet and game of adolescents may also increase the risk of internet addiction. This study aimed to describe the internet behavior changes of adolescents and to understand the impact of clinical features on internet addiction after the adolescents back to school in COVID-19 period. It conducted a cross-sectional cohort study using data collected through online investigation in China. Six hundred and twenty-five adolescents completed the online survey.
Sleeping through a lockdown: how adolescents and young adults struggle with lifestyle and sleep habits upheaval during a pandemic

Jérémie Potvin; Laura Ramos Socarras; Geneviève Forest (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Behavioral Sleep Medicine

The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between chronotype, lifestyle habits during the pandemic, and changes in sleep timing during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in youth. An online survey of adolescents and young adults (N = 449) was conducted in June 2020. Multivariate hierarchical regressions assessed the contribution of chronotype and changes in lifestyle habits to sleep timing during the COVID-19 pandemic in two age groups (12 to 17 years old and 18 to 25 years old).

Parent reports of children’s fright reactions to news of the COVID-19 pandemic: results from a national U.S. sample

Joanne Cantor; Kristen Harrison

Published: January 2022   Journal: Media Psychology
Between April 17 and 29, 2020, a nationwide online survey of parents of children between the ages of 3 and 17 years (N = 1560) was conducted. A majority of children were reported to be negatively emotionally affected (frightened, disturbed, or upset) by news coverage of COVID-19. Every stress symptom asked about (including nervousness, crying, and sleep problems) was dramatically more prevalent among children frightened than not frightened by the coverage. Open-ended questions illustrated the emotional depths of some responses. Developmental differences occurred in elements of coverage seen to influence fright. Most parents of frightened children tried to help their child cope, but their choices of strategies were only partially consistent with developmental expectations. Children with digital devices in their bedroom showed greater fear; more hours of COVID news were transmitted in homes with frightened than unfrightened children; and the relationship between media access and children’s fear intensity and stress symptoms remained after controlling for parents’ own fear and parents’ closeness with people diagnosed with COVID. Parents are encouraged to monitor children’s exposure to media-conveyed catastrophes, to be mindful of potential age differences in child responses, and to be available to help children cope.
Changes in sleep-wake patterns and disturbances before and during COVID-19 in urban American indian/Alaska native adolescents

Wendy M. Troxel; Alina I. Palimaru; David J. Klein (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Behavioral Sleep Medicine

COVID-19 has profoundly affected sleep, although little research has focused on high-risk populations for poor sleep health, including American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents. This is the first longitudinal study to examine changes in sleep with surveys completed before the pandemic and during the early months of COVID-19 in a sample of urban AI/AN adolescents (N = 118; mean age = 14 years at baseline; 63% female). It uses a mixed-methods approach to explore how COVID-19 affected urban AI/AN adolescents’ sleep, daily routines, and interactions with family and culture. Quantitative analysis examined whether pandemic-related sleep changes were significant and potential moderators of COVID-19’s effect on sleep, including family and community cohesion and engagement in traditional practices.

Masking for school-age children with epilepsy: we do have consensus!: masking for children with epilepsy

Anthony I. Fine; Lily C. Wong-Kisiel; Katherine C. Nickels (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of child neurology

This study was designed to assess current recommendations from child neurologists and epileptologists on masking for school-age children with epilepsy. A 7-item survey was created and sent out to members of the Child Neurology Society and Pediatric Epilepsy Research Consortium in August of 2021 to assess current practice and provider recommendations on masking.

Staying online, staying connected: exploring the effect of online chatting on adolescents’ psychological well-being during COVID-19 quarantine

Yulei Feng; Qingyan Tong

Published: January 2022   Journal: Youth & Society
Rooted in scholarship of social connectedness and social support, this research raises the question: Can online chatting help mitigate the negative psychological influence of physical distancing during COVID-19? By a correlational and cross-sectional research design, the current study testified the mediating role of two factors—social connectedness and perceived social support in the relationship between online chatting and three indicators of psychological well-being (happiness, self-esteem, and loneliness) for adolescents. This research demonstrated the potential of online chatting in mitigating the severity of quarantine from the supplementary perspective of online communication effects on adolescents, which provided a further insight into understanding the ways in which adolescents use media during school closure. Possible contingent factors that should be paid special attention to in future researches are discussed.
COVID-19 news consumption and distress in young people: a systematic review

Michelle A. Strasser; Philip J. Sumner; Denny Meyer

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of affective disorders

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought challenges for the mental health of young people. The volume, negative content and potential for misinformation within COVID-19 related news can be an additional cause of distress. This systematic review aims to synthesise the research findings on the relationship between COVID-19 news and distress in young people. Following the PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases were searched on 24 April 2021 for articles that contained empirical research examining the association between COVID-19 news consumption and mental health in samples of young people with a mean age between 10 and 24 years.

Residential green space is associated with a buffering effect on stress responses during the COVID-19 pandemic in mothers of young children, a prospective study

Stijn Vos; Esmée M. Bijnens; Eleni Renaers (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Environmental research
Green spaces are associated with increased well-being and reduced risk of developing psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate how residential proximity to green spaces was associated with stress response buffering during the COVID-19 pandemic in a prospective cohort of young mothers. It collected information on stress in 766 mothers (mean age: 36.6 years) from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort at baseline of the study (from 2010 onwards), and during the COVID-19 pandemic (from December 2020 until May 2021). Self-reported stress responses due to the COVID-19 pandemic were the outcome measure. Green space was quantified in several radiuses around the residence based on high-resolution (1 m2) data. Using ordinal logistic regression, the odds of better resistance to reported stress was estimated, while controlling for age, socio-economic status, stress related to care for children, urbanicity, and household change in income during the pandemic.
Disentangling the diversity of profiles of adaptation in youth during COVID-19

Martine Hebert; Amelie Tremblay-Perreault; Arianne Jean-Thorn (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports

The COVID-19 outbreak has major psychosocial consequences on the global population and specialists report that youth may be significantly impacted. Adolescents and young adults, for whom social life is an important protective factor, had to face a new isolation caused by social distancing and home schooling. This study aims to explore youth's profiles of adaptation to COVID-19 pandemic in the province of Quebec, Canada, and the risk factors and strengths associated with each profile. A sample of 4936 youth living in Quebec were recruited on social media and filled out an online survey during the lockdown of the first wave of COVID-19. They completed measures of psychological distress, positive adaptation (well-being, resilience), risk factors (alexithymia and emotional dysregulation), COVID-related worries and fear of contamination and COVID-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Network analysis of depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents during and after the COVID-19 outbreak peak

Rui Liu; Xu Chen; Han Qi (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of affective disorders

This study examined the extent to which the network structure of anxiety and depression among adolescents identified during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic could be cross-validated in a sample of adolescents assessed after the COVID-19 peak. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted between February 20 and 27, 2020 and between April 11 and 19, 2020, respectively. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using 20-item the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, respectively. Anxiety-depression networks of the first and second assessments were estimated separately using a sparse Graphical Gaussian Model combined with the graphical least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method. A Network Comparison Test was conducted to assess differences between the two networks.

Impact of COVID-19 on adolescent travel behavior

Jianrong Liu; Qiongwen Cao; Mingyang Pei

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of transport & health

The outbreak of COVID-19 has significantly impacted travel behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on adolescent travel behavior. This article analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on adolescent travel behavior using questionnaire survey data. This paper first used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to explore the psychological factors related to the adolescents' perceptions about the severity of COVID-19. The study then established a logit model to study the effects of COVID-19 in different phases (before, during, and after the epidemic peak), demographic characteristics, and the role of psychological factors on their travel behavior.

Media use and emotional distress under COVID-19 lockdown in a clinical sample referred for internalizing disorders: a Swiss adolescents' perspective

Anna Maria Werling; Susanne Walitza; Miriam Gerstenberg (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Psychiatric Research
The COVID-19 outbreak has profoundly affected adolescents' life. Adolescents with pre-existing psychiatric disorders have been at particular risk of increased mental health problems and problematic media use. 178 patients, aged 12–18 years, referred before the COVID-19 outbreak to child and adolescent psychiatry, participated in an anonymous online survey on the impact of the lockdown on media use and mental well-being. The survey was conducted approximately one month after the first easing of restrictions following a six-week lockdown in Switzerland. Based on self-report, half of the patients had been diagnosed with internalizing disorders (ID; depression or anxiety disorder) and the other half with other disorders (non-ID, e.g. ADHD, autistic spectrum disorder).
An explainable machine learning approach for COVID-19’s impact on mood states of children and adolescents during the first lockdown in Greece

Charis Ntakolia; Dimitrios Priftis; Mariana Charakopoulou-Travlou (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Healthcare
The global spread of COVID-19 led the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on 11 March 2020. To decelerate this spread, countries have taken strict measures that have affected the lifestyles and economies. Various studies have focused on the identification of COVID-19’s impact on the mental health of children and adolescents via traditional statistical approaches. However, a machine learning methodology must be developed to explain the main factors that contribute to the changes in the mood state of children and adolescents during the first lockdown. Therefore, in this study an explainable machine learning pipeline is presented focusing on children and adolescents in Greece, where a strict lockdown was imposed. The target group consists of children and adolescents, recruited from children and adolescent mental health services, who present mental health problems diagnosed before the pandemic. The proposed methodology imposes: (i) data collection via questionnaires; (ii) a clustering process to identify the groups of subjects with amelioration, deterioration and stability to their mood state; (iii) a feature selection process to identify the most informative features that contribute to mood state prediction; (iv) a decision-making process based on an experimental evaluation among classifiers; (v) calibration of the best-performing model; and (vi) a post hoc interpretation of the features’ impact on the best-performing model.
Comparison of self-harm or overdose among adolescents and young adults before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario

Joel G. Ray; Peter C. Austin; Kayvan Aflaki (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Self-harm and deaths among adolescents and young adults are notably related to drug poisonings and suicide. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are projections about a greater likelihood of such events arising among adolescents and young adults. To evaluate the risk of self-harm, overdose, and all-cause mortality among adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This population-based cohort study took place in Ontario, Canada, where a universal health care system captures all emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. The participants included all adolescents and young adults born in Ontario between 1990 and 2006, who were aged 14 to 24 years between March 1, 2018, and June 30, 2021.

Association between homeschooling and adolescent sleep duration and health during COVID-19 pandemic high school closures

Joëlle N. Albrecht; Helene Werner; Noa Rieger (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Although negative associations of COVID-19 pandemic high school closures with adolescents’ health have been demonstrated repeatedly, some research has reported a beneficial association of these closures with adolescents’ sleep. The present study was, to our knowledge, the first to combine both perspectives. This study aimed to investigate associations between adolescents’ sleep and health-related characteristics during COVID-19 pandemic school closures in Switzerland. This survey study used cross-sectional online surveys circulated among the students of 21 public high schools in Zurich, Switzerland. The control sample completed the survey under regular, prepandemic conditions (May to July 2017) and the lockdown sample during school closures (May to June 2020). Survey respondents were included in the study if they provided their sex, age, and school.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.