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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 1262
Strengthening mental health responses to COVID-19 in the Americas: a health policy analysis and recommendations

Amy Tausch; Renato Oliveira e Souza; Carmen Martinez Viciana (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas
The COVID-19 pandemic is having a major impact on the mental health of populations in the Americas. Studies show high rates of depression and anxiety, among other psychological symptoms, particularly among women, young people, those with pre-existing mental health conditions, health workers, and persons living in vulnerable conditions. Mental health systems and services have also been severely disrupted. A lack of financial and human resource investments in mental health services, limited implementation of the decentralized community-based care approach and policies to address the mental health gap prior to the pandemic, have all contributed to the current crisis. Countries must urgently strengthen their mental health responses to COVID-19 by taking actions to scale up mental health and psychosocial support services for all, reach marginalized and at-risk populations, and build back better mental health systems and services for the future.
The outbreak of COVID-19: Resilience and its predictors among parents of schoolchildren carrying out online learning in Indonesia

Abd Nasir; Susilo Harianto; Cucuk Rahmadi Purwanto (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health
Online learning during the COVID-19 outbreak, puts mental stress on parents and their children so that this requires extraordinary resilience when parents get additional tasks to accompany children in online learning that is done at home. The current study seeks to evaluate the resilience of parents accompanying schoolchildren in online learning. Besides, this study also examines independent socio-demographic predictors of parental resilience. This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on 392 parents of children participating in online learning at home. Data were collected through an online questionnaire survey in the provinces of Java and Bali. Demographic questionnaires and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis with p < 0.05.
The effects of rumination on internalising symptoms in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic among mothers and their offspring: a brief report

Hannah R. Duttweiler; Michelle K. Sheena; Katie L. Burkhouse (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Cognition and Emotion
As a result of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, anxiety and depressive symptoms have risen among children and adults. However, it remains unclear why the effects of the pandemic are so salient for certain individuals. This study examined rumination, a well-established risk factor for internalising disorders, as a predictor of prospective increases in anxiety and depression symptoms in mothers and their offspring. Change in rumination during the pandemic was also examined as a predictor of symptom transmission at the dyadic level. Fifty-three biological mother–child dyads were recruited from two longitudinal studies that had completed their respective baselines prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Mothers and youth (ages 9–15 years, 77.4% female) completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms and rumination before and during the pandemic.
The effects of COVID-19-related stress among parents and children in Ohio child care programs: a mixed-methods study

Kimberly Burkhart; Sonia Minnes; Owusua Yamoah (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Children's Health Care
COVID-19-related stress effects on the caregiver and child are largely unexplored. Caregivers (N = 114) of children between the ages of 3 months and 10 years accessing Ohio child care completed a parent survey (fall 2020), and additional caregivers (N = 20) completed an interview. Caregivers reported a mean of 70 (SD = 19; scale 1–100) on COVID-19-related stress. In adjusted regression models, higher caregiver-reported COVID-19-related stress was associated with increased odds of child aggression and poor social skills. Exploratory analyses indicated that these associations may be partly mediated by the caregiver working from home and losing their temper. Qualitative findings reflect caregiver COVID-19 stress and complement quantitative findings. Caregivers and children who experience COVID-19 stress should be monitored for persistent problems.
Embracing vulnerability: how has the Covid-19 pandemic affected the pressures school leaders in Northern England face and how they deal with them?

Michael Jopling; Oliver Harness

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Educational Administration and History
Research into the effects of pressure on school leaders has focused more on its impacts at the system level than on the human impact on leaders. Using theories of vulnerability, this paper attempts to redress this balance, examining the challenges school leaders in North East England faced during the initial phase of the Covid-19 pandemic and the support they accessed. Combining an online survey of 132 school leaders with in-depth interviews, the study found that the pandemic had an amplifying effect, increasing both leaders' responsibilities and the pressure on them. It also found that many find it difficult to admit when they are under pressure and have no source of support. This suggests new ways need to be found to help all leaders, and particularly male and secondary leaders, to embrace their vulnerability, access professional support, and increase schools' focus on the mental health of children and adults.
Mental health and prenatal bonding in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence for heightened risk compared with a prepandemic sample

Alyssa R. Morris; Darby E. Saxbe

Published: November 2021   Journal: Clinical Psychological Science
This study compared 572 pregnant women (319 first-time mothers) surveyed in spring 2020, during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns in the United States, with 99 pregnant women (all first-time mothers) surveyed before the pandemic (2014–2020). Compared with the prepandemic sample, women assessed during the pandemic showed elevated depression, anxiety, and stress and weaker prenatal bonding to their infants. These findings remained significant when restricting the pandemic sample to first-time mothers only and held after controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and pregnancy stage. Average levels of depression and anxiety within the pandemic group exceeded clinically significant thresholds, and women who estimated that the pandemic had more negatively affected their social relationships reported higher distress. However, pandemic-related changes to social contact outside the household were inconsistently associated with mental health and with some positive outcomes (fewer depressive symptoms, stronger prenatal bonding). Given that prenatal stress may compromise maternal and child well-being, the pandemic may have long-term implications for population health.
Parents’ perceptions of children’s behavioral difficulties and the parent–child interaction during the COVID-19 lockdown

Avital Laufer; Mally Shechory Bitton

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
The study examined parents’ perceptions of their children’s behavioral difficulties (CBD) and positive parent–child interaction (PCI) during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Israel, as well as the associations among parents’ psychological distress, parents’ COVID-19–related worries, parents’ coping, and parents’ resilience. Participants were 437 parents of minor children. Parents reported more behavioral and emotional difficulties alongside with more quality time with their children. Parents’ distress and COVID-19–related worries were positively related to CBD. Emotion-focused coping mediated the association between psychological distress and CBD, while resilience mediated the association between distress and PCI.
Supporting family and friends of young people with mental health issues using online technology: a rapid scoping literature review

Christine Migliorini; Danielle (Sui-Man) Lam; Carol Harvey

Published: November 2021   Journal: Early Intervention in Psychiatry

Family and friends are often the first and/or only support options used by young people (12–25 years) struggling with mental health issues. The overarching aim of this literature review is to map current practice in online interventions specifically targeting family and friends of young people with mental health issues, especially relevant in light of the current worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. A rapid scoping literature review was conducted searching health and psychology databases for online interventions targeting family and friends supporting a young person (12–25 years) struggling with a mental health issue. The search strategy was comprehensive and expert librarian endorsed. The final synthesis comprised 13 articles.

Parenthood in the shadow of COVID-19: the contribution of gender, personal resources and anxiety to first time parents' perceptions of the infant

Miriam Chasson; Ofir Ben-Yaakov; Orit Taubman – Ben-Ari Taubman – Ben-Ari

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
This study sought to examine new parents' perceptions of their infant during the worldwide spread of COVID-19, exploring the contribution of gender, personal resources (attachment orientation, presence of meaning in life and intolerance of uncertainty) and COVID-19-related anxieties. A convenience sample of 606 Israeli first-time parents (137 fathers and 469 mothers), whose child was 3–12 months old, was recruited through social media during April 2020.
Impact of work routines on parents' and children's sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Ramkumar Aishworiy; Michael Teik Chung Lim; Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Sleep Medicine

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parental sleep and work arrangements on children's sleep duration during the national lockdown period, referred to as ‘Circuit Breaker’ (CB), due to COVID-19. A cross-sectional, anonymous, online questionnaire to parents with school-going children aged between 3 and 16 years was used. Child and parental sleep duration in relation to change in parental work arrangements, housing type and number of individuals in the household as reported by parents were evaluated. Descriptive statistics and tests of comparison were used to evaluate data.

Postpartum depression in Covid-19 risk-stratified hospital zones: A cross-sectional study from India

Vidhi Chaudhary; Manju Puri; Prerna Kukreti (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports

This study aims to determine point prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) and whether quarantine policies required in postpartum COVID-19 suspects increased the risk of depressive symptoms when compared COVID -19 non suspects in early postpartum period. A cross-sectional study conducted in the postnatal ward of Lady Hardinge Medical College and Smt. Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi from August 2020 to February 2021 using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to estimate point prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) in the stratified zones (suspect and nonsuspect) of the hospital.

Unexpected changes in birth experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic: implications for maternal mental health

Cindy H. Liu; Amanda Koire; Carmina Erdei (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

This study examined the rates of unexpected birth experiences due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with women’s postpartum mental health symptoms (depression, generalized anxiety, and PTSD). Our cross-sectional analysis included postpartum women (N = 506) who reported on birth plan changes attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic through the PEACE (Perinatal Experiences and COVID-19 Effects) Study, an online survey that took place between May 2020 and May 2021. Covariates included sociodemographic variables, number of days since the pandemic, pre-pregnancy mental health history, and protective factors such as social support, distress tolerance, and resilience.

The effect of COVID-19-related school closures on students’ well-being: evidence from Danish nationwide panel data

Simon Skovgaard Jensen; David Reimer

Published: November 2021   Journal: SSM - Population Health
This study aims to determine the effect of the temporary closure of Danish schools as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020 on students' reported levels of well-being and test whether the effect varies among students of different socioeconomic status. To this end, it draws on panel data from the mandatory annual nationwide Danish Student Well-being Survey (DSWS) and exploit random variation in whether students answered the 2020 survey before or during the spring lockdown period.
Crisis response among essential workers and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic

Margaret M. Sugg; Jennifer D. Runkle; Lauren Andersen (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine
Limited research has been conducted on the mental health concerns of frontline and essential workers and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (U.S.). This study examined the association between working on the frontlines in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic (March to July 2020) and personal crisis text concerns (e.g., self-harm, suicidal thoughts, anxiety/stress, and substance abuse) for frontline essential workers and the children of frontline workers. It used a novel data set from a crisis texting service, Crisis Text Line (CTL), that is widely used throughout the U.S. Generalized Estimating Equations examined the individual association between eight specific crisis types (Depression, Stress/Anxiety, Self-Harm, Suicidal Thoughts, Substance Abuse, Isolation, Relationship Issues, and Abuse) and being in frontline work or being a child of a frontline worker during the early phase of the pandemic.
Narrative review: COVID-19 and pediatric anxiety

Kevin Walsh; William J. Furey; Narpinder Malhi

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychiatric Research
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has brought focus to the effects of anxiety on children. This study aimed to review the existing literature regarding the impact of the pandemic on pediatric anxiety. This review analyzed the existing literature between the open-sourced collection on PubMed inputting “anxiety disorder in children during pandemic” and “pediatric anxiety OR child anxiety AND COVID” and that of the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry using the keywords “social anxiety AND COVID.” This yielded 149 + 312 (461) entries and 68 articles were selected. Anxiety was found to have a prevalence of 18.9–23.87% in children during the COVID-19 pandemic whereas adolescent populations demonstrated a prevalence of 15.4–39.9%. Female gender was the most studied risk factor and physical activity was the most documented preventative factor. This review supported the notion that the COVID-19 pandemic is a major contributor to anxiety in the pediatric population.
31 - 45 of 1262

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.